| IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass||44.10 g/mol|
|Density||2.0098 g/cm3 (at 0 °C, 101.3 kPa)|
|Melting point||−187.7 °C (−305.9 °F; 85.5 K)|
|Boiling point||−42.25 °C (−44.05 °F; 230.90 K)|
|0.47 g/100 ml (at 0 °C)|
|Solubility|| Soluble in benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol, turpentine|
Slightly soluble in acetone
|Vapor pressure||853.16 kPa (at 21.1 °C)|
Std enthalpy of
|−105.2 – −104.2 kJ/mol|
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
|Flash point||−104 °C (−155 °F; 169 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Propane is an organic chemical compound, normally a gas at standard conditions, but compressible to a transportable liquid. It has the chemical formula C3H8.
In the presence of excess oxygen, propane burns to form water and carbon dioxide, releasing large amounts of heat.
- C3H8 + 5 O2 → 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + heat
Propane is a colorless, odorless gas at standard conditions. It boils at around −42°C and freezes at −187.7 °C.
Propane is available in LPG tanks, usually mixed with other alkanes or alkenes and thiols. This combination is generally used for gas grills. If pure propane is desired, you can buy it from gas companies, if they're willing to sell it to individuals.
Propane can be prepared through the decarboxylation of sodium butyrate with sodium hydroxide.
- Make propene
- Make nitromethane
Propane is nontoxic, but may pose asphyxiation risk through oxygen deprivation if inhaled. When compressed propane is released, the gas expands and cools, presenting a frostbite hazard.
Liquified propane should be stored away from heat sources.
Propane can be burned safely, as it will not release toxic byproducts.