Lutetium

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Lutetium,  71Lu
General properties
Name, symbol Lutetium, Lu
Appearance Silvery-white
Lutetium in the periodic table


Lu

Lr
YtterbiumLutetiumHafnium
Atomic number 71
Standard atomic weight (Ar) 174.9668(1)
Group, block , f-block
Period period 6
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2
Physical properties
Silvery-white
Phase Solid
Melting point 1925 K ​(1652 °C, ​3006 °F)
Boiling point 3675 K ​(3402 °C, ​​6156 °F)
Density near r.t. 9.841 g/cm3
when liquid, at  9.3 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 22 kJ/mol
Heat of 414 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.86 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1 ​(a weakly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.27
energies 1st: 523.5 kJ/mol
2nd: 1340 kJ/mol
3rd: 2022.3 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 174 pm
Covalent radius 187±8 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure ​Hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Thermal expansion 9.9 µm/(m·K) (poly)
Thermal conductivity 16.4 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 5.82·10-7 Ω·m (poly)
Magnetic ordering Paramagnetic
Young's modulus 68.6 GPa
Shear modulus 27.2 GPa
Bulk modulus 47.6 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.261
Vickers hardness 755–1160 MPa
Brinell hardness 890–1300 MPa
CAS Registry Number 7439-94-3
History
Naming After Lutetia, Latin for: Paris, in the Roman era
Discovery Carl Auer von Welsbach and Georges Urbain (1906)
First isolation Carl Auer von Welsbach (1906)
Named by Georges Urbain (1906)
· references

Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals and the last element in the lanthanide series, and is traditionally counted among the rare earths.

Lutetium's position in the periodic table is not entirely agreed on. Some models put it in group 3, others or at the end of the f block with lanthanum and actinium instead, while other types of tables only have scandium and yttrium, leaving lutetium in the f block.

Properties

Chemical

Lutetium resists oxidation in dry air, but will slowly react with water. It will also react with most acids, both organic and inorganic.

Physical

Lutetium is a silvery white metal. It has a meting point of 1652 °C and a boiling point of 3402 °C. Its density is 9.841 g/cm3.

Availability

Lutetium can be purchased from Metallium and eBay.

Preparation

Reducing lutetium salts, like lutetium chloride with calcium will yield lutetium metal.

Projects

  • Make lutetium aluminium garnet
  • Make lutetium tantalate

Handling

Safety

Lutetium reacts with water to release hydrogen, which is flammable.

Luthetium compounds are thought to be non-toxic. At least one compound, Motexafin lutetium has been studied in cancer treatment.

Storage

Luthetium should be kept in closed containers, away from moisture and acids.

Disposal

Since lutetium is expensive, it's best to try to recycle it.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads