Pentanoic acid

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Pentanoic acid
Names
IUPAC name
Pentanoic acid
Other names
Butane-1-carboxylic acid
n-Pentanoic acid
n-Valeric acid
Valerianic acid
Valeric acid
Properties
C5H10O2
C4H9COOH
Molar mass 102.13 g/mol
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Unpleasant, rancid odor
Density 0.939 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Melting point −34.5 °C (−30.1 °F; 238.7 K)
Boiling point 186.1 °C (367.0 °F; 459.2 K)
4.97 g/100 ml
Solubility Reacts with amines
Slightly soluble in carbon tetrachloride
Vapor pressure 0.196 mmHg at 25 °C
Acidity (pKa) 4.82
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point 86 °C (187 °F; 359 K)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Butyric acid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Pentanoic acid, more commonly known as valeric acid or valerianic acid is an organic compound, a carboxylic acid with the formula C5H10O2 or C4H9COOH.

Properties

Chemical

Pentanoic acid reacts with bases to form salts.

Physical

Valeric acid is a colorless liquid, poorly soluble in water, but more soluble in organic solvents.

Availability

Valeric acid is sold by chemical suppliers.

Valeric acid is also found in the Valerian genus plants, from which it was first isolated.

Preparation

Valerianic acid can be prepared by oxidizing n-pentanol with potassium permanganate.

Pentanoic acid can be prepared by reacting a butyl halide with magnesium to obtain a Grignard reagent, which is further reacted with carbon dioxide to give valeric salt. Adding a strong acid will yield the valeric acid.

Projects

  • Make esters

Handling

Safety

Valeric acid should be handled with proper protection, as it is irritant.

Storage

In closed bottles.

Disposal

Can be neutralized by neutralizing it with a base then pyrolyzing the salt in a kiln.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads