Erbium

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Erbium,  Er
General properties
Name, symbol Erbium, Er
Appearance Silvery-white
Erbium in the periodic table


Er

Fm
HolmiumErbiumThullium
Standard atomic weight (Ar) 167.259(3)
Group, block , f-block
Period period 6
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f12 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
Physical properties
Silvery-white
Phase Solid
Melting point 1802 K ​(1529 °C, ​2784 °F)
Boiling point 3141 K ​(2868 °C, ​​5194 °F)
Density near r.t. 9.066 g/cm3
when liquid, at  8.86 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 19.90 kJ/mol
Heat of 280 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 28.12 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1 ​(a basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.24
energies 1st: 589.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 1150 kJ/mol
3rd: 2194 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 189±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure ​Hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Speed of sound thin rod 2830 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 12.2 µm/(m·K) (poly)
Thermal conductivity 14.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 0.86·10-6 Ω·m
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Young's modulus 69.9 GPa
Shear modulus 28.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 44.4 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.237
Vickers hardness 430–700 MPa
Brinell hardness 600–1070 MPa
CAS Registry Number 7440-52-0
History
Naming After Ytterby (Sweden), where it was mined
Discovery Carl Gustaf Mosander (1842)
· references

Erbium is a chemical element in the lanthanide series, with symbol Er and atomic number 68.

Properties

Chemical

Erbium metal tarnishes slowly in air and burns readily to form erbium(III) oxide:

4 Er + 3 O2 → 2 Er2O3

Erbium will slowly react with cold water, but the reaction occurs much faster in hot water.

Physical

Erbium is a silvery-white malleable metal. It is stable in air, and does not oxidize as quickly as some other rare-earth metals. Erbium is ferromagnetic below 19 K, antiferromagnetic between 19 and 80 K and paramagnetic above 80 K.

Availability

Erbium can be purchased online. Metallium sells erbium coins.

Preparation

Erbium can be prepared by reducing its oxide or salts with calcium at 1450 °C under argon atmosphere.

Er2O3 + 3 Ca → 2 Er + 3 CaO

Projects

Handling

Safety

Erbium's toxicity is similar to that of other lanthanides.

Storage

In closed bottles, away from moisture and corrosives vapors.

Disposal

Best to try to recycle it.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads