Pentanol

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Pentanol
Names
IUPAC name
Pentan-1-ol
Other names
1-Pentanol
Amyl alcohol
n-Amyl alcohol
n-Pentanol
Properties
C5H12O
C5H11OH
Molar mass 88.15 g/mol
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Fusel-like
Density 0.818 g/cm3 (15 °C)
0.8146 g/cm3 (20 °C)
0.811 g/cm3 (25 °C)
Melting point −78 °C (−108 °F; 195 K)
Boiling point 137.5 °C (279.5 °F; 410.6 K)
2.2 g/100 ml (25 °C)
Solubility Miscible with acetone, diethyl ether, ethanol
Vapor pressure 2.2 mmHg at 25 °C
Thermochemistry
258.9 J·K−1·mol−1
−351.90–−351.34 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point 49 °C (120 °F; 322 K)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
3,645 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Butanol
tert-Amyl alcohol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

1-Pentanol, also known as n-pentanol and n-amyl alcohol, is a heavy primary alcohol, often used in the manufacture of various pleasant smelling esters. It has the chemical formula C5H12O or C5H11OH.

Properties

Chemical

Pentanol can be oxidized to pentanoic acid using a solution ofpotassium permanganate and sulfuric acid. An excess of permanganate or excessive temperature will oxidize the pentanoic acid further into water and carbon dioxide.

Physical

Pentanol is a slightly viscous colorless liquid, and is slightly soluble in water. It has a specific gravity of 0.814.

Availability

Amyl alcohol is sold by various chemical suppliers.

Pentanol can be obtained from the fractional distillation of fusel oil.

Preparation

n-Pentanol is generally cheaper to buy than to synthesize, but it can be prepared by hydrolysis of amyl acetate, which is used as an artificial banana flavor in the flavors industry.

Projects

  • Make esters

Handling

Safety

Like most higher-chain alcohols, n-pentanol has a high flash point, meaning it has low flammability.

Storage

Pentanol should be kept in bottles made of glass or a chemically resistant plastic such as HDPE, away from oxidizers and ideally in a proper flammables cabinet.

Disposal

N-amyl alcohol can be safely disposed of by controlled burning or evaporation.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads