Guanidinium nitrate

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Not to be confused with Nitroguanidine.
Guanidinium nitrate
Names
IUPAC name
Guanidinium nitrate
Other names
Guanidine nitrate
Guanidine, nitric acid salt
Properties
CH6N4O3
C(NH2)3NO3
Molar mass 122.1 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor Odorless
Density 1.436 g/cm3
Melting point 213 °C (415 °F; 486 K)
Boiling point Decomposes
16 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Solubility Slightly soluble in acetone, alcohols
Vapor pressure ~0 mmHg
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
730 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Guanidinium carbonate
Guanidinium chloride
Guanidinium perchlorate
Guanidinium sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Guanidinium nitrate, also referred to as guanidine nitrate (or GdnNO3), is a colorless solid, the nitrate salt of guanidine, used as rocket fuel. It has the formula CH6N3NO3 or C(NH2)3NO3.

Properties

Chemical

Guanidinium nitrate is a powerful energetic material, widely used as rocket propellant. It will burn when ignited and may explode if detonated. The decomposition reaction is the following:

CH6N4O3 (s) → 3 H2O (g) + 2 N2 (g) + C (s)

Physical

Guanidinium nitrate is an odorless white solid, soluble in water.

Explosive

At high temperatures, guanidine nitrate can explode. It has an average detonation velocity of 2,762 m/s[1], or 3700 m/s[2]. Unlike the decomposition of ammonium or urea nitrate, the decomposition of GdnNO3 is influenced by bases and acids.[3]

Availability

Guanidine nitrate is sold by chemical suppliers.

Preparation

Guanidinium nitrate can be made by melting a mixture of ammonium nitrate, urea with silica gel. All reagents must be dry and well mixed. When the temperature reaches 160 °C, the molten mixture begins to foam and releases ammonia. To prevent the reagents from spilling all over your table, you will have to strongly stir the mixture for at least a couple of hours.[4]

Two reactions occur during the pocess:

NH4NO3 + (NH2)2CO → C(NH2)3NO3 + NH4COONH2
NH4COONH2 → 2 NH3 + CO2

A different method replaces urea with calcium cyanamide.

While it can be made by reacting stoichiometric amounts of guanidine with nitric acid, freebase guanidine is difficult to find.

Projects

  • Rocket propellant
  • Make tetrazoles

Handling

Safety

Guanidinium nitrate is flammable and can explode at high temperatures.

Storage

In closed containers, away from any fire source.

Disposal

Guanidinium nitrate can be used as fertilizer, as long as you dilute it with water.

References

  1. TECHNICAL REPORT ARLCD-TR-78062, p. 19
  2. Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items Vol 10; Ed Kaye, S.M. U.S. Army Armament Research and Development Command; 1983; pp U 102-105.
  3. http://energetics.chm.uri.edu/system/files/Decomposition%20of%20Urea%20NitrateJEMFEB08MS%2523543r0_1.pdf
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QK_zsRBlkt0

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