Density

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The term density is the mass of a substance per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ, and sometimes the letter D can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume:

ρ = m/V

Where m = mass of the substance, V = volume.

Density is measured in g/cm3 or kg/m3.

The density of a substance is influenced by a variety of factors, such as pressure or temperature. They have little influence for most solid materials, but there's a significant effect on the density of solids and fluids.

Density is calculated depending on the type of material:

  • Homogeneous materials: The density at all regions of a homogeneous object equals its total mass divided by its total volume.
  • Heterogeneous materials: The density varies between different regions of the object. The density of heterogeneous materials is calculated by determining the densities of many small volumes around various locations of the said material.
  • Non-compact materials: Materials such as flakes, pellets, granules or powders contain voids, such as air, water or other fluids. The density of such materials is determined by multiple methods, such as pycnometer method or mathematical expressions for various geometric shapes.

List of densities

Common densities

Material Density (kg/m3) Notes
Hydrogen 0.08988 At 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Helium 0.146 At 300 K and 101.325 kPa
Aerographite 0.2 The air inside is excluded
Ammonia (gas) 0.73 At 1.013 bar at 15 °C
Neon (gas) 0.9 At 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Metallic microlattice 0.9 The air inside is excluded
Aerogel 1.0 The air inside is excluded
Ethane (gas) 1.0493 At 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Acetylene (gas) 1.106 At 15 °C[1]
Carbon monoxide (gas) 1.145 At 25 °C, 1 atm
Nitrogen (gas) 1.251 At 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Air 1.29 At 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Oxygen (gas) 1.308 At 300 K (27 °C)
Hydrogen sulfide (gas) 1.363 At standard conditions
Phosphine (gas) 1.379 At 25 °C
Methylamine (gas) 1.4 At atmospheric pressure
Hydrogen chloride (gas) 1.693 At standard conditions[2]
Fluorine (gas) 1.696 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Argon (gas) 1.784 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Nitrous oxide (gas) 1.8724 At 15 °C and 1.013 bar
Carbon dioxide (gas) 1.977 At 1 atm and 0 °C
Carbon dioxide (gas) 1.977 At 1 atm and 0 °C
Propane (gas) 2.0098 At 0 °C, 101.3 kPa
Dimethyl ether (gas) 2.1146 At 1 atm and 0 °C
Ozone (gas) 2.144 At 0 °C
Cyanogen 2.321 At 0 °C
Butane (gas) 2.489 n-Butane, at 20 °C and 1.013 bar
Sulfur dioxide (gas) 2.619 At standard conditions
Hydrogen iodide (gas) 2.85 At −47 °C
Chlorine (gas) 3.2 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Krypton (gas) 3.749 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Phosgene (gas) 4,248 At 15 °C
Xenon (gas) 5.894 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Sulfur hexafluoride (gas) 6.164 At 1 bar and 20 °C
Radon (gas) 9.73 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Tungsten hexafluoride (gas) 12.4 Standard conditions
Freon 12 (gas) 36.83 Standard conditions
Hydrogen (liquid) 70 At –255 °C
Styrofoam 75 Average type of styrofoam
Hydrogen (slush) 85 At -259 °C
Hydrogen (solid) 86 At <−259.14 °C
Helium (liquid) 147 At 4 K
Balsa 200 Average density
Cork 240 Average type of cork
Pumice 250 Average density
Alfalfa (ground) 256 [3]
Diatomaceous earth (powdered) 256 At standard conditions
Pine 373
Asbestos fibers 400
Grain (oat) 410
Methane (liquid) 422.62 At 111.5 K
Ethane (liquid) 446 At 0 °C and 101.325 kPa
Lithium 535
Corn starch (loosely packed) 540 Negligible moisture
Grain (rice, rough) 580
Propane (liquid) 590 At -50 °C
Grain (barley) 620
Pentane 626.2 n-Pentane, at 20 °C
Corn starch (tightly packed) 630 Negligible moisture
Grain (millet) 640
Hexane 659 n-Hexane, at 20 °C
Methylamine (liquid) 662.4 At 25 °C[4]
Ammonia (liquid) 681.9 At boiling point
Heptane 683.8 n-Heptane, at 20 °C
Hydrogen cyanide 687
Isopropylamine 689.1 At 20 °C
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 691.94 At 20°C[5]
Acetylene (liquid) 693 At atmospheric pressure
Wood 700 Seasoned, typical
Octane 703 n-octane, at 20 °C
Oak 710 Quercus robur timber
Diethyl ether 713.4 At 20 °C
Nonane 718 n-nonane, at 20 °C
Grain (rye) 720
Grain (corn, shelled) 720
Aluminium silicate 721
Diisopropyl ether 725.8 At 20 °C
Triethylamine 727.5 At 20 °C
Decane 730 n-decane, at 20 °C
Dimethyl ether (liquid) 735 At -25 °C
Methyl tert-butyl ether 740.5 At 20 °C
Grain (rice, hulled) 750
Alum (pulverized) 753
Di-tert-butyl ether 764.2 At 20 °C[6]
Dibutyl ether 768.27 At 20 °C[7]
Grain (flax) 770
Grain (wheat) 770
RP-1 773 At 25°C
Cyclohexane 778.1 At 20°C
tert-Butanol 778.6 Solid, at 20°C[8]
Lithium hydride 780 [9]
Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine 783 At 25°C
Acetonitrile 786 Anhydrous, at 25 °C[10]
Isopropanol 786 Anhydrous, at 20 °C
Carbon monoxide (liquid) 789 At boiling point
Ethanol 789 Anhydrous, at 20 °C
Acetone 790 Anhydrous
Methanol 791.5 Anhydrous, at 20 °C
Diesel 800 At standard conditions
Ethanol 96% 801.38 At 20 °C[11]
Isobutanol 802 Anhydrous, at 20 °C
Gasoline 803 Average type, standard conditions
Propanol 805.3 n-Propanol, at 20 °C
Methyl ethyl ketone 806 Anhydrous, at 20 °C
sec-Butanol 806.3 Anhydrous, at 20 °C
Nitrogen (liquid) 808 At boiling point
Butanol 809.8 n-Butanol, at 20 °C
Kerosene 810 At standard conditions, standard composition
Formaldehyde 815.3 At −20 °C
2-Octanone 820 At 20 °C[12]
Lithium-6 deuteride 820
UH25 829 At 25°C
Acrolein 839
Limonene 841.1 Average, at 20°C
Triethyl borate 858
α-Pinene 858 At 20 °C
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 860 At 20°C
Potassium 860
Xylene (mixture) 860 Mixture of isomers, at 20°C
Xylene (para) 861.04 At 20°C
Octyl acetate 863
Xylene (meta) 864 At 20°C
NaK (eutectic) 866 At 20°C; 77% K and 23% Na
Sodium ethoxide (21% EtOH solution) 868
Isopropyl nitrite 868.4
Toluene 867 At 20°C
Benzene 870 At standard conditions
Monomethylhydrazine 874 At 20°C
Hexamethylene triperoxide diamine 880
Xylene (orto) 880.1 At 20°C
Alum (lumpy) 881
Butyl acetate 882.5 n-Butyl acetate, at 20°C[13]
Ethylene oxide 882.6 At 10°C
Tetrahydrofuran 887.49 At 20°C
Menthol 890 Racemic or (−)-isomer
Ethylenediamine 900 At 20°C
Grain (corn, ear) 900
Aerozine 50 900 At 25°C
Paraffin wax 900 At 20°C
Ethyl acetate 900.3 At 20 °C[14]
Mayonnaise (traditional) 910 Traditional recipe
Butter 911
Peanut oil 914
Palm oil 915
Trimethyl borate 915 At standard conditions
Ice 916.7 At 0 °C
Ethyl formate 918 At 20 °C
Lithium aluminium hydride 917
Olive oil 918
Body fat 918
Lard 919
Corn oil 922
Coconut oil 924
Soya oil 927
Nitrous oxide (liquid) 931 At 0 °C at 31.1 bar
Methyl acetate 934.2 At 20 ºC
Curcumin 934.8 At 15 ºC
Dimethylformamide 945 At 20 ºC
Butyric acid 952.8 At 25 ºC
Sodium 970
Tetralin 970 At 20 ºC
Methyl formate 980 At 20 °C
Pyridine 982.72 At 20 °C
Propionic acid 987.97
Hydrogen fluoride (liquid) 990 At 19.5 °C
Silicone 993
Milk (cow, heavy cream) 994
Ammonium sulfide 997
Mayonnaise (light) 1,000
Water 1,000 At 4 °C
Chloric acid 1,000 Estimated
Saline water 1,004 (0.9% NaCl)
Phenol 1,007
Pilsner (beer) 1,008 At standard conditions
Hydrazine 1,008.5 At 20 °C
Nicotine 1,009.25 At 20 °C
Sodium dodecyl sulfate 1,010
Milk (cow, light cream) 1,012
Aniline 1,021.7 At 20 °C
Sea water 1,025 Average density at the surface
Naphthalene 1,025.3 At 20 °C
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone 1,027 At 25 °C
Acetophenone 1,028
Milk (cow, whole) 1,030 At 20 °C
1,4-Dioxane 1,032.9 At 20 °C[15]
Milk (cow, skim) 1,033
Aluminium isopropoxide 1,035
Blood 1,035
Propylene glycol 1,036.1 At 20 °C
Benzaldehyde 1,044 At 20 °C
Acetic acid 1,050
Skin 1,050
Human body (average) 1,062
Sulfanilamide 1,080 At standard conditions
Acetic anhydride 1,082 At 20 °C[16]
Formalin 1,090 37% aqueous solution, at 25 °C
Hydrazoic acid 1,090 At 25 °C
Safrole 1,100
Nitrous acid 1,100 ±0.1 kg/m3 (1.1 for maximum possible concentration)
Dimethyl sulfoxide 1,100.4 At 20 °C
Carbon dioxide (liquid) 1,101 Liquid, at −37°C (saturation)
Peracetic acid 1,103.7 At 20 °C[17]
Acetyl chloride 1,104
Sodium hypochlorite 1,110
Ethylene glycol 1,115 At 20 ºC
Triethyl citrate 1,136.9 At 20 ºC
Nitromethane 1,137.1 At 20 ºC[18]
Hydrogen fluoride (gas) 1,150 At 25 °C
Hydrofluoric acid 1,150 At 20 °C, 48% w/w aqueous solution
Nylon 1,150
Oxygen (liquid) 1,155
Furfural 1,159.4 At 20 °C
2-Nitrotoluene 1,161.1 At 19°C
Ammonium acetate 1,170 At 20 °C
Benzocaine 1,170
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide 1,170 At 20 °C
Plastics 1,175 Approx. for PP, PETE and PVC
Dicyanoacetylene 1,176
Methyl salicylate 1,184 At 25 °C
Hydrochloric acid 1,189 At 20 °C, 38% w/w aqueous solution
Propylene carbonate 1,190 At 20 °C[19]
Methanediol 1,199
Nitrobenzene 1,199
Chromic acid 1,201
Neon (liquid) 1,207 At boiling point
Methyl nitrate 1,207.5 At 20 °C[20]
Acetone peroxide 1,220 Trimer[21]
Formic acid 1,220 At 20 °C
Hydroxylamine 1,227 At 20 °C
Caffeine 1,230
Nitrocellulose 1,230
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1,247.5 At 20 °C
Bromothymol blue 1,250
1,2-Dichloroethane 1,253.1 At 20 °C[22]
Glycerol 1,261 Standard conditions
Carbon disulfide 1,263.2 At 20 °C[23]
Benzoic acid 1,265.9 At 15 °C
Ammonium formate 1,280 At 25 °C[24]
Methyl orange 1,280
Chloric acid (heptahydrate) 1,282 T<40 °C[25]
Aluminium chloride (hexahydrate) 1,300
Phenolphthalein 1,300 At 20 °C
Sodium methoxide 1,300
Methyl red 1,310
Phenanthroline 1,310
Freon 12 (liquid) 1,311 Pressurized
Cellulose acetate fibers 1,320 [26]
Urea 1,320
Dichloromethane 1,326.6 At 20 °C
Hexamine 1,330
Hydroquinone 1,330
Ammonium azide 1,345.9 At 20 °C
Hydrazine sulfate 1,378 [27]
Corn syrup 1,380
Argon (liquid) 1,395.4 At boiling point
Pentaerythritol 1,396
Acetylsalicylic acid 1,400
Sulfur dioxide (liquid) 1,400 At -10 °C
Urea peroxide 1,400
Chlorobutanol 1,404
Ammonium sulfite 1,410 At 25 °C
Ethylene glycol dinitrate[28] 1,419.8 At 20 ºC
Honey 1,420
Phosgene (liquid) 1,432 At 0 °C
Boric acid 1,435
Anthraquinone 1,438 At 20 °C
Nitrogen dioxide (liquid) 1,440 At 20 °C
Salycilic acid 1,443 At 20 °C
Dinitrogen tetroxide 1,445 At 20 °C
Dextrin 1,450 Average
Hydrogen peroxide 1,450 Pure, at 20 °C
Erythritol 1,450
Sodium acetate (trihydrate) 1,450 At 20 °C
Lithium hydroxide (anhydrous) 1,460
Sodium carbonate (decahydrate) 1,460
Rubidium (liquid) 1,460 At melting point
Sodium sulfate (decahydrate) 1,464
Trichloroethylene 1,464.2 At 20 °C
Biuret 1,467
Niacin 1,473
Sodium bisulfite 1,480 At 20 °C
Sodium metabisulfite 1,480
Chloroform 1,483.2 At 20 °C[29]
Sorbitol 1,489
Hydrobromic acid 1,490 48% w/w aqueous solution
Ammonium carbonate 1,500 At 20 °C
Ammonium oxalate 1,500 At 20 °C
Cellulose 1,500
Starch 1,500 Compact
Fuming nitric acid 1,500
Fluorine (liquid) 1,505 At boiling point
Cement (Portland) 1,506 Average density
Calcium acetate 1,509
Lithium hydrate (monohydrate) 1,510
Sodium carbonate (heptahydrate) 1,510
Magnesium sulfate (undecahydrate) 1,512
1,2,4-Butanetriol trinitrate 1,520 At 25 °C[30]
Potassium cyanide 1,520
Xylitol 1,520
Cement (Portland) clinker 1,522 Average density
Sodium acetate (anhydrous) 1,528 At 20 °C
Phthalic anhydride 1,530 At 20 °C
Trifluoroacetic acid 1,531 At 20 °C
Rubidium 1,532 At room temperature
Glucose 1,540 D-glucose
Citric acid (monohydrate) 1,542 At 18 °C
Sucrose 1,550
Calcium 1,550
Sodium sulfite (heptahydrate) 1,561
Carbon dioxide (solid) 1,562 Dry ice, at at 1 atm and −78.5 °C
Chlorine (liquid) 1,562.5 At boiling point
Magnesium chloride (hexahydrate) 1,569
Zinc peroxide 1,570
Succinic acid 1,572 At 20 °C
Phosphorus trichloride 1,574 At 20 °C
Cellulose II 1,580 Crystal[31]
Ammonium bicarbonate 1,586
Nitroglycerin 1,593.1 At 20 °C[32]
Carbon tetrachloride 1,594 At 20 °C
Sodium cyanide 1,595.5 At 20 °C
Fluorescein 1,602
Ozone (liquid) 1,614 At -195.4 °C
Aluminium sulfate (octahydrate) 1,620
Monosodium glutamate 1,620 At 20 °C
Sulfur dichloride 1,621
Tetrachloroethylene 1,622 Standard conditions
Thionyl chloride 1,638 At 20 °C[33]
Phosphoryl chloride 1,645
Ascorbic acid 1,650
Nitrogen trichloride 1,653 [34]
Oxalic acid (dihydrate) 1,653
Trinitrotoluene 1,654 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
Citric acid (anhydrous) 1,665
Sodium thiosulfate 1,667
Carbonic acid 1,668
Sulfuryl chloride 1,670 At 20 °C
Calcium gluconate (pentahydrate) 1,674 [35]
Ammonium thiosulfate 1,679 At 25 °C
Magnesium sulfate (heptahydrate) 1,680
Phosphoric acid (85%) 1,685 Aqueous solution
Disulfur dichloride 1,688
Lead(II) acetate (decahydrate) 1,690
Urea nitrate 1,690
Fructose 1,694
Calcium hydride 1,700
Chromium(III) sulfate (octadecahydrate) 1,709
Calcium chloride (hexahydrate) 1,710
Aluminium nitrate (nonahydrate) 1,720
Ammonium nitrate 1,725 At 20 °C
Borax 1,730
Tetryl 1,730
Zinc acetate (dihydrate) 1,735
Magnesium 1,740
Inositol 1,752
Methylene blue 1,757 At 20 °C
Picric acid 1,763
Ammonium sulfate 1.769 At 20 °C
Pentaerythritol tetranitrate 1,770 At 20 °C
Perchloric acid 1,770.3 Anhydrous, at 20 °C
Ammonium bisulfate 1,780
Potassium sodium tartrate 1,790
Tartaric acid 1,790
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate 1,800
Prussian blue 1,800 [36]
Iron(III) chloride (hexahydrate) 1,820
RDX 1,820 At 20 °C
White phosphorus 1,823
Erythritol tetranitrate 1,827 Crystal density[37]
Sulfuric acid (98%) 1,830
Calcium chloride (tetrahydrate) 1,830
Cesium (liquid) 1,843 At melting point
Sodium azide 1,846 At 20 °C
Beryllium 1,850
Calcium chloride (dihydrate) 1,850
Potassium ferrocyanide 1,850 Trihydrate
Chromium(III) sulfate (pentadecahydrate) 1,860
Francium 1,870 Predicted, at room temperature
Boron phosphate 1,873 BPO4[38]
Copper(II) acetate (monohydrate) 1,882 At 20 °C
Phosphoric acid (liquid) 1,885 Aqueous solution
Potassium ferricyanide 1,890
Iron(II) sulfate (heptahydrate) 1,895
Calcium nitrate (tetrahydrate) 1,896
Iron(III) sulfate (pentahydrate) 1,898
Ammonium chromate 1,900
Oxalic acid (anhydrous) 1,900
Bone 1,900 Average human bone
2,4-Dinitrobromobenzene 1,910
Sodium formate 1,920 At 20 °C
Sulfur (gamma) 1,920
Sulfur trioxide 1,920 Liquid
Cobalt(II) chloride (hexahydrate) 1,924
Cesium 1,930 At room temperature
Ethyl iodide 1,930.8 At 20 °C[39]
Iron(II) sulfate (hexahydrate) 1,934
Cobalt(II) sulfate (heptahydrate) 1,948
Nickel(II) sulfate (heptahydrate) 1,948
Ammonium perchlorate 1,950
Chromyl chloride 1,960 At 20 °C
Sulfur (beta) 1,960
Ammonium persulfate 1,980
Potassium chloride 1,984
Activated charcoal 2,000 Average skeletal density
Oleum (60%) 2,000
Cadmium acetate (dihydrate) 2,010 [40]
Cobalt(II) sulfate (hexahydrate) 2,019
Sodium perchlorate (monohydrate) 2,020
Aluminium sulfide 2,020
Ammonium bisulfite (72% aq. sol.) 2,030 At 20 °C
Phosphoric acid (solid) 2,030 At 25 °C
Potassium hydroxide 2,044 At 20 °C
Lithium nitrate (hexahydrate) 2,065
Lithium chloride 2,068
Copper(II) nitrate (hexahydrate) 2,070
Nickel(II) sulfate (hexahydrate) 2,070
Sulfur (alfa) 2,070
Zinc sulfate (hexahydrate) 2,072
Devarda's alloy (bulk) 2,080 At 20 °C
Phosphorus pentachloride 2,100 At standard conditions
Sodium percarbonate 2,100 At standard conditions
Manganese(II) sulfate (tetrahydrate) 2,107
Potassium nitrate 2,109
Lithium carbonate 2,110
Ammonium dichromate 2,115
Sodium hydroxide 2,130
Pyranine 2,150
Calcium chloride (anhydrous) 2,150
Iron(II) sulfate (pentahydrate) 2,150
Sodium chloride 2,165
Sodium nitrite 2,168
Potassium bicarbonate 2,170
Potassium peroxymonosulfate 2,170 Oxone
Trichloroisocyanuric acid 2.19 ± 0.1 g/cm3
Ammonium permanganate 2,200 At 20 °C
Sodium bicarbonate 2,200
Polytetrafluoroethylene 2,200
Calcium hydroxide 2,211
Calcium carbide 2,220
Lead(IV) acetate 2,228 At 17 °C
Borosilicate glass 2,230 Average value
Tin(IV) chloride 2,230
Peroxymonosulfuric acid 2,239
Calcium chloride (monohydrate) 2,240
Potassium bisulfate 2,245
Sodium carbonate (monohydrate) 2,250
Sodium nitrate 2,257
Zinc perchlorate 2,260
Graphite 2,266
Sodium oxide 2,270
Methyl iodide 2,280 At 20 °C
Copper(II) sulfate (pentahydrate) 2,286
Diatomaceous earth (bulk) 2,300 At standard conditions
Copper(II) nitrate (trihydrate) 2,320
Calcium sulfate (dihydrate) 2,320
Magnesium chloride (anhydrous) 2,320
Potassium chlorate 2,320
Silicon 2,330
Monopotassium phosphate 2,338 At standard conditions
Boron 2,340
Cadmium acetate (anhydrous) 2,340 [41]
Potassium metabisulfite 2,340
Red phosphorus 2,340
Magnesium hydroxide 2,344.6
Calcium hypochlorite 2,350 At 20 °C
Potassium sulfite 2,350 At 20 °C[42]
Violet phosphorus 2,360
Strontium (liquid) 2,375 At melting point
Lithium nitrate (anhydrous) 2,380
Phosphorus pentoxide 2,390
Manganese heptoxide 2,396 At 20 °C[43]
Concrete 2,400 Average density
Krypton (liquid) 2,413 At boiling point
Potassium carbonate 2,430
Chloroplatinic acid 2,431
Magnesium sulfate (monohydrate) 2,445
Cadmium nitrate (tetrahydrate) 2,450
Boron trioxide (liquid) 2,460 At melting point
Boron silicide 2,470 B6Si[44]
Potassium persulfate 2,477
Cobalt(II) chloride (dihydrate) 2,477
Aluminium chloride (anhydrous) 2,480
Sodium hexametaphosphate 2,484
Ammonium heptamolybdate 2,498
Sodium perchlorate (anhydrous) 2,499.4
Calcium nitrate (anhydrous) 2,504
Copper(II) chloride (dihydrate) 2,510
Sodium dichromate 2,520
Potassium perchlorate 2,523.9
Sodium carbonate (anhydrous) 2,540 At 25 °C
Lead(II) acetate (trihydrate) 2,550
Boron trioxide (trigonal) 2,550
Potassium antimony tartrate 2,600
Quartz 2,600
Sodium silicate 2,610
Sodium sulfite (anhydrous) 2,633
Strontium 2,640 At room temperature
Calcium perchlorate 2,651
Sodium pyrosulfate 2,658
Magnesium sulfate (anhydrous) 2,660
Potassium sulfate 2,660
Sodium sulfate (anhydrous) 2,664
Aluminium sulfate (anhydrous) 2,672
Potassium dichromate 2,676
Black phosphorus 2,690
Aluminium 2,700
Chromium trioxide 2,700 At 20 °C
Potassium permanganate 2,703
Tin(II) chloride (dihydrate) 2,710
Calcium carbonate 2,711 Calcite
Potassium chromate 2,732
Potassium bromide 2,740
Sodium bisulfate 2,740
Potassium manganate 2,780
Scandium (liquid) 2,800 At melting point
Sodium peroxide 2,805
Silver perchlorate 2,806
Phosphoryl bromide 2,820
Potassium ferrate 2,829 [45]
Calcium carbonate 2,830 Aragonite
Phosphorus tribromide 2,852 At 15 °C
Chloroauric acid (tetrahydrate) 2,890
Iron(III) chloride (anhydrous) 2,898
Zinc chloride 2,907
Xenon (liquid) 2,942 At boiling point
Manganese(II) sulfate (monohydrate) 2,950
Calcium sulfate (anhydrous) 2,960
Scandium 2,985 At room temperature
Iron(II) sulfate (monohydrate) 3,000
Copper(II) nitrate (anhydrous) 3,050
Lead styphnate 3,060 At 20 °C
Cobalt(II) sulfate (monohydrate) 3,075
Cadmium sulfate (octahydrate) 3,080
Iron(III) sulfate (anhydrous) 3,097
Barium chloride (dihydrate) 3,097.9
Chromium(III) sulfate (anhydrous) 3,100
Bromine 3,102.8 Standard conditions
Potassium iodide 3,123
Antimony(III) chloride 3,140 At 25 °C
Boron trioxide (monoclinic) 3,146
Barium chlorate 3,180
Calcium fluoride 3,180
Barium perchlorate 3,200
Silicon carbide 3,210 All polytypes[46]
Barium nitrate 3,240
Lead(II) acetate (anhydrous) 3,250 At 20 °C
Manganese(II) sulfate (anhydrous) 3,250
Copper(I) azide 3,260 [47]
Silver acetate 3,260
Diiodomethane 3,325
Barium (liquid) 3,338 At melting point
Calcium oxide 3,340
Vanadium pentoxide 3,357
Copper(II) hydroxide 3,368
Copper(II) chloride (anhydrous) 3,386
Zinc chromate 3,430
Cobalt(II) chloride (anhydrous) 3,560
Copper oxychloride 3,500
Diamond 3,510
Barium 3,530 At room temperature
Zinc sulfate (anhydrous) 3,540
Chevreul's salt 3,570 [48]
Cadmium nitrate (anhydrous) 3,600
Copper(II) sulfate (anhydrous) 3,600
Phosphorus pentabromide 3,610
Iron(II) sulfate (anhydrous) 3,650
Caesium hydroxide 3,675
Cobalt(II) sulfate (anhydrous) 3,710
Mercury(II) thiocyanate 3,710 At standard conditions.
Strontium carbonate 3,740
Titanium dioxide 3,780 Anatase form
Cadmium sulfate (monohydrate) 3,790
Barium chloride (anhydrous) 3,856
Chloroauric acid (anhydrous) 3,900
Silver fulminate 3,938
Tin(II) chloride (anhydrous) 3,950
Zinc phosphate 3,998
Aluminium oxide 4,000 Average density
Basic copper carbonate 4,000
Iodoform 4,008
Nickel(II) sulfate (anhydrous) 4,010
Cadmium chloride 4,050 [49]
Zinc sulfide 4,090
Copper(I) chloride 4,145
Phosphorus triiodide 4,180 At standard conditions
Titanium dioxide 4,180 Brookite
Titanium dioxide 4,230 Rutile form
Cadmium azide 4,240 [50]
Yttrium (liquid) 4,240 At melting point
Cadmium carbonate 4,258 [51]
Barium carbonate 4,286
Mercury(II) nitrate (monohydrate) 4,300 At 20 °C
Nitrogen triiodide 4,300 ±0.1 g/cm3[52]
Carbon tetraiodide 4,320
Silver nitrate 4,350 At 24 °C
Zinc carbonate 3,398 At 20 °C[53]
Radon (liquid) 4,400 At boiling point
Mercury(II) fulminate 4,420
Yttrium 4,472
Barium sulfate 4,490
Copper chromite 4,500
Caesium iodide 4,510
Lead(II) nitrate 4,530
Titanium 4,540
Tungsten hexafluoride (solid) 4,560 At −9 °C
Cadmium sulfate (octahydrate) 4,691
Strontium oxide 4,700
Lead(II) azide 4,710
Selenium 4,800
Barium manganate 4,850
Barium iodide (dihydrate) 4,916
Iodine 4,933
Barium peroxide 4,960 [54]
Iron(II,III) oxide 5,000
Manganese dioxide 5,026
Bismuth sulfate 5,080 [55]
Barium iodide (anhydrous) 5,150
Cobalt(III) oxide 5,180
Antimony(III) oxide (α-form) 5,200
Chromium(III) oxide 5,220
Iron(III) oxide 5,242
Germanium 5,323
Mercury(II) chloride 5,430
Silver sulfate 5,450 At 20°C
Radium 5,500 At room temperature
Zinc oxide 5,610
Antimony(III) oxide (β-form) 5,670
Arsenic 5,727
Bismuth(III) iodide 5,778
Devarda's alloy 5,790 At 20 °C
Zirconium (liquid) 5,800 At melting point
Copper(I) nitride 5,840 [56]
Gallium 5,910 At room temperature
Lanthanum (liquid) 5,940 At melting point
Copper(I) oxide 6,000
Silver carbonate 6,077
Gallium (liquid) 6,095 At melting point
Vanadium 6,100
Basic lead chromate 6,120
Lead chromate 6,120
Lead(II) iodide 6,160
Lanthanum 6,162 At room temperature
Ytterbium (liquid) 6,210 At room temperature
Tellurium 6,240
Copper(II) oxide 6,310
Bismuth phosphate 6,323 [57]
Astatine 6,350 Predicted, at room temperature
Mercury(II) sulfate 6,470 At 20 °C[58]
Praseodymium (liquid) 6,500 At melting point
Zirconium 6,520
Cerium (liquid) 6,550 At melting point
Zinc (liquid) 6,570
Antimony 6,690
Cerium 6,770 At room temperature
Praseodymium 6,770 At room temperature
Neodymium (liquid) 6,890 At melting point
Ytterbium 6,900 At room temperature
Neodymium 7,010 At room temperature
Indium (liquid) 7,020 At melting point
Kanthal A1 7,100 Average density, standard conditions
Europium (liquid) 7,130 At melting point
Zinc 7,140 At room temperature
Samarium (liquid) 7,160 At melting point
Chromium 7,200
Promethium 7,260 At room temperature
Europium 7,264 At room temperature
Indium 7,310 At room temperature
Tin 7,310
Manganese 7,325
Samarium 7,520 At room temperature
Terbium (liquid) 7,650 At melting point
Bismuth selenide 7,700 [59]
Bismuth oxychloride 7,700 [60]
Iron 7,780 Standard conditions
Steel 7,850 Mild carbon steel, standard conditions
Gadolinium 7,900 At room temperature
Terbium(III) oxide 7,910
Mercury sulfide 8,100 At room temperature
Terbium 8,230 At room temperature
Bronze (manganese) 8,300 Average density
Lead(II,IV) oxide 8,300
Holmium (liquid) 8,340 At melting point
Dysprosium (liquid) 8,370 At melting point
Nichrome 8,400 80% nickel 20% chromium
Dysprosium 8,540 At room temperature
Thulium (liquid) 8,560 At melting point
Niobium 8,570
Brass 8,600 Average density
Cadmium 8,650
Holmium 8,790 At room temperature
Bronze (phosphorus) 8,800 Average density
Einsteinium 8,840 At room temperature
Erbium (liquid) 8,860 At melting point
Bismuth trioxide 8,900
Cobalt 8,900
Nickel 8,900
Copper 8,940
Erbium 9,066 At room temperature
Polonium (alpha) 9,196
Lutetium (liquid) 9,300 At melting point
Thulium 9,320 At room temperature
Polonium (beta) 9,398
Lead(II) oxide 9,530
Bismuth 9,750
Lutetium 9,841 At room temperature
Actinium 10,000 At room temperature
Molybdenum 10,220
Silver 10,500
Technertium 11,000
Mercury(II) oxide 11,140
Thallium (liquid) 11,220 At melting point
Lead 11,340
Thorium 11,700
Thallium 11,850 At room temperature
Hafnium (liquid) 12,000 At melting point
Americium 12,000 At room temperature
Palladium 12,023
Rhodium 12,410
Ruthenium 12,450
Berkelium (beta) 13,250 At room temperature
Hafnium 13,310 At room temperature
Curium 13,510 At room temperature
Mercury 13,546
Berkelium (alpha) 14,780 At room temperature
Californium 15,100 At room temperature
Protactinium 15,370 At room temperature
Tungsten carbide 15,600
Tantalum 16,600
Neptunium (gamma) 18,000 At 639 °C
Uranium 18,900
Tungsten 19,250
Gold 19,320
Neptunium (beta) 19,360 At 313 °C
Plutonium 19,840
Neptunium (alpha) 20,450 At 282 °C
Rhenium 21,020
Platinum 21,450
Iridium 22,420
Osmium 22,570
Rutherfordium 23,200 Predicted, at room temperature
Copernicium 23,700 Predicted, at room temperature
Roentgenium 28,700 Predicted, at room temperature
Dubnium 29,300 Predicted, at room temperature
Darmstadtum 34,800 Predicted, at room temperature
Seaborgium 35,000 Predicted, at room temperature
Bohrium 37,100 Predicted, at room temperature
Meitnerium 37,400 Predicted, at room temperature
Hassium 40,700 Predicted, at room temperature

Density ranges for heterogeneous materials

Material Density value (kg/m3) Additional notes
Activated carbon (powder) 400 - 500 Grain density
Activated carbon (skeletal) 2,000 - 2,100 Solid a.k.a. skeletal density
Agate 2,500 - 2,600
Alabaster carbonate 2,700 - 2,800
Albite 2,600 - 2,650
Aluminium oxide 3,950 - 4,100
Amber 1,060 - 1,100
Amphiboles 2,900 - 3,200
Anorthite 2,740 - 2,760
Asbstos 2,000 - 2,800
Balsa 40 - 340 Dry timber
Basalt 2,400 - 3,100
Beryllium copper 8,100 - 8,250
Biotite 2,700 - 3,100
Black powder 1,700 - 1,820 Mercury method
Black powder 1,920 - 2,080 Pycnometer
Bone 1,700 - 2,000 Human bone
Brass 8,400 - 8,730
Brick 1,400 - 2,400
Bronze 7,400 - 8,900 (8-14% Sn)
Bronze (lead) 7,700 - 8,700
Bronze (phosphorus) 8,780 - 8,920
Dynamite 1,300 - 1,510 [61]
Gasoline 710 - 770
Mineral oil (heavy) 860 - 910 At 20 °C
Mineral oil (light) 830 - 880 At 20 °C
Oak 710 - 750 Timber
Petroleum ether 600 - 800 At 20 °C
Prussian blue 1,750 - 1,810 [62]
Smokeless powder 900 - 1,000 At 20 °C
Stainless steel 7,480 - 8,050
Zeolite (analcime) 2,240 - 2,290 [63]
Zeolite (chabazite) 2,050 - 2,200 [64]
Zeolite (clinoptilolite) 2,200 - 2,440 Powder[65]
Zeolite (heulandite) 2,100 - 2,200 [66]
Zeolite (mordenite) 2,120 - 2,150 [67]
Zeolite (natrolite) 2,200 - 2,260 [68]
Zeolite (phillipsite) 2,200 - 2,242 [69]
Zeolite (phillipsite) 2,200 - 2,242 [70]
Zeolite (stilbite) 2,180 - 2,220 [71]

Density of materials at different temperatures

Air

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+727 0.340
+227 0.696
+35 1.146
+30 1.164
+27 1.161
+25 1.184
+20 1.204
+15 1.225
+10 1.247
+5 1.269
0 1.293
-5 1.316
-10 1.342
-15 1.368
-20 1.395
-25 1.423
-73 1.746
-173 3.556

Ammonia

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 °C 1,073
+20 °C 1,170

Ammonium acetate

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+15 °C 0.73
0 °C 0,769
-33.34 0.86
-33.3 681.9
-80 °C 817

Antimony(III) chloride

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+150 2,510
+25 3,140

Argon

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+27 1.449
0 1.784
-185 1,395.4

Benzaldehyde

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+20 1,044
+15 1,050

Biuret

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+20 1,456
+10 1,467

Butyric acid

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 952.8
-43 1,135

Carbon dioxide

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 1.799
-78 1,562

Carbon disulfide

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 1,262
+20 1,263.2
0 1,292.7
-186 1,539

Carbon monoxide

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 1.145
0 1.250
-191.5 789

Carbon tetrachloride

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+20 1,594
-80 1,809
-186 1,831

Chloroform

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+60 1,394
+25 1,488.5
+20 1,483.2
-20 1,564

Chromyl chloride

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+60 1,855
+49 1,873
+39 1,893
+30 1,910
+25 1,911.8
+24 1,920
+20 1,960
-47 2,052.2
-150 2,334

Dimethyl ether

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 1.91855
+20 1.96
+15 1.993
+0 2.1146
-24 2.3622
-25 735

Ethyl formate

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+50 876
+45 883
+40 890.5
+35 897.1
+30 903.6
+25 910.1
+20 916.6
+15 929
+10 934
0 948

[72]

Helium

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+27 0.164
0 0.1786
-269 147

Hydrazine

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+50 982
+25 1,004
+20 1,008.5
+15 1,014
0 1,021

Hydrogen

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+125 0.6061
+100 0.6465
+75 0.6928
+50 0.7461
+25 0.8085
0 0.08988
-25 0.9708
-50 1.0793
-75 1.2154
-100 1.3911
-125 1.6271
-150 1.9617
-175 2.4760
-200 3.3817
-225 5.5430
-250 68.747
-255 74.252[73]

Hydrogen fluoride

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 1.15
+19.5 991
+0 1,002

Ice

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
0 916
-50 922
-100 927

Manganese heptoxide

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+20 2,396
-30 2,790

Methane

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 0.656
-90 162
-161.65 422.62

Methanol

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 786.6
+20 791.5
+15 796

Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+20 1,170
+15 1,120

[74]

Methyl formate

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+20 980
+15 987

NaK

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+100 855
+21 866

Naphthalene

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+100 962.5
+20 1,025.3
+15.5 1,145

Nitrogen

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+27 1.145
-199 808

Oxygen

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+27 1.308
-186 1,155

Perchloric acid

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+55 1,711
+30 1,750.9
+25 1,760.8
+22 1,768
+20 1,770.3
+15 1,780
+10 1,789.2
+5 1,798.8
0 1,808.4
-5 1,818.1
-10 1,827.8
-15 1,837.3
-20 1,846.8
-25 1,856.1
-30 1,865.4
-160 2,160
[75]

Phenolphthalein

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+32 1,277
+25 1,299
+20 1,300

Potassium hydroxide

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 2,120
+20 2,044

Phthalic anhydride

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+135 1,200
+20 1,530

Silver nitrate

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+210 3,970
+24 4,350

Silver sulfate

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+660 4,480
+20 5,450

Sodium bisulfite

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+25 1,360
+20 1,480

Sulfur dichloride

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+20 1,621
+15 1,628.5
0 1,656.7
-134 2,120

Thionyl chloride

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+20 1,638
+10 1,655
0 1,676

Water

Temperature (°C) Density (kg/m3)
+100 958.4
+80 971.8
+60 983.2
+50 988.03
+40 992.2
+30 995.6502
+25 997.0479
+22 997.7735
+20 998.2071
+15 999.1026
+10 999.7026
+4 999.9720
0 999.8395
-10 998.117
-20 993.547
-30 983.854

The values below 0 °C refer to supercooled water.

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