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| IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass||74.12 g/mol|
|Appearance||Colorless solid (<25 °C) or liquid (>25 °C)|
|Density||0.7886 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)|
|Melting point||25.81 °C (78.46 °F; 298.96 K)|
|Boiling point||82.3 °C (180.1 °F; 355.4 K)|
|Solubility|| Miscible with diethyl ether, ethanol, isopropanol|
Soluble in chloroform
|Vapor pressure||4.1 kPa (at 20 °C)|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||ScienceLab|
|Flash point||11 °C|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
| 3559 mg/kg (rabbit, oral)|
3500 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
tert-Butanol or tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), also known as 2-methylpropan-2-ol (2M2P), is the simplest tertiary alcohol, with a formula of (CH3)3COH (sometimes shortened to t-BuOH). One of the most interesting characteristics of t-BuOH is that it can be a clear liquid or a colorless solid depending on the ambient temperature and season, with a melting point around 25 °C.
Being a tertiary alcohol, tert-butanol cannot be oxidized to an aldehyde or ketone, like primary or secondary alcohols can.
tert-Butanol is a colorless solid at standard conditions, but has a very high melting point for a simple alcohol, of only 25.8 °C. It's boiling point is 82.3 °C. t-BuOH is miscible with water and has a camphor-like smell.
t-BuOH is sold by various chemical suppliers.
It can also be found as fuel additive, though the percentage is small.
Minute amounts are sometimes added in rubbing alcohol as a denaturing agent, though you will need a very large amount of rubbing alcohol to extract any useful amounts of t-BuOH. Most types have around 0.5 g/L of rubbing alcohol.
tert-Butanol can be made via acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl tert-butyl ether.
A more complex way is by reacting acetone with methylmagnesium halide
tert-Butanol poses low toxicity, though it can be irritant. It is also flammable.
tert-Butanol should be stored in closed bottles, preferably glass. If the temperature inside the storage area drops below 25 °C, such as during cold seasons, rain or night, t-BuOH will freeze. This is not usually a problem, as it does not expand upon freezing and is also less volatile when solid, but getting it out of the bottle may become frustrating.
tert-Butanol can be safely burned, either pure or dissolved in a more flammable solvent. It can also be destroyed with Fenton's reagent, though this is not always necessary.