Butane

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Butane
Names
IUPAC name
Butane
Other names
Butyl hydride
Methylethylmethane
Quartane
Properties
C4H10
Molar mass 58.12 g/mol
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor Gas-like
Density 2.48 g/cm3 (at 15 °C)
Melting point −0.5 °C (31.1 °F; 272.6 K)
Boiling point −138.3 °C (−216.9 °F; 134.8 K)
0.61 g/100 ml (at 20 °C)
Solubility Soluble in chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol, THF
Vapor pressure ~170 kPa at 10 °C
Thermochemistry
−126.3 – −124.9 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point −60 °C (−76 °F; 213 K)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Propane
Pentane
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Butane is an organic compound, with the chemical formula C4H10. It consists of two structural isomers, n-butane and isobutane, also known as methylpropane.

Properties

Chemical

Both butane isomers react with halogens to yield halobutanes in the presence of light. Iodine however does not react with butane, instead it dissolves in it.

Xylene appears to be miscible with butane.

Physical

Butane is a gas at standard conditions, easily compressible. Butane consists of two isomers:

  • n-Butane: A colorless gas at standard conditions, n-butane melts at −138 °C and boils at -0.5°C. Its density is 0.579 g/mL at 20 °C. The flash point of n-butane is 45 °C.
  • Isobutane: Just like the n isomer, isobutane is a colorless gas. It melts at −160 °C and boils at −12 °C.

Availability

Camping fire stove tanks contain a mixture of isobutane with propane, usually in a 80:20 ratio.

Preparation

N-butane can be prepared by decarboxylating valeric acid derivates.

Projects

Handling

Safety

Butane has low toxicity, but in high concentration can cause asphyxiation.

Storage

Butane tanks should be stored in cold places.

Disposal

Butane is flammable.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads