| IUPAC name
| Other names
Salt of hartshorn
|Molar mass||96.09 g/mol|
|Melting point||58 °C (136 °F; 331 K) (decomposes)|
| 55.8 g/ml (0 °C)|
100 g/ml (20 °C)
Decomposes (58 °C)
|Solubility||Insoluble in benzene, hexane|
|Safety data sheet||ScienceCompany|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Ammonium carbonate is a compound with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3.
Ammonium carbonate decomposes when heated above 58 °C to ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor:
- (NH4)2CO3 → 2 NH3 + H2O + CO3
Reaction with acids gives ammonium salt of said acid and releases carbon dioxide:
- (NH4)2CO3 + 2 HNO3 → 2 NH4NO3 + H2O + CO2
Ammonium carbonate is a white solid, with a strong odor of ammonia, soluble in water. It decomposes in hot water (>58 °C) releasing ammonia and carbon dioxide. It has a density of 1.50 g/cm3.
Ammonium carbonate is available as baker's ammonia in some food stores, though most will sell only ammonium bicarbonate.
It can also be purchased online. ScienceCompany will sell a 8 oz. (227 g) bottle at 9.95 $.
Ammonium carbonate can be prepared by bubbling ammonia through an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate.
- Make ammonium salts
- Make ammonium carbamate
Ammonium carbonate gives off ammonia fumes, which are irritating and toxic if they build up in a closed environment. During hot summers, the decomposition is rapid.
Ammonium carbonate is best stored in closed containers and kept in cold places. To limit the ammonia gas released, you can store the carbonate in a resealable bag, which in turn can be placed in a container. Do not seal it completely, as ammonia pressure will slowly build up inside the bottle, and you will need to release it periodically.
Ammonium bicarbonate can be neutralized and safely discarded, as it poses no danger to the environment.