Niacin

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Niacin
Names
IUPAC name
Pyridine-3-carboxylic acid
Other names
Bionic
Nicotinic acid
Vitamin B3
Properties
C6H5NO2
Molar mass 123.1094 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor Odorless
Density 1.473 g/cm3
Melting point 237 °C (459 °F; 510 K)
Boiling point Sublimes
1.8 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Solubility Soluble in DMSO
Slightly soluble in diethyl ether, ethanol
Insoluble in lipids
Vapor pressure 5.7·10-6 mmHg °C
Acidity (pKa) 4.75
Thermochemistry
−344.9 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point 193 °C
Related compounds
Related compounds
Dipicolinic acid
Pyridine
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NO2. It is an important essential human nutrient.

Properties

Chemical

Decarboxylation of niacin gives pyridine

C6H5NO2 → C5H5N + CO2

Copper chromite is used as catalyst.

Physical

Niacin is a white solid, slightly soluble in water, but more so in organic solvents.

Availability

Niacin can be easily found in various Vitamin B3 supplements. To extract it, simply crush the niacin in a mortar or better in a coffee grinder. Add sodium hydroxide to convert it into the more soluble sodium nicotinate, and vacuum filter the solution. Convert it back to nicotinic acid by carefully adding hydrochloric acid. Since niacid is poorly soluble in water, it will precipitate out of the solution. The resulting precipitate is filtered, however this is difficult to do, as niacin water suspensions are non-Newtonian fluids, similar to starch and water mixtures. The resulting precipitate should be air dried, as vacuum drying doesn't work very well. The yield from this method is about 50-70%. Using an organic solvent will improve the yield.[1]

Niacin however is best purchased in bulk, rather than extracted from pills. It can be purchased online relative cheap.

Preparation

Niacin is best purchased than prepared.

It can be isolated from the oxidation of nicotine. Nitric acid is commonly used.

Projects

Handling

Safety

Niacin is edible, but avoid consuming lab-grade nicotinic acid.

Storage

Niacin should be stored in closed bottles.

Disposal

No special disposal is required. Discard it as you wish.

References

  1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SYrEbrljEfE

Relevant Sciencemadness threads