| IUPAC name
| Other names
Formic acid, sodium salt
|Molar mass||68.007 g/mol|
|Appearance||White hygroscopic solid|
|Density||1.92 g/cm3 (20 °C)|
|Melting point||253 °C (487 °F; 526 K)|
| 43.82 g/100 mL (0 °C)|
97.2 g/100 mL (20 °C)
160 g/100 mL (100 °C)
|Solubility|| Soluble in ethanol, formic acid, methanol|
Slightly soluble in glycerol
Insoluble in diethyl ether, toluene
|Vapor pressure||~0 mmHg|
|Acidity (pKa)||7.0-8.5 (0.1 M)|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||FischerScintific|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Sodium formate is the sodium salt of formic acid, with the chemical formula HCOONa or HCO2Na.
- 2 HCOONa + H2SO4 → 2 HCOOH + Na2SO4
If the acid is too concentrated, carbon monoxide will evolve.
- 2 HCOONa + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2 H2O + CO + CO2
Sodium formate is a hygroscopic colorless salt, soluble in water and formic acid. It decomposes when heated above 253°C.
Some commercial deicers are ~90% sodium formate.
Lastly it can be purchased from chemical suppliers.
There are several routes to formic acid.
- NaHCO3 + HCOOH → HCOONa + H2O + CO2
The solution is then cooled to precipitate the sodium formate which is filtered and dried.
- Make formic acid
- Make ethyl formate
Sodium formate is irritant and should be handled with proper protection. Contact with strong acids should be avoided as it will generate formic acid and carbon monoxide.
Sodium formate should be stored in closed bottles, away from acids.
Heating it in a kiln will cause it to break down into sodium carbonate, carbon monoxide and water vapor.