Ammonium dinitramide

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Ammonium dinitramide
Names
IUPAC name
Ammonium dinitramide
Other names
ADN
Dinitramide ammonium salt
Properties
H4N4O4
Molar mass 124.06 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Density 1.81 g/cm3
Melting point 93 °C (199 °F; 366 K)
Boiling point 160 °C (320 °F; 433 K) (decomposes)
Solubility Soluble in acetone, butanol
Vapor pressure ~0 mmHg
Thermochemistry
14,398.1 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet None
Related compounds
Related compounds
Ammonium nitrate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is the ammonium salt of dinitraminic acid, having the chemical formula NH4N(NO2)2. It is a much more powerful oxidizer than ammonium nitrate.

Properties

Chemical

Ammonium dinitramide decomposes when heated to give off water vapors, nitrogen and oxygen:

NH4N(NO2)2 → 2 N2 + 2 H2O + O2

Small amounts of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide are also produced.

Physical

Ammonium dinitramide is a colorless crystalline solid.

Explosive

Ammonium dinitramide may explode when exposed to strong shock or very high temperatures, but overall it is stable. Detonation velocity is around 7,000 m/s.[1]

Availability

ADN is difficult to get hold off.

Preparation

Ammonium dinitramide can be synthesized from ammonium nitrate, anhydrous nitric acid, and fuming sulfuric acid containing 20% free sulfur trioxide. A base other than ammonia must be added before the acid dinitramide decomposes. The final product is obtained by fractional crystallization.

A route to this compounds involves dissolving nitramide in dry and cold acetonitrile (-10 °C), followed by the addition of nitronium tetrafluoroborate. The mixture is stirred for 10 min, after which an etheric solution of ammonia in isopropanol is added to the acetonitrile solution. The solvent is removed and the ADN is recrystallized from butanol.[2]

The reaction of dinitrogen pentoxide with ammonia in dichloromethane -78 °C, will give ammonium dinitramide. To obtain the compound, the reaction product is warmed to room temperature, the CH2Cl2 is removed then the compound is extracted with acetone. Further purification can be achieved by recrystallizing the compound from butanol. Total yield is 15%. If the reaction takes place at higher temperatures, the yield will be lower.[3]

Projects

  • Rocket fuel

Handling

Safety

Ammonium dinitramide is a powerful oxidizer and may explode under strong heating or shock. Handle it with care.

Storage

In closed bottles, away from anything combustible.

Disposal

Carefully heating the compound will cause it to decompose. For safety, you can mix it with a non-flammable material, like gypsum before heating.

References

  1. http://www.eurenco.com/content/explosives/defence-security/oxidizers-energetic-polymers/adn/
  2. Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Penwell, Paul E.; Schmitt, Robert J.; Journal of the American Chemical Society; vol. 119; nb. 40; (1997); p. 9405 - 9410
  3. Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Penwell, Paul E.; Schmitt, Robert J.; Journal of the American Chemical Society; vol. 119; nb. 40; (1997); p. 9405 - 9410

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