| IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass||88.15 g/mol|
|Density|| 0.818 g/cm3 (15 °C)|
0.8146 g/cm3 (20 °C)
0.811 g/cm3 (25 °C)
|Melting point||−78 °C (−108 °F; 195 K)|
|Boiling point||137.5 °C (279.5 °F; 410.6 K)|
|2.2 g/100 ml (25 °C)|
|Solubility||Miscible with acetone, diethyl ether, ethanol, isopropanol, methanol, toluene|
|Vapor pressure||2.2 mmHg at 25 °C|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
|Flash point||49 °C (120 °F; 322 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
|3,645 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
1-Pentanol, also known as n-pentanol and n-amyl alcohol, is a heavy primary alcohol, often used in the manufacture of various pleasant smelling esters. It has the chemical formula C5H12O or C5H11OH.
Pentanol can be oxidized to pentanoic acid using a solution of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid. An excess of permanganate or excessive temperature will oxidize the pentanoic acid further into water and carbon dioxide.
Pentanol is a slightly viscous colorless liquid, and is slightly soluble in water. It has a specific gravity of 0.814.
Amyl alcohol is sold by various chemical suppliers.
Pentanol can be obtained from the fractional distillation of fusel oil, though the amount obtained this way is small.
n-Pentanol is generally cheaper to buy than to synthesize, but it can be prepared by hydrolysis of amyl acetate, which is used as an artificial banana flavor in the flavors industry.
- Make esters
- Make pentanoic acid
Like most higher-chain alcohols, n-pentanol has a high flash point, meaning it has low flammability.
Pentanol should be kept in bottles made of glass or a chemically resistant plastic such as HDPE, away from oxidizers and ideally in a proper flammables cabinet.
N-pentyl alcohol can be safely disposed of by controlled burning or evaporation. This can be done by mixing it with ethanol or a volatile hydrocarbon and burned outside.