| IUPAC name
| Preferred IUPAC name
| Systematic IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass||45.04 g/mol|
|Density||1.133 g/cm3 (20 °C)|
|Melting point||2.55 °C (36.59 °F; 275.70 K)|
|Boiling point||210 °C (410 °F; 483 K)|
|Solubility||Miscible with acetic acid, acetone, chloroform, dichloromethane, diethyl ether, dioxane, ethanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, isopropanol, methanol, petroleum ether, phenol|
|Vapor pressure||0.08 mmHg (20 °C)|
|Acidity (pKa)||23.5 (in DMSO)|
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
|Flash point||154 °C (309 °F; 427 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
|5.325 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid, a clear liquid with an ammonia-like odor.
Thermal decomposition of formamide at 180 °C yields carbon monoxide and ammonia, as well as traces of hydrogen cyanide.
- HC(O)NH2 → CO + NH3
If the decomposition occurs in the presence of solid acid catalysts, formamide dehydrates to HCN:
- HC(O)NH2 → HCN + H2O
Formamide is colorless liquid with an ammonia-like odor miscible in water and many organic compounds.
Formamide is sold by chemical suppliers.
Formamide can be prepared from the pyrolysis of ammonium acetate, which in turn is made by neutralizing ammonia with formic acid.
- HCOOH + NH3 → HCOONH4
- HCOONH4 → HCONH2 + H2O
- HCOOCH2CH3 + NH3 → HCONH2 + CH3CH2OH
- Leuckart reaction
- Make hydrogen cyanide (VERY DANGEROUS!!)
Formamide is moderately irritating to the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Formamide has been shown to exhibit hematoxicity in animals and prolonged exposure via inhalation or dermal absorption is considered hazardous. It is also classified as teratogen. Formamide should never be handled without proper safety attire including gloves and goggles.
In closed bottles.
Should be mixed with a more flammable solvent and incinerated.