Chlorine oxoanions

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Chlorine oxoanions are negatively charged polyatomic ions consisting of chlorine and oxygen. The chlorine atom is in an odd-number positive oxidation state, and the atom is surrounded by oxygen atoms and lone pairs of electrons. They are all oxidizing, but their stability varies, and some may have reducing tendencies. The four types of chlorine oxoanions are hypochlorites, chlorites, chlorates, and perchlorates.

General properties

The oxoanions of chlorine are all quite unusual in their properties. As the oxygen content of the anion increases, the oxidizing ability of the ion actually decreases, as they become kinetically poorer oxidizers. More oxygenated anions are more stable with respect to oxidation and reduction. With light heating, hypochlorites will disproportionate into chlorates and chlorides, and chlorates will disproprtionate into perchlorates and chlorides. Perchlorates will convert to chlorides, with the loss of oxygen, in the presence of intense heat.

Availability

Hypochlorites are sold as bleach solutions (sodium hypochlorite) or powders (calcium hypochlorite). Chlorites are also available as industrial bleach. Chlorates and perchlorates are sometimes available as weed killers, though most have been phased out, due to their use in terrorist bombings.

Preparation

Chlorine oxoanion salts can be prepared by electrolysis of an alkali metal chloride and specific voltages.

Projects

Handling

Safety

Hypochlorites and chlorites will release chlorine and or chlorine dioxide in contact with a strong acid, which are higly toxic. They also tend to slowly decompose, yielding the above gaseous products as well as chlorates. Chlorates and perchlorates are strong oxidizers and must be kept away from any reducing agents and organic compounds. They are also toxic if ingested and may affect the thyroid gland.

Storage

Disposal

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads