| IUPAC name
| Preferred IUPAC name
| Systematic IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass||88.06 g/mol|
|Density|| 1.250 g/cm3 (20 °C)|
1.267 g/cm3 (25 °C)
|Melting point||11.8–12 °C (53.2–53.6 °F; 284.9–285.1 K)|
|Boiling point||165 °C (329 °F; 438 K)|
|Solubility|| Reacts with amines, bases|
Miscible with alcohols, carboxylic acids, ketones
|Vapor pressure||1.29 mmHg|
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Pyruvic acid is the simplest of the keto acids, as well as alpha-keto acids, which are compounds with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group. It has the formula CH3C(=O)COOH.
Pyruvic acid is an important compound in the biological metabolism, by supplying energy to cells through the Krebs cycle.
Pyruvic acid is a mid-strength carboxylic acid. It reacts with bases to form salts, called pyruvates.
Pyruvic acid supplies energy to cells through the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle) when oxygen is present (aerobic respiration), and alternatively ferments to produce lactate when oxygen is lacking (lactic acid).
Pyruvic acid is a colorless to slightly yellowish colored liquid, with a sour vinegar-like odor. It is miscible with water and other organic solvents. Due to its melting point of around 11 °C, the pure compound will solidify in cold weather or if placed in a fridge.
Pyruvic acid is sold by chemical suppliers.
Pyruvates, such as calcium pyruvate, are sold as weight loss supplements. The free acid can be obtained by reacting the pyruvate salt with a strong acid, then distill the free acid under reduced pressure.
- CH3CH(OH)CH2(OH) + [O] → CH3C(=O)COOH
- CH3COCl + KCN → CH3COCN + KCl
- CH3COCN → CH3C(=O)COOH
Pyruvic acid can be made from glucose through glycolysis, converted back to carbohydrates (such as glucose) via gluconeogenesis, or to fatty acids through a reaction with acetyl-CoA.
- Make pyruvates
- Make lactic acid
Pure pyruvic acid is somewhat corrosive and irritant to skin, nose, mouth and eyes. The acid and its salts display little toxicity.
Consumption of excess pyruvates will lead to diarrhea, bloating, gas and increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
In closed air-tight bottles.
No special disposal is required. Discard it was you with.