Detonation velocity

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Detonation velocity, also known as velocity of detonation (VoD) or explosive velocity, is the velocity at which the shock wave front travels through a detonated explosive.

General

Explosive velocity is increased with smaller particle size (i.e. increased spatial density), increased charge diameter, and increased confinement (i.e. higher pressure). Detonation velocities depend on the explosive material's phase: in gases it ranges from 1800 m/s to 3000 m/s, while in solid explosives between 4000 m/s to 10300 m/s.

Relative effectiveness factor (R.E. factor) is a measurement of an explosive's power. It measures the detonating velocity relative to that of TNT, which has an R.E. factor of 1.00.

Explosive velocities are always faster than the local speed of sound in the material.[1][2]

Table of explosive detonation velocities

Explosive material Abbreviation Formula Classification Phase Density
(kg/m3)
Detonation
velocity (m/s)
R.E. factor
1,1-Diamino-2,2-dinitroethene DADNE/FOX-7 C2H4N4O4 Aliphatic Solid 1,760 8,335 1.60
1,3,5-Triazido-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TNTAZB/TATNB C6N12O6 Aromatic Solid 1,710 7,300
1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene TNB C6H3N3O6 Aromatic Solid 1,600 7,450
4,4'-Dinitro-3,3'-diazenofuroxan DDF C4N8O8 Aromatic Solid 2,020 10,000 1.95
A-IX-2 73% RDX + 23% Al + 4% wax Aliphatic Solid 1.54
Acetone peroxide TATP/TCAP (C2H6O2)n Aliphatic Solid 1.18 5,300 0.83
Amatex 51% AN + 40% TNT + 9% RDX Inorganic/Aromatic Solid 6,830[3]
Amatex/20K 31% AN + 40% TNT + 20% Potassium nitrate + 9% RDX Inorganic/Aromatic Solid 1,630 6700
Amatol 50% AN + 50% TNT Inorganic/Aromatic Solid 1,500 6,290 0.91
Ammonite 80% TNT + 20% AN Aromatic Solid 1,550 6570 1.10
Ammonium nitrate AN NH4NO3 Inorganic Solid 1,730 2,700 0.42
Ammonium nitrate fuel oil ANFO 94% AN + 6% fuel oil Inorganic Solid 1,300 5,270 0.74
Ammonium nitrate nitromethane ANNM 60% AN + 40% nitromethane Inorganic Liquid 6,125
Ammonium nitrate nitromethane aluminium ANNMAL 66% AN + 25% nitromethane + 5% Al + 3% C + 1% TETA Inorganic Solid 1,160 5,360 0.87
Ammonium picrate C6H6N4O7 Aromatic Solid 1,600 7,150
Ammotropin 91% AN + 9% hexamine Inorganic Solid 1,250 5,000
Astrolite A 50% AN + 30% hydrazine + 20% Al Inorganic Liquid 1,360 6900
Astrolite G 2:1 AN : hydrazine Inorganic Solid 1,410[4] 8,200
Black powder 75% KNO3 + 15% charcoal + 10% S Inorganic Solid 1,700 600-1,100 0.55
Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine HMX C4H8N8O8 Aliphatic Solid 1,910 9,400 1.70
Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine RDX C3H6N6O6 Aliphatic Solid 1,760 8,750 1.60
Detagel[5] Hexamine nitrate + water Aliphatic Liquid 1,200 4,938
Diazodinitrophenol DDNP C6H2N4O5 Aromatic Solid 1,630 7,100
Ednatol 58% EDNA + 42% TNT Aliphatic/Aromatic Solid 1,620 7,400
Erythritol tetranitrate ETN C4H6N4O12 Aliphatic Solid 1,600 8,100 1.60
Ethyl picrate C8H7N3O7 Aromatic Solid 1,550 6,500
Ethylene glycol dinitrate EGDN C2H4N2O6 Aliphatic Liquid 1,491.8 8,300 1.66
Ethylenedinitramine EDNA C2H6N4O4 Aliphatic 1,650 7,570
Hexamethylene triperoxide diamine HMTD C6H12N2O6 Aliphatic Solid 880 4,520 0.74
Hexanitrodiphenylamine HND C12H5N7O12 Aliphatic Solid 1,640 7,100
Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane CL-20/HNIW C6H6N12O12 Aliphatic Solid 2,040 9,500 1.80
Lead(II) azide Pb(N3)2 Inorganic Solid 3,000 5,180
Mannitol hexanitrate MHN C6H8N6O18 Aliphatic Solid 1,730 8,260 1.70
Mercury(II) fulminate HgC2N2O2 Inorganic Solid 4,420 4,250 0.74
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide MEKP C8H18O6 Aliphatic Solid 1,170 5,200
Methyl nitrate CH3NO3 Aliphatic Liquid 1,203 6,300
Methyl picrate C7H5N3O7 Aromatic Solid 1,570 6,800
Nickel hydrazine nitrate NHN NH12N8O6 Inorganic Solid 1,700 7,000
Nitrocellulose NC (C6H9-x(NO2)xO7)n Aliphatic Solid 1,200 7,300 1.10
Nitroglycerin NG C3H5N3O6 Aliphatic Liquid 1,540 8,100 1.54
Nitroguanidine NGdn/NQ CH4N4O2 Aliphatic Solid 1,700 8,200 1.00
Octanitrocubane ONC C8N8O16 Aliphatic Solid 2,000 10,100 2.38
Oxyhydrogen 1:2 O2 + H2 Inorganic Gas 2820
Pentaerythritol tetranitrate PETN C5H8N4O12 Aliphatic Solid 1,770 8,400 1.66
Picatinny Liquid Explosive PLX 95% nitromethane + 5% ethylenediamine Aliphatic Liquid 6,000
Picric acid TNP C6H3N3O7 Aromatic Solid 1,700 7,350 1.20
Picryl chloride TNCB C6H2ClN3O6 Aromatic Solid 1,740 7,200
Silver azide AgN3 Inorganic Solid 4,420 4,000
Tannerite 95% AN + 5% Al Inorganic Solid 1,800 5000-7,000
Tetranitroglycoluril TNGU C4H10N8O10 Aliphatic Solid 1950 9,150
Tetryl C7H5N5O8 Aromatic Solid 1,710 7,570 1.25
Triaminotrinitrobenzene TATB C6H6N6O6 Aromatic Solid 1,800 7,350 1.17
Trinitroaniline TNA C6H4N4O6 Aromatic Solid 1,720 7,300
Trinitrocresol TNC C7H5N3O7 Aromatic Solid 1,620 6,850
Trinitrotoluene TNT C7H5N3O6 Aromatic Solid 1,654 6900 1.00
Urea nitrate UN CH5N3O4 Aliphatic Solid 1,690 4700

See also

References

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detonation_velocity
  2. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/explosives.htm
  3. Resi Gerritsen,Ruud Haak, K9 Explosive and Mine Detection: A Manual for Training and Operations
  4. Jiping Liu, Liquid Explosives
  5. http://www.oricaminingservices.com/us/en/product/products_and_services/packaged_explosives/page_packaged_explosives/detagel/377?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1

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