|Name, symbol||Ruthenium, Ru|
|Appearance||Silvery white metal|
|Ruthenium in the periodic table|
|Standard atomic weight (Ar)||101.07(2)|
|Group, block||VIII; d-block|
|Electron configuration||[Kr] 4d7 5s1|
|2, 8, 18, 15, 1|
|Melting point||2607 K (2334 °C, 4233 °F)|
|Boiling point||4423 K (4150 °C, 7502 °F)|
|Density near r.t.||12.45 g/cm3|
|when liquid, at||10.65 g/cm3|
|Heat of fusion||38.59 kJ/mol|
|Heat of||619 kJ/mol|
|Molar heat capacity||24.06 J/(mol·K)|
|Oxidation states||-4, -2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 (a mildly acidic oxide)|
|Electronegativity||Pauling scale: 2.2|
1st: 710.2 kJ/mol |
2nd: 1620 kJ/mol
3rd: 2747 kJ/mol
|Atomic radius||empirical: 134 pm|
|Covalent radius||146±7 pm|
|Crystal structure||hexagonal close-packed (hcp)|
|Speed of sound thin rod||5970 m/s (at 20 °C)|
|Thermal expansion||6.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)|
|Thermal conductivity||117 W/(m·K)|
|Electrical resistivity||71 Ω·m (at 0 °C)|
|Young's modulus||447 GPa|
|Shear modulus||173 GPa|
|Bulk modulus||220 GPa|
|Brinell hardness||2160 MPa|
|CAS Registry Number||7440-18-8|
|Naming||after Ruthenia (Latin for: medieval Kyivska Rus' region)|
|Discovery and first isolation||Karl Ernst Claus (1844)|
Ruthenium is a chemical element, a rare silvery-white transition metal, with the chemical symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is member of the so called "platinum group metals".
Ruthenium is highly resistant to corrosion. It is unaffected by mineral acids, even when hot. Aqua regia does not corrode ruthenium. However, as NurdRage noted in his ruthenium video, bleach (aka sodium hypochlorite solution) will slowly corrode it. Ruthenium is also attacked by fused alkali. Sodium peroxide also corrodes ruthenium, and this method is used in the extraction of the metal.
Ruthenium is a hard silvery-white platinum group metal. Ruthenium has a high melting point of 2334 °C and a boiling point of 4150 °C. It is quite dense, with a density at standard conditions of 12.45 g/cm3.
Ruthenium is sold by various chemical suppliers and metal companies. It can also be found on eBay.
Ruthenium can also be extracted from car catalytic converters.
Ruthenium is best acquired as pure metal. It's not economical to extract the metal from its compounds or alloys.
- Make electrodes
- Organoruthenium compounds
Ruthenium is non-toxic and does not cause any allergies on dermal contact. Ruthenium compounds however, are quite toxic and should be handled with care.
Ruthenium does not require special storage, and can be stored in any container, bottle, etc.
Due to ruthenium's rarity and high price it's best to recycle it, instead of throwing it away.