Chloromethane

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Chloromethane
Names
IUPAC name
Chloromethane
Other names
HCC 40
Methyl chloride
Monochloromethane
R-40
Refrigerant-40
Properties
CH3Cl
Molar mass 50.49 g/mol
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor Sweet
Density 1.003 g/mL (-23.8 °C, liquid)
2.3065 g/L (0 °C, gas)
Melting point −97.4 °C (−143.3 °F; 175.8 K)
Boiling point −23.8 °C (−10.8 °F; 249.3 K)
0.5325 g/100 ml
Solubility Soluble in glacial acetic acid, acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol
Vapor pressure 506.09 kPa (at 20 °C)
Thermochemistry
234.36 J·K−1·mol−1
−83.68 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point −20 °C (−4 °F; 253 K)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1800 mg/kg (oral, rat)
5.3 mg/L/4 h (inhalation, rat)
72,000 ppm (rat, 30 min)
2200 ppm (mouse, 6 hr)
2760 ppm (mammal, 4 hr)
2524 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Dichloromethane
Chloroform
Carbon tetrachloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Chloromethane more commonly called methyl chloride is a chemical compound with the formula CH3Cl.

Properties

Chemical

Chloromethane will burn if ignited in air.

Reaction with magnesium turnings will yield the useful Grignard reagent methylmagnesium chloride (CH3MgCl).

Physical

Chloromethane is a colorless flammable gas with a mildly sweet odor, heavier than air. It is insoluble in water, but much more soluble in organic solvents.

Availability

Chloromethane is sold by various gas companies and chemical suppliers, though it's not easy to acquire.

Preparation

Chloromethane can be made by bubbling hydrogen chloride gas through boiling methanol with or without a zinc chloride catalyst, or by passing combined methanol and hydrogen chloride vapors over an alumina catalyst at 350 °C.

CH3OH + HCl → CH3Cl + H2O

Chloromethane is a side product from the chlorination of methane with chlorine under UV light.

Projects

Handling

Safety

Inhalation of chloromethane gas produces central nervous system effects similar to drug intoxication. Exposure may cause drowsiness, dizziness, or confusion and difficulty breathing, walking or speaking may occur. At higher concentrations, paralysis, seizures, and coma can result.

Storage

Methyl chloride is kept as compressed gas in a gas cylinder.

Disposal

Methyl chloride can be released outside in the atmosphere.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads