Heptane

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Heptane
Heptane bottle and sample.jpg
n-Heptane bottle and sample from it
Names
IUPAC name
Heptane
Other names
n-Heptane
Identifiers
Jmol-3D images Image
Properties
C7H16
Molar mass 100.21 g/mol
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Gasoline-like
Density 0.6795 g/ml
Melting point −91.0 to −90.1 °C (−131.8 to −130.2 °F; 182.2 to 183.1 K)
Boiling point 98.1 to 98.7 °C (208.6 to 209.7 °F; 371.2 to 371.8 K)
0.0003% (20 °C)
Solubility Miscible with ethanol
Vapor pressure 5.33 kPa (at 20.0 °C)
Thermochemistry
328.57 J K−1 mol−1
−225.2–−223.6 kJ mol−1
Hazards
Safety data sheet ScienceLab
Flash point −4.0 °C
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
17,986 ppm (mouse, 2 hr)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Hexane
Octane
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Heptane or n-heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula C7H16, used as solvent.

Properties

Chemical

Heptane will burn when ignited in air to release carbon dioxide, water vapors and soot.

Physical

Heptane is a colorless liquid with a petroleum-like odor.

Availability

Certain types of lighter fluids contain heptane.

Car starting fluids contain a mixture of heptane and diethyl ether. Due to the large difference between their boiling points, the mixture can be separated by first distilling the ether, and then the heptane. However, some formulas may also contain other isomers of heptane, making the extraction of the pure n-heptane complicated.

Some barbecue lighter fluids tend to have a mixture of heptane and hexane, with a small addition of naphta, while others can have relative pure heptane.

Preparation

Heptane can be prepared by reducing heptane derivates. However it is generally much cheaper to simply buy the compound.

Projects

  • Identify aqueous bromine from iodine
  • Organic extractions

Handling

Safety

Heptane is flammable and it's vapors may be irritant if inhaled.

Storage

Heptane is best stored in closed bottles, kept in cold, dark and well ventilated places.

Disposal

Heptane can be safely burned in open air or in an incinerator.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads