Proper disposal of chemicals

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Most chemicals used by the amateur chemist come from every day use and do not require special treatment before being discarded in the usual way. However there are many chemicals, such as heavy metal compounds or organic solvents, that require special disposal techniques. In the interest of keeping lab costs low, though, it may be a good idea to look into ways to recycle and recover chemicals such as solvents, which can be reclaimed by distillation.

Standard procedures

Acids

Acids should be neutralized with a base, such as carbonate/bicarbonate, hydroxide (calcium hydroxide e.g.) usually as a solution. The soluble salts of halogen acids and oxoacids (except perchloric and chloric acids) can be safely poured down the drain. Special acids and their salts, such as hydrazoic acid and azides must not be poured directly down the drain, they must be treated with nitrous acid to destroy them.

Oxidizing mixtures, such as aqua regia, piranha solution or the nitrating mixture must also never be poured down the drain, as they're much more dangerous than simple acids, and can wreak havoc on your plumbing. Instead, they must be neutralized first.

Bases

Alkali hydroxides can be left in open air to absorb carbon dioxide as well as corrosive and unpleasant gases, forming carbonates and salts. For quicker results, alkali bases can be neutralized with any acid, though for practical and economical purposes, acetic acid or citric acid are sufficient. Bases may be reused to absorb acidic vapors in a desiccator, which mitigates their dangers. Care must be taken to avoid excess heating with strong bases.

Cyanides

Waste containing cyanide, either from gold refining or from organic extractions of alkaloids from cyanide containing plants, must be neutralized with bleach or hydrogen peroxide, to turn them into less harmful cyanates. Cyanates can be further neutralized to nitrogen and carbon dioxide.

Cyanides must never be poured down the drain.

Heavy metals

Since the biggest hazard comes from the volatile and soluble heavy metal compounds, it's best to convert them into insoluble compounds, which are less toxic.

Heavy metals, such as mercury, can often be neutralized with sulfur, generating mercury sulfide, which is generally insoluble in water and has little reactivity.

Very dangerous heavy metals such as cadmium and arsenic should always be properly disposed of at designated facilities, as their effects on human life and the environment is sometimes catastrophic.

Inorganic anions

Inorganic anions, based on halogens, sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon and silicon can be flushed down the drain with lots of water. Examples of these are sulfide, sulfate, chloride, chlorate, nitrate, nitrite, thiocyanate.[1]

Metal ions

A good rule of thumb for transition metals is to convert solutions of their ions to the insoluble carbonate or oxide, often one of the most stable and nontoxic forms of these elements, prior to disposal. Another simple solution is to reduce the ions back to the metal.

Copper salts are dangerous to the environment and should be reduced with iron to elemental copper, that can be reused, and the iron salts produced are less toxic.

Nickel-containing compounds, especially organonickel compounds, are carcinogens, and are also dangerous to many other forms of life. It is a good idea to take these to a proper waste disposal facility.

Cobalt salts may be carcinogenic and should be taken to a proper waste disposal facility.

Aluminium compounds should not be disposed in the sewage. They can, however, be converted to aluminium sulfate, which is safe to dispose of in soil, though it will cause a decrease in pH(it is used as a fertilizer for this purpose). It is a good idea to dispose of aluminium sulfate and a safe basic compound (such as calcium carbonate) at the same time.

Many compounds of chromium, especially chromium(VI), are poisonous and carcinogenic. These should be converted to the +3 oxidation state; hydrogen peroxide as well as sulfites or thiosulfate will do this, which is typically the least harmful, preferably to chromium(III) oxide. Chromium dioxide may be another feasible option, as it is found in cassette tapes and can be recycled with them.

Zinc compounds can be refined to zinc metal using electrowinning. It's not recommended to use zinc compounds as zinc supplemements for soil or livestock, as it may contain traces of cadmium.

Some MSDS sheets recommend that rare earths be converted to their oxalates or carbonates and disposed of in the trash.

Alkali metals are minimally toxic as their salts and may be dumped down the drain.

Organic compounds

Organic solvents should be dumped in labeled waste tanks, such as: halogenated, non-halogenated solvents. Flammable organic solvents that safe in low exposures such as ethanol, methanol, and acetone can often simply be burned outside for disposal, as most often their combustion products are simply carbon dioxide and water. It may be a better idea just to recover them by distillation, though.

Halogenated compounds like chloroform can be neutralized with a strong base.

A good way to destroy halogentated and aromatic compounds is with Fenton's reagent, which breaks them down to simpler non-toxic compounds. It's best however, to avoid dumping large quantities of waste, as the reaction in exothermic and may splash or volatilize some of the waste, so it's best to perform the neutralization in small steps. Many methods described in literature involve slowly bubbling the organic compound with a carrier gas in the Fenton solution, as this increases oxidation and limits splashing. However, because only small amounts of compound gets neutralized at a time, this process takes a while.

Chromic acid and it's derivatives can also be used to destroy hazardous chemical compounds, as it neutralizes them to carbon dioxide and water. However, chromic acid will oxidize alcohols to their respective aldehydes or ketones, which limits it's use in neutralizing most compounds.

Piranha solution is an excellent material for the disposal of organic compounds. The decomposition is highly exothermic and the resulting smoke is very dangerous. As such, this method is generally considered a last resort in disposal, and it's mostly used for cleaning rather than disposal.

Organic salts, such as acetates and oxalates can be pyrolyzed to carbonates and water vapors. The decomposition works best in oxygen-rich atmosphere.

Recycling

Main article: Reagent recycling

Sometimes it is an option to purify waste products into chemicals that are pure enough to be used again. While this can sometimes be time consuming, it can often be more environmentally and economically friendly than discarding the waste in one manner or another is. Before discarding waste, think about what all it contains, and if there is some way that it could be used.

Down the drain vs. into the soil

The availability of these disposal methods varies depending on where you live. If you live in an apartment block, you only have the drain. If you live in a suburban house, you have both. If you live in some quaint rustic shithole paradise like the author of this edit, you only have the "into the soil" option.

Generally, the soil option is safer, because there is no plumbing you should worry about, but some chemicals shouldn't be released into the soil, either. In general, your designated place for pouring chemicals into the soil should be far from any gardens, horticulture or any other agricultural objects. Chemicals marked as "Oh yes!" in the table below are harmless and even useful in agriculture as fertilizers. These you can pour down in your garden.

Lists of various chemical compounds that can be safely released in the ground or down the drain can be found here, here or here.

Other

Heavy metal salts or solutions can be mixed with cement, and trapped by making a concrete block. The resulting block can also be covered in another layer of cement, to reduce the diffusion of the heavy metals. Unless the concrete is damaged, broken or dissolved in acid, the heavy metal ions will not be released. However, this merely is a method to prevent the heavy metals from being released in the environment and is not a permanent way of disposal.

Legal considerations

Releasing hazardous chemicals in the environment is a crime in all jurisdictions and carries heavy fines or even jail time. While properly neutralized reagents may be poured down the drain, dumping very large amounts of said reagents is frowned upon. Incineration is attractive as it's a good method of getting rid of wastes, but unless you're using an incinerator, some material will not be destroyed and instead it will be scattered in air.

Always check the local laws before choosing the disposal method.

Chemical disposal table

Substance Neutralization Heat treatment Down the drain Into the soil Environmental considerations
1,2-Dichloroethane Oxidation with Fenton's reagent; Concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide Flammable, releases corrosive fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
1,2,4-Butanetriol trinitrate Safe detonation in remote area; Strong dilution in organic solvent followed by safe incineration; Hydrolysis with cold sodium hydroxide solution Detonation above 230 °C DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to organisms; nitrate source for plants
1,4-Dichlorobenzene Oxidation with an oxidizing solution, such as chromic acid, piranha solution, Fenton's reagent Flammable, releases corrosive fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife, suspected carcinogen
1,4-Dioxane Incineration; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent; Chlorination in water with chlorine or hypochlorous acid Incineration produces carbon dioxide and water vapor DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Although small amounts can be diluted with large amounts of water and poured down the drain, 1,4-dioxane does not undergo significant biodegradation and most will end up in the environment.[2]
2-nitrotoluene Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Generates oxidation products and lots of soot DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to all wildlife
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Incineration Generates carbon oxides, water vapor and soot DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife and dangerous for water bodies as it floats
2,4-Dinitrobromobenzene Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Generates carbon oxides, water vapor, soot and bromine vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to all wildlife
Acetaldehyde Incineration; Sodium pyrosulfite; L-cysteine Generates carbon oxides and water vapors; some will evaporate when heated DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to the wildlife
Acetic acid Bicarbonates, carbonates, bases, oxides Flammable (high concentrations), no dangerous combustion products Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable; avoid dumping large amounts, acidifies soil
Acetic anhydride Bicarbonates, carbonates, bases, oxides Flammable, no dangerous combustion products Yes Yes Biodegradable; avoid dumping large amounts, acidifies soil
Acetone Oxidation/incineration, reducing, photolysis Flammable, no dangerous combustion products Not advised Yes Biodegradable, though not advised for large amounts
Acetone peroxide Photolysis, detonation in safe area Explosive, not recommended Not advised Not advised Biodegradable, though not advised
Acetonitrile Fenton's reagent; Aqueous solution of excess sodium hydroxide[3] All treatments give some hydrogen cyanide fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to all life due to its cyanide/nitrile group; does not quickly break down in environment
Acetophenone Mixed with a more flammable solvent and incinerated Generates smoke, carbon dioxide and water vapors Yes, but dilute it first Yes, but dilute it first Relative safe, biodegradable; Occurs naturally in small amounts
Acetyl chloride Slow addition to a basic solution Burn products include hydrogen chloride which is corrosive DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic and corrosive to organisms and environment
Acetylene Oxidation, photolysis Dangerously flammable Not possible Not possible Safe, biodegradable
Acetylsalicylic acid Any base Not particularly helpful Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable
Acrolein Addition of a base, which causes polymerization Burns in the presence of oxygen releasing carbon oxides, water, and various other organic products DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to all organisms
Activated carbon Burning, dumping in ground; Desorption by heating it to high temperature and reuse Results in carbon dioxide and ash DO NOT DUMP OH YES! Unless it adsorbed dangerous volatile compounds or heavy metals, it can be used as a fertilizer (powdered form); Less effective as beads or pellets
Alpha-pinene Not required Generates smoke, carbon dioxide and water vapor Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable; Occurs naturally
Aluminium chloride Treatment with water, precipitation with a base No effect; Water solutions however will give off hydrogen chloride vapors Not advised Yes Lowers the soil pH, corrosive
Aluminium isopropoxide Incineration outside; Treatment with water, recovery of isopropanol and aluminium oxide/hydroxide or incineration of isopropanol Melts and decomposes to give various ketones and isopropanol which may ignite; leaves behind alumina residue Do not dump DO NOT DUMP Increases level of aluminium from soil, corrosive and harmful to organisms
Aluminium nitrate Pyrolysis; Aqueous ammonia or alkaline hydroxide solution Gives off nitrogen oxide fumes DO NOT DUMP Not recommended Lowers soil pH, corrosive
Aluminium oxide Not always required, can be dumped in trash Not useful Do not dump, may clog plumbing Yes, but avoid dumping large amounts Increases level of aluminium in soil, toxic to animals in large quantities
Aluminium sulfate Any alkaline hydroxide Releases sulfur oxides at high temperature Dilute it first; neutralization with a base first is recommended No Increases the aluminium concentration in soil and water, lowers pH
Aluminium sulfide Hydrogen peroxide, bleach No NO NO Releases hydrogen sulfide on contact with water, which is toxic to organisms
Ammonia Oxidation, neutralization with acids At high concentrations may generate nitrogen oxides Not possible (gaseous), safe to pour (as solution) Not possible (gaseous), safe to pour (as solution); Good nitrogen source for plants Biodegradable
Ammonium acetate Unnecessary Releases acetonitrile fumes Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable
Ammonium azide Sodium nitrite, nitrous acid Slowly volatilizes and explodes at 400 °C releasing nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia gasses DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Very toxic for wildlife
Ammonium bicarbonate Pyrolysis, hydroxides, acids Decomposes on heating releasing carbon dioxide, ammonia fumes and water vapors Yes Oh yes! Safe, good fertilizer (nitrogen source)
Ammonium bisulfite Neutralize it with ammonia; can then poured down the drain Decomposes to release sulfur oxides and ammonia Yes, though recommended to neutralize first No, neutralize first Acidic, but once neutralized good nitrogen and sulfur source for plants
Ammonium bisulfite While it can be diluted and poured down the drain, it's recommended to neutralize it first; hydrogen peroxide and ammonia can be used to safely neutralize it Decomposes to release sulfur dioxide and ammonia Yes, though recommended to neutralize first No, neutralize first Oxidation of aqueous ammonium bisulfite to bisulfate can reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen from water bodies and will lower water pH
Ammonium carbonate Pyrolysis, hydroxides, acids Decomposes on heating releasing carbon dioxide, ammonia fumes and water vapors Yes Oh yes! Safe, good fertilizer (nitrogen source)
Ammonium chloride Soluble sulfate salts, base + other acid Decomposes on heating releasing ammonia and hydrogen chloride Yes Yes Safe, good fertilizer (nitrogen source); May prove unsuitable to chloride sensitive plants
Ammonium chromate Reducing with a reducing agent, such as sodium metabisulfite, sulfite, bisulfite, ascorbic acid Decomposes, the famous volcano reaction, releasing nitrogen gas, water vapors, fine particulates of unburnt ammonium chromate, leaving behind Cr(III) oxide DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Cr(VI) ions are carcinogenic and very toxic to organisms
Ammonium dichromate Reducing with a reducing agent, such as sodium metabisulfite, sulfite, bisulfite, ascorbic acid Decomposes, the famous volcano reaction, releasing nitrogen gas, water vapors, fine particulates of unburnt ammonium dichromate, leaving behind Cr(III) oxide DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Cr(VI) ions are carcinogenic and very toxic to organisms
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate Not required; Slaked lime can be used to precipitate calcium phosphate Decomposes on heating to release ammonia Yes Yes Safe, good fertilizer (nitrogen and phosphorus source)
Ammonium formate Alkali hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate; heating in the presence of a base Decomposes on heating to release ammonia, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and water Yes, if diluted Yes, if diluted Dangerous to wildlife in large amounts
Ammonium heptamolybdate Alkali hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate; Dilution, poured down the drain Decomposes on heating to release ammonia, water, leaving behind MoO3 Yes, if strongly diluted Not recommended Dangerous to wildlife in large amounts
Ammonium nitrate Pyrolysis, hydroxides, carbonates Emits nitrous oxide, may explode if the temperature is too high Yes Oh yes! Safe, good fertilizer (nitrogen source); May cause algal bloom in water bodies however
Ammonium oxalate Alkali hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate; pyrolysis in the presence of a base Decomposes on heating to release ammonia, carbon monoxide, oximide, hydrogen cyanide and water vapors Yes, if diluted Yes, if diluted May pose a threat to wildlife in large amounts; Occurs naturally in guano
Ammonium perchlorate Reduction with metallic iron under UV light in the absence of air; Heating perchlorate at 200 °C with metallic iron for several hours Decomposes to release nitrogen, water vapors, oxygen and hydrogen chloride DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Hazardous to aquatic life
Ammonium permanganate Dissolution in water, followed by reduction with sulfur dioxide or sodium sulfite, thiosulfate or metabisulfite Detonates above 60-110 °C, releasing nitrogen, water vapors and a smoke of manganese dioxide DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Strong oxidizer and explosive, hazardous for wildlife
Ammonium persulfate Pyrolysis, hydrolysis, various reducing agents Decomposes at 120 °C releasing sulfur and nitrogen oxides, oxygen and ammonia DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Strong oxidizer, hazardous for wildlife
Ammonium sulfate Not required; Calcium hydroxide can be used to precipitate calcium sulfate Decomposes on heating to release ammonia, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid vapors Yes Yes Safe, good fertilizer (nitrogen and sulfur source); slightly lowers the soil pH
Ammonium sulfide Hydrogen peroxide; hot sulfur dioxide Decomposes releasing hydrogen sulfide and ammonia DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic for wildlife; Dangerous for the environment (DSD)
Ammonium sulfite Not required, simply pour down the drain; Bleach or hydrogen peroxide can be used if desired Decomposes to release sulfur dioxide Yes Yes Oxidation of aqueous ammonium sulfite to sulfate can reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen from water bodies; otherwise, safe, used as fertilizer
Ammonium thiosulfate Dilute then pour down the drain; Bleach or hydrogen peroxide can be used if desired Decomposes to release sulfur dioxide, ammonia, water vapors Yes, but dilute first Yes. but dilute first May be harmful for aquatic life; safe, used as fertilizer
Aniline Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Gives off carbon oxides, soot, nitrogen and or nitrogen oxides and water vapor DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to most wildlife
Anthocyanin Not necessary Gives off carbon oxides and water vapor Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable; Occurs naturally
Anthraquinone Mixed with a more flammable solvent and safely incinerated; Controlled oxidation with Fenton's reagent Decomposes at very high temperatures to yield carbon oxides, water vapor, soot, VOCs, etc. DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Occurs naturally; effects on the environment unknown
Antimony(III) chloride Precipitation with a base; Taken to waste disposal centers Sublimes; Water solutions however will give off hydrogen chloride vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Lowers the soil pH, corrosive; Toxic to organisms
Antimony(III) oxide Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Not useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Asbestos Pyrolysis; Oxalic acid and ultrasounds[4] At temperatures over 1000 °C it turns into harmless silicate glass DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to animals via inhalation
Ascorbic acid Unnecessary Releases carbon oxides and water vapor Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable; Occurs naturally
Barium carbonate Sulfuric acid; Resulting BaSO4 can be dumped in trash At very high temperatures decomposed to barium oxide and releases carbon dioxide Not advised Not advised May react with acid rain to release soluble barium ions; Occurs naturally
Barium chlorate Reduction with a reducing agent, such as sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, sodium sulfite, followed by oxidation in open air to sulfate; Addition of excess soluble sulfate to remove any soluble barium ions Disproportionates into perchlorate and chloride when alone; Burns when mixed with a flammable material No No Toxic for environment
Barium chloride Addition of a soluble sulfate, such as sodium, potassium or magnesium sulfate Not useful, melts at high temperatures Neutralize with magnesium sulfate first Neutralize with magnesium sulfate first Toxic for environment
Barium ferrate Sulfuric acid Breaks down to barium and iron oxides, which require further disposal No No Dangerous to wildlife in short term (oxidizer); Releases toxic barium ions in environment
Barium manganate Sulfuric acid Breaks down into barium and manganese oxides Not advised No Toxic to wildlife in short term (oxidizer); Will release toxic barium ions in the environment
Barium nitrate Sodium sulfate, potassium magnesium sulfate, sulfuric acid Breaks down into barium oxide, releasing nitrogen dioxide and oxygen DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife, due to the soluble barium ions
Barium perchlorate Reduction with metallic iron under UV light in the absence of air; precipitation to barium sulfate, using a soluble sulfate Oxidizes flammable materials, burning them; alone decomposes above 505 °C DO NOT DUMP Do NOT DUMP Very toxic to aquatic life
Barium sulfate Not required Decomposes at > 1600 °C Yes Yes Low toxicity to wildlife due to its poor solubility in water; occurs naturally as the mineral barite
Basic lead chromate May be converted to lead(II) carbonate; should be taken to disposal centers Not useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to environment due to lead and Cr(VI) content
Benzaldehyde Incineration; Oxidation to benzoic acid; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Generates carbon oxides, water vapors, soot DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Low toxicity, but avoid releasing in environment
Benzene Oxidation with Fenton's reagent; Incineration with afterburner incinerators Generates dangerous combustion products DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Avoid releasing in environment
Benzocaine Oxidation with Fenton's reagent; incineration; down the drain Generates soot and various VOCs and PAHs Yes Not in large quantities Avoid releasing in environment, effects unknown
Benzododecinium bromide
Benzoic acid Not always required Breaks down to carbon oxides, water vapors, soot; may give off benzene vapors Yes Yes, but not in large quantities Decarboxylation with some compounds, such as ascorbic acid, may release traces of benzene; otherwise safe, occurs naturally
Bis(ethylenediamine)copper(II) perchlorate Crystallize and ignite safely Detonates DO NOT DUMP No Copper kills aquatic life and plant roots
Bismuth trioxide Reduced to bismuth metal Will oxidize anything (yes, platinum too) when molten DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP May become hazardous for the environment in large quantities
Biuret Not always required Gives off combustion gasses Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable
Biuret reagent Neutralization with an acid Gives off combustion gasses Debatable No Copper and sodium ions pose toxicity to plants and animals
Black powder Controlled incineration Will burn to release a thick cloud of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide in open air; will detonate in a sealed container Not recommended Yes Its components are already used as fertilizers and the environmental effect are similar
Borax Not required Dehydrates In small quantities In small quantities Dangerous to small animals
Boric acid Not required Will dehydrate it to boron trioxide In small quantities In small quantities Dangerous to small animals
Boron trioxide Not required Not useful; may volatilize at high temperatures In small quantities In small quantities Dangerous to small animals
Brass Recycling; Traces of brass waste can be completely dissolved with nitric acid, followed by neutralization of leftover acid, recovering copper and zinc via electrowinning Not useful; melts above 900 °C DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Old brass may contain lead or nickel which is harmful to the environment
Bromocresol green Oxidized with a strong oxidizing solution, such as chromic acid, Fenton's reagent, piranha solution, followed by neutralization and then poured down the drain Decomposes giving off carbon dioxide, water vapors, sulfur oxides, bromine, soot Yes, but not recommended No, neutralize first May be harmful to water bodies; environmental effects unknown
Bromothymol blue Oxidized with a strong oxidizing solution, such as chromic acid, Fenton's reagent, piranha solution, followed by neutralization and then poured down the drain Decomposes giving off carbon dioxide, water vapors, sulfur oxides, bromine, soot Yes, but not recommended No, neutralize first May be harmful to water bodies
Bronze Recycling; Traces of bronze waste can be completely dissolved with nitric acid, followed by neutralization of leftover acid, recovering copper and tin via electrowinning Not useful; melts above 900 °C DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Old bronze may contain arsenic, lead or nickel which is harmful to the environment
Butane Incineration Will burn to release carbon dioxide and water vapors Not possible Yes (heavier than air) May induce greenhouse effect
Butanol Incineration Will burn to release carbon dioxide and water vapors Not recommended Not recommended Poses toxicity to wildlife, water bodies
Butyl acetate Incineration Will burn to release carbon dioxide and water vapors Not recommended Not recommended Poses toxicity to wildlife, water bodies
Butyric acid Bicarbonates, carbonates, bases, oxides; neutralized solution can be safely poured down the drain Flammable (high concentrations), no dangerous combustion products, though the smoke will have a rancid smell Yes, but recommended to neutralize first Neutralize first Safe, biodegradable; avoid dumping large amounts, dangerous to microfauna and water bodies
Cadmium acetate Precipitation to cadmium sulfide, taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Decomposes to high temperatures to cadmium oxide DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic and dangerous to wildlife; Highly carcinogenic
Cadmium nitrate Precipitation to cadmium sulfide, taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Decomposes to high temperatures to cadmium oxide and nitrogen dioxide DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic and dangerous to wildlife; Highly carcinogenic
Cadmium sulfate Precipitation to cadmium sulfide, taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Decomposes to high temperatures to basic sulfate then cadmium oxide releasing sulfur oxides DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Very toxic and dangerous to wildlife; Highly carcinogenic
Caesium hydroxide Neutralization with any acid, carbon dioxide Not useful; highly corrosive when hot to glass, most common metals Yes, though best to recycle it Yes Dangerous to wildlife in short term (highly corrosive); Caesium ions have similar toxicity to those of sodium and potassium
Calcium acetate Pyrolysis; Not always required Decomposes to calcium carbonate and acetone at high temperature, which burns in an oxygen-rich atmosphere Yes Yes Biodegradable
Calcium carbide Lots of water; low chain alcohols Not useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to wildlife in short term (reacts with water); may also release phosphine gas if carbide sample is impure
Calcium carbonate Any acid; not always required Not useful; breaks down into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide at high temperatures Yes, as powder Yes Safe, biodegradable; occurs naturally
Calcium chloride Not required; Any soluble carbonate Not useful; May release some HCl fumes if wet Yes Yes Chloride ions may be harmful to certain plants
Calcium fluoride Not required Unnecessary Not useful Yes Safe to environment, occurs naturally
Calcium gluconate Not required Will result in calcium carbonate and give off carbon dioxide and water vapors at high temperatures Yes Yes Not dangerous to wildlife
Calcium hydride Neutralization with a concentrated alkali or carbonate solution, alcohols, long chain alcohols are preferred; water vapor can also be used; best performed in an open area Decomposes to release hydrogen at very high temperatures DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive to organisms, toxic to animals
Calcium hydroxide Any acid Will dehydrate to calcium oxide at high temperatures Yes No Will "burn" grassland on contact
Calcium hypochlorite Sodium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, sodium sulfite Disproportionates into chlorate and chloride; will release chlorine and chlorine dioxide fumes Yes DO NOT DUMP Toxic to all wildlife
Calcium nitrate Not required; soluble carbonate or sulfate solution can be used if necessary Not useful Yes OH YES Good source of nitrogen for plants (fertilizer); May cause algal bloom in water bodies
Calcium oxide Plenty of cold water, carbon dioxide, sodium/potassium bicarbonate No Do not dump Do not dump Burns grass on contact
Calcium perchlorate Mixing it with a combustible material, like sugar and incineration Will decompose at high temperatures to release oxygen Do not dump Do not dump Toxic to plants
Calcium propionate Not required; can be poured down the drain or dumped in trash Will decompose at high temperatures to release various ketones, carbon oxides, water vapors Yes Yes Large quantities are harmful to water bodies and small animals
Calcium sulfate Not required; soluble carbonate solution can be used if gypsum is not desired as waste product Becomes anhydrous at high temperatures (drierite); decomposes to calcium oxide at very high temperatures Yes, with lots and lots of water Yes Anhydrous or hemihydrate form may burn grass on contact
Carbon dioxide Not required; Alkali hydroxides Not necessary Not possible (gaseous form), safe to pour (water solution) Not possible (gaseous form), safe to pour (water solution) Contributes to global warming
Carbon disulfide Incineration, followed by scrubbing of sulfur dioxide (optional) Burns in presence of oxygen, releasing carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Carbon monoxide Oxidation with ozone; adsorbtion on activated charcoal; absorbtion in a solution of cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid or cuprous chloride in ammonia[5][6] Not useful; burns in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen Not possible Not possible Toxic to animals
Carbon tetrachloride Sodium hydroxide excess; oxidation with Fenton's reagent Results in phosgene in the presence of air DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to wildlife, sinks at the bottom of water bodies
Carbonic acid Any base Releases carbon dioxide fumes Yes Yes Toxic to aquatic life in large quantities
Cellulose Any disposal method Burns in air; decomposes to release carbon oxides, water vapors Not recommended, may clog the plumbing Yes, but avoid water bodies; bury it in ground instead Safe, biodegradable; avoid dumping large amounts, as it poses choking hazard to most animals
Charcoal Burning, dumping in ground Results in carbon dioxide and ash DO NOT DUMP OH YES! Unless it adsorbed dangerous volatile compounds or heavy metals, it can be used as a fertilizer
Chevreul's salt Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to sulfate, followed by precipitation or reduction of copper ions to metal or hydroxide/oxide Gives off water vapors when heated and sulfur oxides at very high temperatures Not recommended Not recommended Little is known about its environmental effect; it is used as a fungicide and molluscicide[7]
Chloric acid Reducing with sodium sulfite, metabisulfite, bisulfite Breaks down to perchloric acid and chlorine oxides DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Strong oxidizing, toxic and corrosive to all wildlife and everything organic
Chloroauric acid Reduction with a reducing agent, such as ascorbic acid, metabisulfite, sulfur dioxide Gives off hydrogen chloride gases and leaves gold powder behind DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to wildlife; Best to try to recycle it
Chlorobutanol Reducing with alkali hydroxide or magnesium, followed by incineration Gives off hydrogen chloride fumes during burning/pyrolysis Not recommended Not recommended Toxic to wildlife
Chloroform Destruction with aqueous sodium hydroxide, which can be aided by methanol or acetone; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Boils to form vapor, should not be attempted indoors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP May cause ozone depletion, dangerous to aquatic life
Chloroplatinic acid Reduction to platinum metal, followed by recovery of the precious metal Breaks down to platinum(II) chloride, then platinum metal DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to organisms
Chromic acid Reducing with a reducing agent, such as sodium metabisulfite, sulfite, bisulfite, ascorbic acid Decomposes to Cr2O3, releases oxygen and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Cr(VI) ions are carcinogenic and very toxic to organisms
Chromium(III) oxide Not required; can be dumped in the trash At temperatures ~1000 °C it will become inert against the action of most reagents Do not dump Not recommended Low reactivity, low danger for environment
Chromium(III) sulfate Precipitation with a soluble hydroxide, followed by calcination to chromium(III) oxide Not useful Do not dump Do not dump Dangerous to wildlife in large amounts
Chromium(VI) oxide peroxide Hydrolysis Decomposes to harmless Cr(III) Yes Yes, but not recommended Due to its instability, it poses low danger to environment
Chromium trioxide Reducing with a reducing agent, such as sodium metabisulfite, sulfite, bisulfite, ascorbic acid Decomposes to Cr2O3, releases oxygen DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Cr(VI) ions are carcinogenic and very toxic to organisms
Chromyl chloride A supersaturated solution of a reducing agent, such as sodium sulfite, metabisulfite or thiosulfate Not useful, boils off and fumes in contact with air moisture DO NOT DUMP! DO NOT DUMP! Corrosive and deadly to all wildlife; Lowers soil pH; Corrosive to rocks, soil; Carcinogenic
Citric acid Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate, alkaline-earth oxide Gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors Yes Yes In wet environment it acts as fungi growth environment
Cobalt(II) chloride Any soluble hydroxide, carbonate May give off hydrogen chloride fumes in the presence of water DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife; classified as "Substance of very high concern" in the EU
Cobalt(II) sulfate Any soluble hydroxide, carbonate; Taken to disposal centers Gives off sulfur oxides fumes and sulfuric acid vapors, leaving behind cobalt oxide residue DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife, suspected carcinogen
Cobalt (III) oxide Not required Not useful Do not dump Do not dump Cobalt is necessary for vitamin B12 production
Copper chromite Not always required; can be dumped in trash Not useful Not recommended Not recommended Unknown environmental effects
Copper citrate Recover copper via reduction; Discard in trash Decomposes to copper oxide and releases various gasses Yes, in small quantities Yes, in small quantities High levels of copper are dangerous to wildlife
Copper oxychloride Reduction with a iron or zinc to metallic copper Gives off HCl fumes and leaves behind CuO slag DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Generally toxic to wildlife
Copper(I) chloride Oxidizing with air/oxygen or H2O2 to the more soluble CuCl2, followed by reduction to metallic copper with iron or zinc. May hydrolyze in the presence of water and air to give off hydrogen chloride fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Oxidizes to copper(II) chloride in the presence of air, which is toxic and corrosive in water
Copper(II) acetate Reduction with iron or zinc to metallic copper, which is recycled Gives off carbon oxides, water, acetic acid and acetone vapors Not recommended DO NOT DUMP Unknown effects in the environment; presence of copper ions however is generally considered harmful
Copper(II) acetylsalicylate Pyrolysis, incineration, oxidation with Fenton's reagent Gives off carbon oxides and water vapors, as well as soot and VOCs Not recommended Not recommended Unknown effects in the environment; presence of copper ions however is generally considered harmful
Copper(II) carbonate Not required; can be neutralized with an acid and reduced to metallic copper Will give off carbon dioxide fumes and leave CuO residues Do not dump DO NOT DUMP Copper ions are considered harmful to the environment
Copper(II) chloride Precipitate as carbonate or reduce to copper metal using aluminium, iron or zinc Loses water and hydrogen chloride, turns brown DO NOT DUMP Yes, but far from any agricultural plants Kills aquatic life and plant roots
Copper(II) hydroxide Reduction to metallic copper Loses water, yielding CuO Do not dump Only as agricultural product Copper ions are considered harmful to most wildlife
Copper(II) nitrate Any alkali or ammonium hydroxide, carbonate Gives off nitrogen oxide and nitric acid fumes, leaving copper oxides/hydroxides slag DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Copper ions may be harmful to wildlife; the nitrate group is a nitrogen source for plants
Copper(II) oxide Dissolving it in an acid, followed by reduction to metallic copper Not useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Generally considered harmful to wildlife
Copper(II) phosphate Not always required May decompose to copper oxide and phosphorus oxides at high temperatures, or elemental phosphorus in the presence of a reducing agent Not recommended Not recommended Due to low solubility, it has lower toxicity than other copper compounds
Copper(II) sulfate Reduction with aluminium, iron or zinc to metallic copper Loses water when heated, releases sulfur trioxide at high temperatures, leaving behind CuO Not recommended Only as agricultural product Shows toxicity to pests, wildlife
Curcumin Not required Releases carbon oxides and water vapors, as well as soot Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable; occurs naturally
Cyanogen Incineration outside; oxidation with an oxidizing solution Flammable, burns in the presence of oxygen to release carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Deadly to wildlife
Cyclohexane Incineration; oxidation with Fenton's reagent Flammable, burns in the presence of oxygen to release carbon oxides, water vapors, soot and VOCs DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Decane Incineration; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Ignites in air, gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors, soot DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to aquatic life and organisms
Devarda's alloy Dissolved in acid, followed by recovery of copper and zinc
Dumped in trash
Melts between 490 to 560 °C Not recommended Do not dump Toxic to wildlife
Dextrin Any disposal method Decomposes to release carbon oxides, water vapors Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable
Diatomaceous earth Any disposal method Not effective Yes Yes Toxic to small animals, otherwise relative safe
Dichloromethane Destruction with aqueous sodium hydroxide, iron can also be used; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Boils to form vapor; pyrolysis at high temperatures yielding chlorine, hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP May cause ozone depletion, dangerous to aquatic life
Dicyanoacetylene Incineration done outside Extremely flammable, burns to release carbon dioxide, nitrogen gas and lots of heat DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP May be harmful to wildlife
Diethyl ether Incineration (no peroxides); Adding excess ferrous sulfate, sodium bisulfite or metabisulfite to neutralize the peroxides, followed by incineration; If the bottle has peroxides on the cap, do not open it, instead safely detonate it in a remote or special area Extremely flammable, burns to release carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to animals
Diisopropyl ether Incineration (no peroxides); Adding excess ferrous sulfate, sodium bisulfite or metabisulfite to neutralize the peroxides, followed by incineration; If the bottle has peroxides on the cap, do not open it, instead safely detonate it in a remote or special area Extremely flammable, burns to release carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to animals
Dimethyl ether Incineration; can be released in open air Extremely flammable, burns to release carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Low toxicity to wildlife
Dimethyl sulfoxide Mixed with a more flammable solvent, followed by incineration; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent if it has too much water Results in carbon oxides, water vapors and sulfur dioxide DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Waste water bacteria breaks it down into dimethyl sulfide, which is slightly toxic and has a strong disagreeable odor
Dimethylformamide Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Gives off toxic fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Dipicolinic acid Mixed with a more flammable solvent and followed by incineration Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors and soot Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable; occurs naturally
Disulfur dichloride Slaked lime or any other base, carbonate or bicarbonate Boils off DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic and corrosive
Di-tert-butyl ether Incineration Extremely flammable, burns to release carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Displays toxicity to wildlife
Dynamite Will explode DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Explosive hazard; otherwise good nitrogen source for plants
Eriochrome Black T Poured down the drain Decomposes giving off carbon and sulfur oxides, nitrogen, water, soot, VOCs Yes Yes, but not recommended Environmental effects are currently unknown
Erythritol Not required Yields carbon oxides, water vapor Yes Yes Low toxicity
Erythritol tetranitrate Cooled aqueous solution of excess sodium hydroxide Detonates at temperatures > 160 °C Do not dump In small amounts Dangerous to animals due to its vasodilator effects; harmless to plants, nitrogen source for plant life
Ethane Incineration Flammable, gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors Not possible Not possible Contributes to greenhouse effect
Ethanol Not always required; Incineration Yields carbon oxides, water vapor Yes Not recommended Deadly to small animals on direct contact, dangerous to aquatic and soil life
Ethenone Absorbtion in aq. basic solution Burns, releasing carbon oxides, water vapors Not possible DO NOT DUMP Deadly to all living things, dangerous to aquatic and soil life, as it acidifies water
Ethyl acetate Sodium hydroxide; Incineration Combustion in the presence of air Do not dump Do not dump Toxic to aquatic life
Ethyl formate Incineration Gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Hazardous to environment in large amounts
Ethyl iodide Alkali solution, followed by sodium thiosulfate to remove any free iodine Decomposes to release iodine fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to wildlife in high concentrations
Ethylene glycol Incineration Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors and various volatile componds Not recommended DO NOT DUMP Toxic to organisms, dangerous to aquatic life
Ethylene glycol dinitrate Sodium hydroxide, followed by incineration Detonation DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Poses threat to animals, weak nitrogen source for plants
Ethylene oxide Incineration; Hydrolysis Burns, giving off combustion gasses DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic and dangerous for all wildlife
Ethylenediamine Neutralization with sulfuric acid; mixed with a flammable solvent, followed by an incineration; oxidation with potassium permanganate, followed by addition of sodium bisulfite, and neutralization with sodium hydroxide Burns in air to release carbon dioxide, water vapor and nitrogen DO NOT DUMP Not recommended Dangerous to aquatic life
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid Poured down the drain if not bonded with heavy metals; otherwise taken to waste disposal centers Breaks down to give carbon oxides, water vapor, various amines, soot Yes Yes, but not recommended Displays some toxicity to many organisms lifeforms, dangerous to water bodies; can be broken down slowly by various microorganisms
Fehling's solution Precipitate copper with hydroxide/phosphate, recycle or safely dispose of; tatrate can be disposed of in any method Decomposes, releases combustion gasses, leaves behind copper, sodium and potassium carbonate slag Yes Yes, but not in large quantities Too much copper is dangerous for animals
Fluorescein Not always required, any method will do Decomposes, releases combustion gasses, POCs and VOCs Yes Yes Unknown effects
Formaldehyde Sodium hydroxide Boils off DO NOT DUMP Yes, but only in some places, like farm land Toxic to small animals, carcinogenic
Formic acid Sodium hydroxide Gives off carbon monoxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Deadly to insects and aquatic life; reason why it's used to kill varroa
Fructose Not required Will decompose to caramel Yes Yes Non-toxic to environment, nourishment for many organisms
Furfural‎ Incineration Gives off carbon oxides and water vapor Debatable Debatable Low toxicity to wildlife
Gasoline Incineration Burning gives combustion gasses as well as soot, carbon monoxide and various VOCs DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife; very dangerous for aquatic life
Glucose Not required; can be disposed in any way Will decompose to caramel and carbon if heated too long Yes Yes Non-toxic to environment, nourishment for many organisms
Glycerol Not required; Incineration Pyrolysis gives acrolein Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable
Haematoxylin Not required Gives off carbon oxides, water vapor and soot Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable; occurs naturally
Hematein Not required Gives off carbon oxides, water vapor and soot Yes Yes Safe
Heptane Incineration; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to aquatic life and organisms
Hexamethylene triperoxide diamine Adding a mixture of zinc sulfate, copper(II) chloride with Zn and Cu powder in a 5:5:1 ratio to the peroxide solution, in the presence of small amounts of sulfuric acid Do not use heat, as it will lead to detonation DO NOT DUMP Debatable Slowly breaks down to harmless products
Hexamine Incineration Burning in air yields carbon oxides, water vapor, nitrogen; Pyrolysis yields formaldehyde, carbon oxides, ammonia and nitrogen fumes, HCN (t > 800°C) Yes Yes Nitrogen source for plants
Hexane Incineration; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Results in carbon dioxide and water vapor DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to aquatic life
Holmium citrate Recycling Gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors, leaving holmium(III) oxide behind Not recommended Not recommended Low toxicity to wildlife
Hydrazine Diluted solution of calcium hypochlorite Gives off toxic fumes; may lead to detonation if temperature is too high DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to all life
Hydrazine sulfate Diluted solution of calcium hypochlorite Gives off toxic fumes; may lead to detonation if temperature s too high DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to all life
Hydrazoic acid Sodium nitrite or nitrous acid Will lead to detonation for concentrated solutions DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to all life
Hydrobromic acid Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate; sodium thiosulfate can also be used Boils off the acid, resulting in extremely toxic and corrosive fumes; will lead to decomposition to elemental bromine NO! Neutralize first NO! Neutralize first Toxic and very corrosive
Hydrochloric acid Any alkali or alkaline-earth carbonate, bicarbonate DON'T! Results in acidic vapors, extremely dangerous and corrosive NO! Neutralize first NO! Toxic to wildlife and corrosive to minerals
Hydrofluoric acid Calcium hydroxide, carbonate DON'T! Results in acidic fumes, which on contact with skin will lead to burns and death DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Calcium fluoride is more inert than most fluorides and poses little toxicity to wildlife; occurs naturally
Hydrogen bromide Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate; for gaseous form, ammonia can be used, though will result in a dense mist; sodium thiosulfate can be used for removing free bromine DON'T! Will lead to extremely dangerous and corrosive fumes, which will decompose, resulting bromine vapors NO! Neutralize first NO! Neutralize first Corrosive to organisms and rocks; Bromides have little effect to wildlife
Hydrogen chloride Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate; for gaseous form, ammonia can be used, though will result in a dense ammonium chloride mist NO DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive for rocks, toxic for all wildlife
Hydrogen cyanide Absorbtion in water, base, followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, bleach, sodium thiosulfate to less harmful compounds, continued by oxidation to carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas Burns if ignited, but excess oxygen is required for complete burning DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Highly toxic for all wildlife
Hydrogen fluoride Calcium hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate; for gaseous form, excess ammonia can be used, though will result in a dense ammonium fluoride mist; further treatment with calcium hydroxide, carbonate will convert it to the more safe CaF2 NO DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive for all life, inorganic materials, toxic for all wildlife
Hydrogen iodide Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate; for gaseous form, ammonia can be used, though will result in a dense mist; sodium thiosulfate can also be used DON'T! Will lead to extremely dangerous and corrosive fumes, which will decompose, resulting iodine vapors NO! Neutralize first NO! Neutralize first Corrosive to organisms and rocks; Iodides have little toxicity to wildlife
Hydrogen peroxide Manganese dioxide, iron(III) oxide Diluted solutions will break down harmlessly; Very concentrated solutions may explode if contaminated Not if concentrated solutions DO NOT DUMP Deadly for microbial life, extremely toxic for small animals and aquatic life
Hydrogen sulfide Hydrogen peroxide; sulfur dioxide Not useful DO NOT DUMP Not recommended Very toxic for animals at high concentrations; Occurs naturally, but at low concentrations
Hydroiodic acid Any alkali or alkaline-earth carbonate, bicarbonate DON'T! Will lead to extremely dangerous and corrosive fumes, which will decompose, resulting iodine vapors NO! Neutralize first NO! Neutralize first Corrosive to organisms and rocks; Iodides have little toxicity to wildlife
Hydroquinone Mixed with a more flammable solvent and safely incinerated; Controlled oxidation with chromic acid, piranha solution, Fenton's reagent Decomposes at very high temperatures to yield carbon oxides, water vapor, soot, VOCs, etc. DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Occurs naturally; toxic and possibly carcinogen in high doses
Hydroxylamine Reduction with Zn/HCl; Dilution followed by decomposition with ferrous or ferric salts; Addition of ketone or aldehyde then heated to decompose Explodes (free base) DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic for animals at high concentrations
Inositol Not required Yields carbon oxides, water vapor Yes Yes Low toxicity, occurs naturally in plants
Iodoform Destruction with aqueous sodium hydroxide Melts and decomposes near boiling point, releasing iodine, hydrogen iodine fumes Neutralize first DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to wildlife, especially if ingested; small animals are harmed easily
Iron(II) sulfate Not always required; Ammonium hydroxide, carbonate/bicarbonate Breaks down to iron(III) oxide and gives off sulfur dioxide and trioxide fumes Yes Yes Safe, used in agriculture as iron supplement; May cause algal bloom if released in water bodies
Iron(II,III) oxide Not required Results in iron(III) oxide in the presence of air Yes, but not advised Yes Safe, occurs naturally
Iron(III) chloride Calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) Gives off hydrogen chloride fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to wildlife
Iron(III) oxide Not required Not useful Yes, but not advised Yes Safe, sometimes used in agriculture as iron supplement; May cause algal bloom if released in water bodies
Iron(III) sulfate Calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) Breaks down into iron(III) oxide and gives off sulfur oxides DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive, toxic to aquatic life
Isobutanol Incineration Flammable, gives off carbon dioxide and water vapor DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous for wildlife and aquatic life
Isopropanol Incineration Flammable, gives off carbon dioxide and water vapor DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous for wildlife and aquatic life
Isopropyl nitrite Neutralization with sodium hydroxide, followed by incineration Detonation DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife and aquatic life
Isopropylamine Neutralization with any acid; incineration; oxidation with Fenton's reagent Flammable, burns to release carbon dioxide, water vapors and nitrogen; nitrogen dioxide may also be released DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to all wildlife and especially aquatic life
Kanthal Taken to scrap metal centers
Dumped in trash
Melts at 1,500 °C Do not dump Do not dump Toxic to wildlife due to chromium
KS Fluid Immersion underwater to prevent self-ignition, followed by adding a flocculating or a thickening agent to trap the phosphorus inside; resulting mass should be incinerated in a special incinerator Pyrophoric, releases toxic sulfur dioxide and phosphorus pentoxide fumes DO NOT DUMP! DO NOT DUMP! Pyrophoric, toxic and corrosive to the environment
Lead(II) acetate Alkali carbonate or hydroxide; Lead precipitate should be taken to disposal facilities Results in lead oxides; Yields carbon oxides, water vapors DO NOT DUMP! DO NOT DUMP! Extremely toxic to all life, due to the good solubility of lead acetate
Lead(II) azide Nitrous acid, ammonium acetate, sodium dichromate Decomposes to lead/lead(II) oxide releasing nitrogen gas and may explode during decomposition DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Very toxic for wildlife
Lead(II) chromate Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Breaks down to its component oxides at high temperatures DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to the environment
Lead(II) nitrate Precipitation with a sulfide, carbonate or oxalate; wastes are to be taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Breaks down in to lead oxide and releases nitrogen dioxide fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to wildlife due to its good solubility in water
Lead(II) oxide Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Not useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to wildlife
Lead(II,IV) oxide Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Not effective DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to wildlife
Lead(IV) acetate Precipitate with an excess of carbonate, oxalate or a sulfide; waste is to be taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Results in lead oxide and acetic acid, carbon dioxide, water vapor DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive and very toxic to all organisms
Lead styphnate Careful and controlled destruction using an oxidizing solution; insoluble lead wastes should be taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Explodes, releasing lead oxide fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to all organisms; lead is a known neurotoxin
Limonene Incineration; oxidation; not always required Results in carbon dioxide, water vapor, soot Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable; occurs naturally
Lithium aluminium hydride Neutralization with an alkali or carbonate solution; recycling of lithium ions Decomposes to release hydrogen DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive to organisms, will increase the aluminium concentration in soil or water
Lithium chloride Not required Hydrated form will give some oxychloride salt Yes Yes Increases the chloride concentration in soil as well as lithium
Lithium hydroxide Any acid, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide; recycling is a good choice Breaks down to lithium oxide and water vapor Yes Neutralize first Lithium has little effect to plant life, but will affect the nervous system of animals when ingested in excess
Litmus Not required; can be poured down the drain Gives off carbon oxides, water vapor and soot Yes Yes Safe, occurs naturally
Magnesium chloride Not required Hydrated form gives the oxychloride salt Yes Yes May increase the magnesium and chloride content in the soil significantly
Magnesium hydroxide Not always required; any acid can be used, though a weak one is more economical Decomposes at 350 °C to magnesium oxide and releases water vapors Yes Yes Raises the soil pH; source of magnesium for plants
Magnesium sulfate Not required Will dehydrate when heated; Gives off sulfur oxides at very high temperature Yes Yes Source of magnesium for plants
Manganese dioxide Oxalic acid Converts it into other oxides DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Manganese heptoxide Aqueous solutions or suspensions of base, carbonate, bicarbonate Breaks down to manganese dioxide and gives off ozone; may explode DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Burns organic material on contact, even wet organic material
Manganese(II) sulfate Dumped in trash Decomposes at high temperatures Yes, but in small quantities Yes, but in small quantities Classified as dangerous to environment
Menthol Incineration; not required Releases carbon dioxide, monoxide, water vapors and soot; Burns in rich oxygen atmosphere Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable; Occurs naturally in various plants, like peppermint
Mercury sulfide Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Decomposes over 580 °C to yield sulfur oxides and mercury vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Occurs naturally; Extremely toxic to the environment and all life
Mercury(II) chloride Conversion to cinnabar; Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Sublimes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to the environment and all life
Mercury(II) fulminate Conversion to cinnabar; Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Explodes, giving off carbon oxides, nitrogen gas and hazardous mercury vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to the environment and all life
Mercury(II) nitrate Conversion to cinnabar; Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Decomposes, releasing nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, mercury(II) oxide, mercury vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to the environment and all life
Mercury(II) oxide Conversion to cinnabar; Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers Decomposes over 500 °C to yield mercury vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to the environment and all life
Mercury(II) sulfate Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers; Conversion to cinnabar Decomposes over 450 °C to yield sulfur oxides and mercury vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to the environment and all life
Mercury(II) thiocyanate Conversion to mercury(II) sulfide; Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers; Decomposes over 165 °C to yield a residue known as "Pharaoh's snake", as well as sulfur oxides and mercury vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to the environment and all life
Methane Incineration Releases carbon dioxide and water vapors Not possible Not possible Contributes to global warming
Methanol Incineration Will give off carbon dioxide and water vapor, as well as some formaldehyde if not enough oxygen DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Very toxic to wildlife
Methyl acetate Incineration Gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Hazardous to environment in large amounts
Methyl blue Poured down the drain Decomposes giving off carbon oxides, sulfur oxides, nitrogen, water, soot, VOCs Yes Yes, but not recommended May be harmful to microorganisms, fauna and water bodies
Methyl ethyl ketone Incineration Gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide Reduction with a reducing agent, such as sodium sulfite; Test for peroxides after neutralization; If no peroxides present, incineration or other proper disposal method Decomposes and explodes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Methyl formate Incineration Gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Hazardous to environment in large amounts
Methyl iodide Alkali solution, followed by sodium thiosulfate to remove any free iodine Decomposes to release iodine fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to wildlife in high concentrations; Occurs naturally in low concentrations
Methyl nitrate Alkali solution, recommended to be cooled first to prevent possible explosion Will lead to explosion No No Dangerous to wildlife
Methyl orange Oxidized with a strong oxidizing solution, such as chromic acid, Fenton's reagent, piranha solution, followed by neutralization and then poured down the drain Decomposes giving off carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapors, VOCs, PAHs No, neutralize first No, neutralize first Dangerous to environment, mutagen
Methyl red Oxidized with a strong oxidizing solution, such as chromic acid, Fenton's reagent, piranha solution, followed by neutralization and then poured down the drain Decomposes giving off carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapors, VOCs, PAHs Yes, but not recommended No, neutralize first May be harmful to water bodies
Methyl salicylate Incineration; Not always required Gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors Yes Yes Low toxicity to environment in small amounts
Methyl tert-butyl ether Incineration Gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Classified as hazardous to environment and ground water
Methylamine Incineration Burns in air, giving off carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapors Not recommended Not recommended Amines can be source of nitrogen for plants, but may be harmful to fauna and water bodies
Methylene blue Poured down the drain Decomposes giving off carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen, water, hydrogen chloride vapors, VOCs, PAHs and other harmful compounds Yes Yes, but not recommended May be harmful to microbial life, fauna and water bodies
Mineral oil Incineration Will burn at high temperatures, releasing carbon oxides, water vapors and soot No No Oils float on water bodies and inhibit the cellular breathing of many organisms
Mischmetal Recycled
Dumped in trash
Melts between 790 – 1010°C Not recommended Possible, though not recommended Lanthanides show low toxicity to organisms
Monopotassium phosphate Not required; Excess slaked lime can be used to precipitate calcium phosphate Decomposes on heating at high temperatures to release water vapors, leaving a residue of potassium and phosphorus oxides Yes Yes Safe, good fertilizer (potassium and phosphorus source)
Mu-metal Recycling
Taken to scrap metal centers
Melts at around 1454°C DO NOT DUMP! DO NOT DUMP! Dangerous to wildlife due to nickel and chromium content
Murexide Poured down the drain Decomposes giving off carbon oxides, nitrogen, water, soot, VOCs Yes Yes, but not recommended Environmental effects are currently unknown
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone Mixed with a more flammable solvent, followed by incineration outside or in an incinerator; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent under controlled conditions Gives off toxic fumes or carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, VOCs DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
NaK Long-chained alcohols, diluted with an alkane Ignites in air DO NOT DUMP! DO NOT DUMP! Pyrophoric, both alloy and reaction products corrosive to wildlife
Naphthalene Incineration, best done in an incinerator with afterburner; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Generates carbon dioxide, water vapors, carbon monoxide, soot, VOCs DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Naphthol Green B Poured down the drain; oxidized with a strong oxidizing solution, neutralized then poured down the drain Decomposes giving off carbon and sulfur oxides, nitrogen, water, soot, VOCs Yes Yes, but not recommended May be harmful to microorganisms, fish in water bodies
Neodymium iron boron magnet Recycled
Dumped in trash
Loses magnetism when heated and melts at high temperatures Not recommended Possible, though not recommended Lanthanides show low toxicity to organisms
Neodymium oxalate Pyrolysis, followed by recycling of Nd slag Gives off carbon oxides, leaving neodymium oxides and hydroxides behind Do not dump Do not dump Presents toxicity to wildlife due to the oxalate group
Niacin Dumped in trash, poured down the drain Sublimes and decomposes, releasing carbon oxides, water vapors, soot, pyridine derivatives Yes Yes Low toxicity, essential nutrient for life
Nichrome Recycled
Dumped in trash
Melts at 1400 °C Do not dump Do not dump Nickel and chromium are harmful for wildlife
Nickel(II) sulfate Precipitation with a soluble hydroxide; precipitate should be taken to disposal centers Gives off sulfur oxide fumes, leaving behind nickel oxide slag DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife, allergen
Nicotine Oxidation; Photolysis; Pyrolysis with selenium Generates carbon oxides, water vapors, soot, VOCs and toxic nicotine vapors Acceptable in small quantities Only as insecticide Deadly to small animals, toxic and addictive to large organisms; absorbs through skin; biodegradable
Nitric acid Any base, hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate Boils off, while also giving off nitrogen dioxide fumes Neutralize first Neutralize first Corrosive to organisms and rocks; its salts are excellent nitrogen source for plants
Nitrobenzene Oxidation with an oxidizing solution, such as Fenton's reagent, piranha solution or chromic acid Generates carbon oxides, water vapor, soot and nitrogen DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to all wildlife
Nitrocellulose Controlled incineration; Hydrolysis with aqueous alkali hydroxide Breaks down to release combustion gasses and self-ignites at 160 °C DO NOT DUMP No; however it can be converted to fertilizer by adding aqueous ammonia Breaks down in the presence of water to give nitric acid, which, after neutralization becomes source of nitrogen for plants
Nitrogen dioxide Bubbling through an alkali solution, peroxide solution Not useful Not possible No Reacts with air moisture to generate nitric acid and contributes to the acid rain; extremely toxic to animals and plants
Nitrogen trichloride Photolysis; Hydrolysis with hot water; Reduction with sodium thiosulfate Detonates DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive and toxic to wildlife
Nitrogen triiodide Sodium thiosulfate solution Detonation, giving off corrosive iodine vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP The iodine vapors it gives off during decomposition are dangerous to organisms in short term
Nitroglycerin Photolysis; Hydrolysis with cold sodium hydroxide solution Violent detonation DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to organisms; nitrate source for plants
Nitromethane Incineration Burns giving off carbon oxides, water vapors and nitrogen gas DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to wildlife
Nitrous acid Any base, hydroxide, carbonate, bicarbonate; percarbonates can also be used Decomposes, giving off nitrogen oxide fumes Neutralize first Neutralize first Corrosive to organisms and rocks; salts somewhat toxic to animals
Nitrous oxide Gentle reduction with various reducing agents Breaks down to nitrogen and oxygen at high temperatures Not possible Not possible Low toxicity to wildlife, may induce light narcotic effects and laughing sensation in some organisms
Nonane Incineration; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Ignites in air, gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors, soot DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to aquatic life and organisms
Octane Incineration; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Gives off carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to aquatic life and organisms
Octyl acetate Mixed with a more flammable solvent, followed by incineration Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors and soot Yes Yes Safe, occurs naturally in citrus fruit peels
Oxalic acid Neutralization with any oxide, hydroxide, carbonate, followed by pyrolysis Releases carbon oxides and water vapor at high temperature Yes, but dilute it first No Toxic to wildlife; Small amounts occur in some plants
Ozone Any compound easily oxidizable that does not ignite, such as carbon monoxide, activated charcoal Accelerates the decomposition of ozone, but not enough Not possible No Dangerous to wildlife, may oxidize various gaseous compounds, contributing to the acid rain; In the upper atmosphere it acts as UV shield
Paraffin wax Incineration; Dumping in trash Will burn at high temperatures, releasing carbon oxides, water vapors and soot Do not dump Do not dump Wax, both solid and molten, floats on water bodies and may inhibit the cellular breathing of many organisms
Pentaerythritol Mixed with a flammable solvent and incinerated Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors, aldehydes Yes Yes Low toxicity to aquatic life; Classified as biodegradable[8]
Pentaerythritol tetranitrate Oxidation with Fenton's reagent; Mixed with a flammable solvent and incinerated; Reduction with powdered iron[9] Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors, soot Yes, but not recommended Yes Displays relative low toxicity to aquatic life; PETN undergoes safe biodegradation
Pentane Incineration Flammable, releases carbon oxides, water vapor when burned in air DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to wildlife
Perchloric acid Neutralization with potassium, calcium bases, followed by reduction with metallic iron under UV light in the absence of air May explode at high temperatures, at high concentrations Do not dump Do not dump Toxic to wildlife, both animals and plants
Permanganic acid Hydrogen peroxide; Caro's acid Leads to decomposition, resulting in manganese dioxide slag Do not dump Do not dump The resulting manganese dioxide from the decomposition can be toxic if ingested by animals
Peroxymonosulfuric acid Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate May explode if concentrated Neutralize first Neutralize first Strong oxidizer, it is dangerous and toxic to small organisms
Petroleum ether Incineration Burns in the presence of air, to give off carbon dioxide and water vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous for wildlife and aquatic environment
Phenanthroline Oxidation with Fenton's reagent or piranha solution, followed by neutralization and poured down the drain Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors, soot, VOCs, PAHs, nitrogen DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to environment, very toxic to aquatic life
Phenol Incineration; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors, soot and VOCs DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous to environment
Phenolphthalein Incineration; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors, soot and VOCs Dilute it with plenty of water before release Not recommended Dangerous to environment in large amounts
Phosgene Alkaline metal hydroxide, ammonia NO DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic for all organisms
Phosphine Bleach (best bet); hydrogen peroxide; oxygen; ozone; May ignite in the presence of air DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic for all organisms, used to kill pests
Phosphoric acid Any metal oxide, hydroxide, carbonate Not very useful Yes, if it's diluted Neutralize it first, good source of phosphorus, unless contaminated Deadly to small animals; excess in water bodies may cause algal bloom
Phosphorus pentabromide Suspension of calcium hydroxide, sodium thiosulfate, cooled; PBr5 is added slowly to prevent splashing; Neutralization area must be well ventilated Breaks down to bromine, hydrogen bromide, phosphorus tribromide and phosphorous acids in the presence of air/moisture DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first Corrosive and deadly to all wildlife; Lowers soil pH; Corrosive to rocks, soil
Phosphorus pentachloride Suspension of calcium hydroxide, cooled; PCl5 is added slowly to prevent splashing; Neutralization area must be well ventilated Boils and breaks down to chlorine, hydrogen chloride and phosphorous acids in the presence of air/moisture DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first Corrosive and deadly to all wildlife; Lowers soil pH; Corrosive to rocks, soil
Phosphorus pentoxide‎‎ Alkaline solution, lots of water Will volatilize at very high temperatures No, reaction with water is highly exothermic and may generate acidic steam Neutralize first Corrosive and dangerous on direct contact with wildlife; Reaction with water will lead to phosphoric acid, highly corrosive and dangerous.
Phosphorus tribromide Suspension of calcium hydroxide, sodium thiosulfate, cooled; PBr3 is added slowly to prevent splashing; Neutralization area must be well ventilated Boils and breaks down to bromine, hydrogen bromide and phosphorous acids in the presence of air/moisture DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first Corrosive and deadly to all wildlife; Lowers soil pH; Corrosive to rocks, soil
Phosphorus trichloride Suspension of calcium hydroxide, sodium thiosulfate, cooled; PCl3 is added slowly to prevent splashing; Neutralization area must be well ventilated Boils and breaks down to chlorine, hydrogen chloride and phosphorous acids in the presence of air/moisture DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first Corrosive and deadly to all wildlife; Lowers soil pH; Corrosive to rocks, soil
Phosphorus triiodide Sodium thiosulfate solution/suspension; PI3 is added slowly to prevent splashing; Neutralization area must be well ventilated Decomposes, releasing corrosive fumes DO NOT DUMP! DO NOT DUMP! Very toxic and corrosive to organisms and rocks
Phosphoryl bromide Suspension of calcium hydroxide, sodium thiosulfate, cooled; POBr3 is added slowly to prevent splashing; Neutralization area must be well ventilated Boils and breaks down to bromine, hydrogen bromide and phosphorous acids in the presence of air/moisture DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first Corrosive and deadly to all wildlife; Lowers soil pH; Corrosive to rocks, soil
Phosphoryl chloride Suspension of calcium hydroxide, sodium thiosulfate, cooled; POCl3 is added slowly to prevent splashing; Neutralization area must be well ventilated Boils and breaks down to chlorine, hydrogen chloride and phosphorous acids in the presence of air/moisture DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first DO NOT DUMP! Neutralize it first Corrosive and deadly to all wildlife; Lowers soil pH; Corrosive to rocks, soil
Phthalic anhydride Oxidation with oxidizing solutions, such as chromic acid, Fenton's reagent, piranha solution Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors, soot and VOCs Dilute it with plenty of water before release Not recommended Dangerous to environment in large amounts
Picric acid Hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide; oxidation with Fenton's reagent; Containers with dry picric acid should be taken by professionals and safely detonated in a remote location Gives off carbon dioxide, water vapors, soot, VOCs DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Very toxic to environment
Polytetrafluoroethylene Not required; Can simply be dumped in trash Generates toxic fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, fluorocarbons and carbon oxide vapors DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Resistant to most corrosive chemicals, cannot be digested by wildlife
Portland cement Hydration, followed by recycling, dumping in trash, ground, etc. Not useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Non-hydrated cement is hazardous to environment, animals and plants; hydrated solid is generally non-toxic; Production of cement is extremely harmful to environment
Potassium antimony tartrate Pyrolysis, followed by taking the resulting slag to disposal facilities Gives off carbon oxides and water vapors, leaving potassium antimony oxide slag behind Do not dump Do not dump Hazardous to wildlife
Potassium bicarbonate Any acid will do Above 292 °C decomposes to potassium carbonate and above 891 °C will yield potassium oxide and carbon dioxide, which is quickly reabsorbed as it cools Yes OH YES Excess may increase the concentration of potassium in the dumping area
Potassium bisulfate Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate Decomposes to high temperatures releasing water vapors and sulfur trioxide Yes Neutralize first Decreases the soil pH, high levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Potassium bisulfite Bleach or hydrogen peroxide can be used if desired Decomposes to release sulfur dioxide and water vapors Yes Yes, but not recommended High levels of sulfur dioxide are toxic for organisms
Potassium bromide Not required May give off bromine vapors in the presence of water at high temperatures Yes Yes Bromide ions pose little toxicity to wildlife in small amounts
Potassium carbonate Any acid will do No, very high temperatures decompose it to potassium oxide and carbon dioxide, which is quickly reabsorbed as it cools Yes OH YES Excess may increase the soil level of potassium in the dumping area
Potassium chlorate Reduction with metabisulfite, sulfite or bisulfite; a mixture of sulfuric acid and ferric ammonium sulfate can also be used Melts and disproportionates to potassium perchlorate and potassium chloride Small amounts can be dumped, as household bleach already contains a small percentage of chlorates, especially if it's old; Do not dump large quantities No Toxic to plants, was used as a weedkiller in the past
Potassium chloride Not required Melts, not useful Yes Yes, unless the soil is chloride sensitive Presence of chlorides may have a harmful effect to some plants
Potassium chromate Neutralization with a reducing agent, such as ascorbic acid sodium metabisulfite, sulfite, bisulfite Decomposes above 1000 °C, releasing oxygen DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Cr(VI) ions are powerful carcinogens and very toxic to organisms
Potassium cyanide Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, bleach, sodium thiosulfate to less harmful compounds, continued by oxidation to carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas Melts and may oxidize in oxygen-rich atmosphere DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Highly toxic for all wildlife
Potassium dichromate Reducing with a reducing agent, such as sodium metabisulfite, sulfite, bisulfite, ascorbic acid Breaks down, releasing oxygen DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Cr(VI) ions are carcinogenic and very toxic to organisms
Potassium ferrate Any acid, hot water Breaks down to iron(III) oxide and potassium hydroxide, best in the presence of moisture Yes, but recommended to neutralize first Yes, but recommended to neutralize first Dangerous to wildlife in short term
Potassium ferricyanide Not required for small amounts, dumped in trash Breaks down to iron and potassium nitrides/oxides, releasing cyanide, carbon monoxide Yes, but small amounts Yes, but small amounts Low toxicity to organisms, though tends to break down under UV light
Potassium ferrocyanide Not required for small amounts, dumped in trash Breaks down to iron and potassium nitrides/oxides, releasing cyanide, carbon monoxide Yes, but small amounts Yes, but small amounts Low toxicity to organisms
Potassium hexachlorostannate
Potassium hydroxide Any acid, carbon dioxide Not useful Yes Neutralize first; neutralized is a good source of potassium for plants Dangerous to wildlife in short term
Potassium iodide Not required May release iodine vapors in the presence of water Yes Yes Low toxicity to wildlife
Potassium manganate Any reducing agents, such as oxalic acid, hydrogen peroxide Breaks down to manganese oxide and alkali DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Deadly to small organisms, dangerous to organisms in short term
Potassium metabisulfite Bleach Breaks down to release sulfur oxides Yes Yes Dangerous to small organisms
Potassium nitrate Not required Gives off nitrogen oxides at very high temperatures; burns in presence of organic compounds, releasing carbon oxides, nitrogen and leaving behind alkaline slag Yes OH YES Excellent fertilizer, though may lead to uncontrolled algae growth if dumped in water bodies
Potassium perchlorate Reduction with metallic iron under UV light in the absence of air Oxidizes flammable materials, burning them Do not dump Do not dump Hazardous to aquatic life
Potassium permanganate Hydrogen peroxide Decomposes to manganese dioxide at high temperatures DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP The resulting manganese dioxide from the decomposition can be toxic if ingested by animals
Potassium peroxochromate Sodium sulfite; Addition of water and acid Detonates, releasing potassium chromate fumes DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Cr(VI) is harmful for he environment
Potassium peroxymonosulfate Alkaline solution, sodium carbonate Decomposes, releasing oxygen Recommended be neutralized first Must be neutralized first Dangerous to the environment in short term
Potassium persulfate Pyrolysis, various reducing agents Decomposes Do not dump Do not dump Strong oxidizer, toxic for wildlife
Potassium rhodizonate Not always required; can be dumped in trash or poured down the drain Releases carbon oxides, soot and leaves behind potassium carbonate Yes Yes Safe, low toxicity
Potassium sodium tartrate Not always required; can be disposed in anyway Releases combustion gasses and leaves behind sodium and potassium carbonate Yes Yes Safe, low toxicity
Potassium sulfate Not required Releases sulfur oxides at very high temperatures Yes OH YES Safe, good potassium source for plants
Potassium sulfite Not required, simply pour down the drain; Bleach or hydrogen peroxide can be used if desired Decomposes to release sulfur dioxide Yes Yes, but not recommended Oxidation of aqueous potassium sulfite to sulfate reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen from water bodies
Propane Incineration Burns in the presence of oxygen Not possible Not possible Contributes to the greenhouse effect
Propanol Incineration Flammable, gives off carbon dioxide and water vapor DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Dangerous for wildlife and aquatic life
Propionic acid Bicarbonates, carbonates, bases, oxides; neutralized solution can be safely poured down the drain Flammable (high concentrations), no dangerous combustion products, though the smoke will have a rancid smell Yes, but recommended to neutralize first Neutralize first Safe, biodegradable; avoid dumping large amounts, kills microbial lifeform
Propylene carbonate Incineration, first mix it with a more flammable solvent Burns in the presence of oxygen Yes Yes Low toxicity to organisms
Propylene glycol Not required, though it can be mixed with a flammable solvent and burned Generates carbon oxides and water vapor, as well as other toxic pyrolysis compounds Yes Yes Little toxic effect on aquatic wildlife
Prussian blue Hydrogen peroxide, bleach May give off carbon oxides and nitrogen gasses at high temperatures, as well as cyanide Yes Yes Contact with strong acids may release hydrogen cyanide
Pumice Not required; dump it in trash; mix it with concrete Not useful Yes (powder or fine grains only, with plenty of water) Yes Low toxicity to organisms
Pyranine Not always required Breaks down to combustion gasses and soot Yes Yes Low toxicity to organisms
Pyridine Incineration; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors, soot, amines and nitrogen DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Raney nickel Dissolved in acid, followed by recovery of nickel and aluminium
Taken to hazardous waste disposal centers
Melts at 1455 °C DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
RDX Incineration, done outside; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent; Hot aqueous solution containing sodium hydroxide and sodium tetraborate Ignites, gives off carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, water vapors, soot Do not dump Do not dump Displays moderate toxicity to aquatic life; RDX can be degradated by the fungus Phanaerocheate chrysosporium
Rosocyanine Not required Breaks down to carbon oxides and water vapors Yes Yes Low toxicity to organisms
Safrole Incineration; Not always required Breaks down to combustion gasses, soot Yes Yes Low toxicity to wildlife, occurs naturally
Salicylic acid Not always required Breaks down to phenol; at higher temperatures gives off carbon oxides, water vapors, soot and VOCs Yes Yes Low toxicity to environment, occurs naturally
Schweizer's reagent Any acid Breaks down to copper(I) oxide, gives off water vapors and ammonia DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Copper ions and ammonia are toxic to most animals, especially small ones; ammonia can be a source of nitrogen for plants
sec-Butanol Incineration, if no peroxides present; If peroxides are present, neutralize them with a reducing agent such as ferrous sulfate, sodium bisulfite or metabisulfite in excess, then incinerate; If the bottle has peroxides on the cap, do not open it, instead safely detonate it in a remote or special area Will burn to release carbon dioxide and water vapors Do not dump Do not dump Poses toxicity to wildlife, water bodies
Silicon carbide Not required Surface oxidation at high temperatures in oxygen; decomposes at its melting point Not recommended, may clog the plumbing Yes Inert, safe for the environment
Silicon dioxide Not required At high temperatures results in melting; Can be used to indurate crystalline silica Not recommended, may clog the plumbing Yes Finely divided silica is dangerous for fauna
Silver acetate Photolysis; Reduction with a more reactive metal or a reducing agent like ascorbic acid; Recycling of silver Breaks down to metallic silver, water and carbon dioxide at high temperatures DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife; silver microparticles are harmful if ingested
Silver carbonate Photolysis; Reduction with a reducing agent like ascorbic acid or formaldehyde; Recycling of silver Breaks down to metallic silver, oxygen and carbon dioxide above 120 °C DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife in short term; silver microparticles are harmful if ingested
Silver fulminate Photolysis; Reduction with potassium thiocyanate or hydrochloric acid; Recycling of silver if possible Explodes, releasing oxygen, nitrogen, carbon oxides and silver powder DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife in short term; silver microparticles are harmful if ingested
Silver nitrate Photolysis; Reduction with a more reactive metal or a reducing agent like ascorbic acid; Recycling of silver Breaks down to metallic silver, oxygen and nitrogen dioxide at high temperatures DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife in short term; silver microparticles are harmful if ingested
Silver perchlorate Reduction with a more reactive metal or a reducing agent like ascorbic acid; Recycling of silver Breaks down to metallic silver, silver chloride, oxygen, chlorine at high temperatures DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife in short term; silver microparticles are harmful if ingested
Silver sulfate Photolysis; Reduction with a more reactive metal or a reducing agent like ascorbic acid; Recycling of silver Breaks down to metallic silver, oxygen and/or sulfur dioxide/trioxide at high temperatures DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife; silver microparticles are harmful if ingested
Smokeless powder Controlled incineration; dumping in soil Ignites Not recommended Yes, but in low amounts Somewhat good as a fertilizer, though expensive; Acts as a slow-release nitrogen source for plants
Sodium acetate Not always required Results in sodium carbonate and acetone at high temperatures, then carbon dioxide and water vapors Yes Not recommended High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium acetylsalicylate Pyrolysis; Not always required Gives off carbon dioxide, water vapors and soot Yes Not recommended Sodium is toxic for plants
Sodium azide Sodium nitrite, nitrous acid Breaks down to sodium metal and gives off nitrogen gas DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Very toxic for wildlife
Sodium benzoate Not always required May give off benzene vapors Yes Yes, but not in large quantities Too much sodium is harmful to plants; Reaction with certain compounds may release traces of benzene; otherwise safe, occurs naturally
Sodium bicarbonate Any acid or base; not generally required Converts to sodium carbonate Yes No High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium bisulfate Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate Not useful Yes Do not dump Decreases the soil pH, high levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium bisulfite Not required; Bleach or hydrogen peroxide can be used if desired Decomposes to release sulfur dioxide Yes Yes, but not recommended High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium carbonate Any acid; Not generally required Not useful Yes No High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium chlorate Reduction with metabisulfite, sulfite or bisulfite; a mixture of sulfuric acid and ferric ammonium sulfate can also be used Melts and disproportionates to sodium perchlorate and sodium chloride Small amounts can be dumped, as household bleach already contains a small percentage of chlorates, especially if it's old; Do not dump large quantities though No Toxic to plants, was used as a weedkiller in the past
Sodium chloride Not required Not useful Yes No High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium cyanide Oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, bleach, sodium thiosulfate to less harmful compounds, continued by oxidation to carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas Melts and may oxidize in oxygen-rich atmosphere DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Highly toxic for all wildlife
Sodium dichromate Reducing with a reducing agent, such as sodium metabisulfite, sulfite, bisulfite, ascorbic acid Breaks down, releasing oxygen DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Cr(VI) ions are carcinogenic and very toxic to organisms
Sodium dodecyl sulfate Mixed with a flammable solvent and incinerated; Poured down the drain Gives off carbon oxides, water vapors, sulfur oxides Yes Yes Low environmental impact
Sodium ethoxide Dissolution in a large volume of water slowly, best with small amounts of a carboxylic acid, such as acetic acid Breaks down to release flammable gasses DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic and very corrosive to most organisms; Raises pH in water bodies
High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium ferrate Diluted organic solutions will reduce it to its constituent oxides Breaks down to its constituent oxides, both dry and as solution Yes Not recommended due to its sodium content Dangerous to organisms due to its strong oxidizing properties
Sodium formate Pyrolysis in a kiln Decomposes to sodium carbonate, releasing carbon monoxide and water vapors Yes Not recommended due to its sodium content High levels of sodium are toxic to plants
Sodium hexametaphosphate Not required; can be dumped in trash Breaks down to sodium polyphosphates and sodium oxide, giving off phosphorus oxide fumes Yes No High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium hydroxide Any acid, carbon dioxide Not useful Yes Do not dump Dangerous to wildlife in short term; toxic to plants due to sodium ions
Sodium hypochlorite Any reducing agent, such as sodium metabisulfite, bisulfite, sulfite, thiosulfate; Hydrogen peroxide Disproportionates to sodium chlorate and sodium chloride, giving off chlorine Yes DO NOT DUMP Very toxic to organisms, especially aquatic ones; High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium metabisulfite Bleach Breaks down to release sulfur oxides Yes No Toxic to most fauna; High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium methoxide Dissolution in a large volume of water slowly, best with small amounts of a carboxylic acid, such as acetic acid Breaks down to release flammable gasses DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic and very corrosive to most organisms; Raises pH in water bodies
High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium nitrate Not always required; Ammonium sulfate Not useful; may convert to sodium nitrite Yes No While it is a good source of nitrogen for plants, high levels of sodium are generally undesired in soils
Sodium nitrite Oxidation with sodium percarbonate, oxygen, ozone to nitrate; Thermal decomposition followed by conversion to sodium carbonate or sulfate Decomposes to form sodium oxide/hydroxide and releases nitrogen oxides fumes Yes, but not recommended No Unlike nitrates, nitrites are poor source of nitrogen for plants; High levels of sodium are generally undesired in soils; Nitrites are toxic for most animals
Sodium oxide Slow addition to diluted solution of phosphoric acid Not useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive and toxic for wildlife
Sodium percarbonate Any acid; Iron(III) oxide or manganese dioxide can also be added for complete neutralization; Generally not required though Decomposes to release water vapors and oxygen, leaving behind sodium carbonate Yes No Hydrogen peroxide in harmful for organisms; High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium perchlorate Reduction with metallic iron under UV light in the absence of air Burns in a mixture with flammable materials DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Sodium peroxide Any acid and manganese dioxide Not useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive and toxic for wildlife
Sodium pyrosulfate
Sodium silicate Any acid Not useful Not recommended Only in places without plant or animal life (construction sites, quarries, etc.) Sodium ions are toxic to plant roots
Sodium sulfate Not required Not useful Yes No High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium sulfite Not required; Bleach can be used if desired Decomposes to release sulfur dioxide Yes Yes, but not recommended High levels of sodium are toxic for plants
Sodium thiosulfate Bleach Gives off sulfur oxide gasses Yes Yes, but not in large quantities Breaks down rapidly in the environment due to air and microorganisms, yielding sulfides and sulfates.
Solochrome cyanine R
Sorbitol Not needed Melts; Releases carbon dioxide and water vapor at high temperatures Yes Yes Cannot be digested by most organisms, but has no dangerous effects on wildlife;
Stainless steel Recycling; Traces of stainless steel waste don't require chemical neutralization as SS is sufficiently inert that it can't do any significant damage to the environment. If magnetic, a magnet can be used to scoop all the pieces Not useful; melts above 1500 °C DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Stainless steel alloys contain chromium which will slowly leak in the environment and may increase the level of chromium in the environment; Some SS alloys may have nickel which is harmful to the environment
Starch Any disposal method Decomposes to release carbon oxides, water vapors Yes Yes Safe, biodegradable; Nourishment for almost all organisms
Steel Recycling; Steel waste don't require chemical neutralization as it's mostly iron which has low environmental impact. Since it's magnetic, a magnet can be used to scoop all steel leftovers Not useful; melts above 1300 °C DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Some steel alloys contain nickel which will leak in the environment which is harmful to the environment
Strontium carbonate Any acid; Not required; Can be safely dumped in trash Breaks down to strontium oxide and carbon dioxide at high temperatures; reverts as it cools Yes Yes Strontium has little effect on environment
Strontium oxide Lots of water; any diluted acid Not useful Neutralize first Neutralize first Will burn grass on contact; strontium has little effect on environment
Succinic acid Not always required, can be dumped in trash Decomposes releasing acrid smoke, carbon oxides, water vapors and soot Yes Yes Source of food for some organisms
Sucrose Not always required Turns into caramel if gently heated and soot at high temperatures Yes Yes Source of food for many small animals
Sulfanilamide Not required, small amounts can be poured down the drain or trash Decomposes releasing carbon and sulfur oxides, nitrogen gas and soot Yes, small amounts Do not dump Toxic to microbial life and harmful to aquatic bodies
Sulfur dichloride Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate, best as aqueous solution/suspension Boils off DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely corrosive and toxic to all organisms
Sulfur dioxide Any base, bleach (solution); hydrogen sulfide, ammonia (gaseous) Not useful Not possible (gas) Not possible (gas) Contributes to acid rain
Sulfur trioxide Dry calcium carbonate; ammonia Not useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Deadly and extremely corrosive to all life; contact with moist air produces sulfuric acid mist; contributes to acid rain
Sulfur hexafluoride Not required May lead to sulfur dioxides and fluorine at very high temperatures Not possible Yes Strong greenhouse effect
Sulfuric acid Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate; Not useful Only if it's followed by large amounts of water; Though best to neutralize it first DO NOT DUMP Corrosive and deadly to wildlife; Lowers soil pH; Corrosive to rocks
Sulfuryl chloride Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate; Not useful Neutralize it first Neutralize it first Corrosive and deadly to all wildlife; Lowers soil pH; Corrosive to rocks, soil
Tannerite VERY controlled incineration Burns, almost never detonates DO NOT DUMP! DO NOT DUMP! While ammonium nitrate is a good nitrogen source for plants, the aluminium and other impurities are generally harmful for wildlife
Tartaric acid Not required; can be disposed in anyway Decomposes, releasing combustion gasses, carbon oxides, water vapors Yes Yes Safe, low toxicity; occurs naturally in fruits in large concentrations
Terbium(III) oxide Unnecessary, simply dump in trash Releases absorbed water or carbon dioxide Unnecessary Yes Effects unknown, may stimulate plant growth
Terbium acetate No required, simply dump in trash or recycle Breaks down at high temperatures to release carbon oxides Yes Yes Effects unknown
Terbium sulfate No required, simply dump in trash Breaks down at high temperatures to release sulfur oxides Yes Yes Effects unknown
tert-Butanol Incineration, oxidation with Fenton's reagent, strongly diluted and poured down the drain Will burn to release carbon dioxide and water vapors Dilute first Dilute first Poses moderate toxicity to wildlife, water bodies
Tetraamine copper(II) complex Pyrolysis; any acid Gives off water vapors and ammonia, leaving copper oxide behind Yes, unless there's copper or brass plumbing No Copper ions pose toxicity to most organisms
Tetraaminecopper(II) persulphate Controlled detonation; Any acid Detonation, releasing ammonia, sulfur dioxide copper oxide Do not dump Do not dump Copper ions are toxic to small animals
Tetrachlorocupric acid Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate Gives off hydrochloric acid fumes, leaving copper oxide behind DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive and toxic for wildlife
Tetrahydrofuran Incineration (no peroxides); Adding excess ferrous sulfate, sodium bisulfite or metabisulfite to neutralize the peroxides, followed by incineration; If the bottle has peroxides on the cap, do not open it, instead safely detonate it in a remote or special area Burns, giving off combustion gasses DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic and dangerous for wildlife
Tetralin Mixed with a more flammable solvent and incinerated Ignites at high temperatures and generates carbon oxides, water vapors, carbon monoxide, soot, VOCs DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Harmful to wildlife and water bodies
Tetryl Incineration, done outside; Controlled oxidation with Fenton's reagent Ignites, gives off carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, water vapors, soot DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Displays moderate toxicity to aquatic life
Thionyl chloride Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate; Not useful; Decomposes to release sulfur dioxide and chlorine NO! Neutralize it first! NO! Neutralize it first! Corrosive and deadly to all wildlife; Lowers soil pH; Corrosive to rocks, soil
Tin(II) chloride Excess base, carbonate, bicarbonate; Should be taken to waste disposal centers Gives off hydrochloric acid fumes in the presence of moisture DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive and toxic to wildlife
Tin(IV) chloride Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate; Should be taken to waste disposal centers Gives off hydrochloric acid fumes in moist air DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Corrosive and toxic to wildlife
Titanium dioxide Not required; Can be dumped in trash Not useful; Fuses in the presence of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides and hydroxides to titanates Yes, but not recommended Yes, but not recommended May lead to staining water bodies and soil in a white color
Toluene Oxidation with Fenton's reagent; Incineration, best done with an afterburner Flammable, burns in air to release carbon oxides, water vapors, soot, VOCs DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife and very dangerous to aquatic life, as well as soil
Trichloroethylene Sodium hydroxide; Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Not useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Trichloroisocyanuric acid Sodium thiosulfate, sulfite, bisulfite, metabisulfite Breaks down to release chlorine Yes DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Triethyl borate Incineration; Hydrolysis with water Burns in air Not recommended Not recommended Effects unknown to environment
Triethyl citrate Diluted with another solvent, followed by incineration Burns in air, releasing carbon dioxide, water vapors, soot and acrid fumes Yes, but not recommended Yes, but not recommended Low toxicity to organisms, may harm water bodies
Triethylamine Diluted with another solvent, followed by incineration; Neutralization with an acid and destroyed via oxidation Burns in air DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to most lifeforms, dangerous to water bodies
Trifluoroacetic acid Bicarbonates, carbonates, bases, oxides Boils off Neutralize first DO NOT DUMP Corrosive and poisonous to organisms; does not readily degrade in environment, but does not bioaccumulate
Trimethyl borate Incineration; Hydrolysis with water Burns in air Not recommended Not recommended Effects unknown to environment
Trinitrotoluene Oxidation with Fenton's reagent Burns and decomposes to release combustion gasses and soot DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Extremely toxic to the environment, especially for animals
Tris(ethylenediamine)nickel perchlorate Safe detonation; Residual perchlorates can be destroyed by adding metallic iron under UV light, in the absence of air. Detonates Do not dump Do not dump Nickel and perchlorates are toxic to environment
Tungsten carbide Not required; can be dumped in trash or taken to waste disposal centers Not useful (refractory) DO NOT DUMP Yes (if pure); No (if it contains cobalt) Toxic to the environment if it contains cobalt
Urea Not required Generates carbon oxides, nitrogen fumes; May corrode metal container, if done in one Yes OH YES May cause uncontrolled algae growth in water bodies
Urea nitrate Cooled basic solution (NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2) Decomposes when burned; May explode if heated at high temperatures Yes OH YES! Safe, good fertilizer; May cause uncontrolled algae growth in water bodies
Urea peroxide Water, iron(III) oxide, manganese dioxide Decomposes when heated to high temperatures, releasing water vapor Yes Yes, though not recommended in large quantities Irritant and corrosive to large organisms, kills small organisms
Vanadium pentoxide Not required; should be taken to disposal facilities Not useful; Turns into oxides of lower states at high temperatures DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Vanadium ions pose toxicity for wildlife
Water Not required Leads to steam YES YES It's...water
Xylene Oxidation with Fenton's reagent; Incineration, best with an afterburner Burns in air, to release combustion gasses, soot and VOCs DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife and hazardous to water bodies
Xylitol Not required Melts when heated; not useful Yes Yes Cannot be digested by most lifeforms, otherwise little to no toxicity to most organisms; It is however known to be fatal to dogs and some birds
Zeolite Not required Calcinates at high temperatures Yes, but not recommended Yes Unless contaminated with hazardous compounds, it poses little danger to environment
Zinc acetate Not required Breaks down to zinc oxide, carbon oxides, water, acetone, acetic anhydride (?) at high temperatures Yes Yes Unless contaminated, good source of zinc for plants, though a bit too acidic; may lower soil pH
Zinc carbonate Not required Breaks down to zinc oxide and carbon oxide at high temperatures Yes Yes Unless contaminated, good source of zinc for plants, though a bit too alkaline
Zinc chloride Any base, carbonate, bicarbonate Gives off hydrochloric acid fumes if moist Neutralize first Neutralize first Chlorides are dangerous for chloride-sensitive plants in large quantities
Zinc chromate Reducing with a reducing agent, such as sodium metabisulfite, sulfite, bisulfite, ascorbic acid Not very useful DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Cr(VI) is toxic for wildlife
Zinc nitrate Sodium, potassium or ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate to precipitate zinc carbonate which is inert; recovery of alkali nitrates, dilution of zinc carbonate and poured down the drain Decomposes to zinc oxide, releasing nitrogen dioxide and oxigen Yes, but not recommended Dilute it strongly May pose a threat to aquatic life in large quantities; may cause unwanted algal bloom; source of zinc and nitrogen to plants
Zinc oxide Not required; Weak acids can be used to dissolve zinc oxide stains to soluble zinc compounds Turns the oxide yellow at high temperatures; process is reversible Not recommended Yes, but not recommended May pose a threat to aquatic life in large quantities
Zinc peroxide Hydrolysis with water; Any acid May explode at over 212 °C Best to neutralize it first No Peroxides are deadly to small animals
Zinc phosphate Not required Not useful No Yes Source of zinc and phosphorus for wildlife
Zinc sulfate Not always required; Zinc metal can be recovered through electrowinning and the diluted sulfuric acid neutralized with a base Not useful Yes Yes Unless contaminated, is a good source of zinc for plants
Zinc sulfide Hydrogen peroxide May give off hydrogen sulfide in the presence of water at high temperatures DO NOT DUMP DO NOT DUMP Toxic to wildlife
Zirconyl chloride

References

  1. http://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/rules.html
  2. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp187-c5.pdf
  3. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02318626
  4. http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2007/EM/b709571f#!divAbstract
  5. http://www.google.com/patents/US2519284
  6. Chemical Technology and Emission Control, 2012, M.B. Hocking, p. 216
  7. http://www.drugfuture.com/chemdata/cuprous-sulfite.html
  8. http://www.inchem.org/documents/sids/sids/115775.pdf
  9. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es7029703?journalCode=esthag

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