| IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass|| 125.844 g/mol (anhydrous)|
161.874 g/mol (dihydrate)
197.91 g/mol (tetrahydrate)
|Appearance|| Off-white solid (anhydrous)|
Pink solid (hydrated)
|Density|| 2.977 g/cm3 (anhydrous)|
2.27 g/cm3 (dihydrate)
2.01 g/cm3 (tetrahydrate)
|Melting point|| anhydrous|
654 °C (1,209 °F; 927 K)
135 °C (275 °F; 408 K) (decomposes)
58 °C (136 °F; 331 K) (decomposes)
|Boiling point||1,225 °C (2,237 °F; 1,498 K)|
| 63.4 g/100 ml (0 °C)|
73.9 g/100 ml (20 °C)
88.5 g/100 ml (40 °C)
123.8 g/100 ml (100 °C)
|Solubility|| Soluble in ethanol, methanol|
Slightly soluble in pyridine
Insoluble in ethers, halocarbons, hydrocarbons
|Vapor pressure||~0 mmHg|
|Safety data sheet|| Sigma-Aldrich (anhydrous)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
| 250-275 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
1,715 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
| Chromium(III) chloride|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Manganese(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula MnCl2, a salt of manganese metal. It is available as anhydrous, monohydrate, dihydrate and tetrahydrate.
Manganese(II) chloride occurs in nature as the rare mineral scacchite, first identified in the volcanic fumaroles of Vesuvius.
Manganese(II) chloride is a weak Lewis acid.
Addition of organic ligands to solutions of manganese(II) and oxidation in air will give Mn(III) complexes.
Manganous chloride is an odorless pink solid, soluble in water, but insoluble in most organic solvents.
Manganese(II) chloride is sold by chemical suppliers.
- MnO2 + 4 HCl → MnCl2 + 2 H2O + Cl2
Since the reaction releases chlorine gas, this must be done outside or in a fume hood.
Chlorine-free routes involve adding the hydrochloric acid to manganese metal or manganese carbonate/hydroxide.
- Mn + 2 HCl → MnCl2 + H2
- Mn(OH)2 + 2 HCl → MnCl2 + 2 H2O
- MnCO3 + 2 HCl → MnCl2 + H2O + CO2
Manganese carbonate can be obtained by reacting manganese dioxide with oxalic acid.
The double replacement reaction between manganese(II) sulfate and calcium chloride will give manganese dichloride, while calcium sulfate precipitates out of the reaction. Manganese sulfate can be easily obtained by bubbling sulfur dioxide in an aqueous suspension of manganese dioxide.
- MnSO4 + CaCl2 → MnCl2 + CaSO4
The resulting suspension is filtered to remove the insoluble calcium sulfate. The filtered MnCl2 solution is placed on a heating bath, where water is evaporated to concentrate it. The concentrated solution is cooled to crystallize the compound. If the source of manganese dioxide used is batteries, multiple recrystallizations are required to remove iron impurities.
All the above procedures will give the hydrated form of this salt. To obtain the anhydrous form, the compound is heated in an oxygen-less or free atmosphere, like under inert gas or an organic solvent like methanol, or in a stream of hydrogen chloride.
A route to obtain the anhydrous form involves reacting manganese metal with dry hydrogen chloride or chlorine gas at high temperatures.
- Mn + 2 HCl → MnCl2 + H2
- Mn + Cl2 → MnCl2
- Make dry cell batteries
- Make Mn coordination complexes
- Make sodium permanganate
- Make manganese dioxide
Manganese dichloride is harmful in ingested. Long-term exposure to manganese dust or compounds will lead to manganese poisoning or manganism.
Manganese(II) chloride doesn't have special storage conditions, any clean plastic or glass container is sufficient.
Manganese(II) chloride should be precipitated to the less soluble manganese dioxide and then sent to waste disposal centers. Waste batteries centers might also pick up manganese waste.
Diluted manganese chloride can be used as source of manganese for plants.