Propane

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Propane
Names
IUPAC name
Propane
Other names
Dimethylmethane
n-Propane
Propan
Propyl hydride
Propyldihydride
Properties
C3H8
Molar mass 44.10 g/mol
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor Odorless
Density 2.0098 g/cm3 (at 0 °C, 101.3 kPa)
Melting point −187.7 °C (−305.9 °F; 85.5 K)
Boiling point −42.25 °C (−44.05 °F; 230.90 K)
0.47 g/100 ml (at 0 °C)
Solubility Soluble in benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol, turpentine
Slightly soluble in acetone
Vapor pressure 853.16 kPa (at 21.1 °C)
Thermochemistry
−105.2 – −104.2 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point −104 °C (−155 °F; 169 K)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Ethane
Butane
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Propane is an organic chemical compound, normally a gas at standard conditions, but compressible to a transportable liquid. It has the chemical formula C3H8.

Properties

Chemical

In the presence of excess oxygen, propane burns to form water and carbon dioxide, releasing large amounts of heat.

C3H8 + 5 O2 → 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + heat

Physical

Propane is a colorless, odorless gas at standard conditions. It boils at around −42°C and freezes at −187.7 °C.

Availability

Propane is available in LPG tanks, usually mixed with other alkanes or alkenes and thiols. This combination is generally used for gas grills. If pure propane is desired, you can buy it from gas companies, if they're willing to sell it to individuals.

Preparation

Propane can be prepared through the decarboxylation of sodium butyrate with sodium hydroxide.

Reduction of n-propanol or isopropanol will also yield propane gas.

Projects

  • Make propene
  • Make nitromethane
  • Halopropanes

Handling

Safety

Propane is nontoxic, but may pose asphyxiation risk through oxygen deprivation if inhaled. When compressed propane is released, the gas expands and cools, presenting a frostbite hazard.

Storage

Liquified propane should be stored away from heat sources.

Disposal

Propane can be burned safely, as it will not release toxic byproducts.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads