Nitroguanidine

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Not to be confused with Guanidinium nitrate.
Nitroguanidine
Names
IUPAC name
1-Nitroguanidine
Other names
N-nitroguanidine
Nitro-guanidine
NQ
Picrite
Properties
CH4N4O2
Molar mass 104.07 g/mol
Appearance Colorless crystalline solid
Odor Odorless
Density 1.71 g/cm3
Melting point 232 °C (450 °F; 505 K)
Boiling point 250 °C (482 °F; 523 K) (decomposes)
0.271 g/100 ml (19.5 °C)
0.44 g/100 ml (25 °C)
1.181 g/100 ml (50 °C)
10.366 g/100 ml (100 °C)[1]
Solubility Slightly soluble in ethanol, methanol, conc. sulfuric acid
Insoluble in diethyl ether
Solubility in methanol 0.5%
Vapor pressure 1.43·10-11 mmHg (25 °C)
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
4.345 mg/kg (rat, female, oral)
5.620 mg/kg (rat, male, oral)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Guanidine
Guanidinium nitrate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Nitroguanidine is an organic compound with the formula (NH2)2CNNO2 or CH4N4O2. It is mainly used used as a propellant (air bags) and sometimes as fertilizer, as well as a few other niche uses in chemistry and industry.

Properties

Chemical

Nitroguanidine decomposes when heated to release various gases:

(NH2)2CNNO2 (s) → 2 H2O (g) + 2 N2 (g) + C (s)

Physical

Nitroguanidine is an odorless colorless solid, though impure samples may appear yellow. It is poorly soluble in water.

Explosive

Nitroguanidine is an energetic material, widely used as propellant. It has low impact sensitivity, but its detonation velocity is high.

Availability

Nitroguanidine is used as propellant in more recent models of air bags, replacing sodium azide, and sometimes as fertilizer. Some phosphate-based coatings also use nitroguanidine.

Preparation

Nitroguanidine can be prepared by dehydrating guanidinium nitrate with concentrated sulfuric acid or fuming nitric acid.[2]

[C(NH2)3]NO3 → (NH2)2CNNO2 + H2O

Projects

Handling

Safety

Nitroguanidine is an explosive material and should be handled with care.

Storage

It should be kept damp in closed bottles.

Disposal

Controlled incineration is a good option.

Can also be strongly dissolved in water and used as fertilizer.

References

  1. Desvergnes; Rev.Chim.ind.; vol. 38; (1929); p. 266
  2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/14356007.a12_545.pub2

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