| IUPAC name
| Other names
Fural, furan-2-carboxaldehyde, furfuraldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, pyromucic aldehyde
|Density||1.16 g/mL (20 °C)|
|Melting point||−37 °C (−35 °F; 236 K)|
|Boiling point||162 °C (324 °F; 435 K)|
|Vapor pressure||2 mmHg (20°C)|
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
|Flash point||62 °C (335 K, 144 °F)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Furfural is an organic compound, a heterocyclic aldehyde, with the chemical formula C5H4O2. It is derived from a variety of agricultural byproducts, including corncobs, oat, wheat bran, and sawdust.
Palladium-catalyzed decarbonylation of furfural will yield furan.
When heated in the presence of acids, furfural irreversibly solidifies into a hard thermosetting resin.
Furfural is a colorless oily liquid, with an almond-like smell, which quickly darkens when exposed to air. It is poorly soluble in water and alkanes. Furfural is however soluble in most polar organic solvents.
Furfural is sold by many chemical suppliers.
Furfural can be obtained by heating hemicellulose with dilute sulfuric acid. Through this process, the hemicellulose undergoes hydrolysis to yield these sugars, mainly xylose. Under the same conditions of heat and acid, xylose and other five carbon sugars undergo dehydration, losing three water molecules, resulting furfural:
- C5H10O5 → C5H4O2 + 3 H2O
- Make furfuryl alcohol
- Make 2-methyltetrahydrofuran
- Make tetrahydrofuran
- Make furan
Furfural is toxic and should be handled with care. It is a skin irritant and chronic skin exposure can lead to skin allergy as well as an unusual susceptibility to sunburn.
Furfural should be stored in closed bottles, away from air to prevent it from turning brown.
Furfural can be safely burned.