Titanium(IV) chloride

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Titanium(IV) chloride
Titanium tetrachloride Periodic Table of Videos.jpg
TiCl4 drawn out using a syringe
Names
IUPAC names
Titanium tetrachloride
Titanium(IV) chloride
Systematic IUPAC name
Tetrachlorotitanium
Other names
Titanic chloride
Properties
TiCl4
Molar mass 189.679 g/mol
Appearance Colorless fuming liquid
Odor Penetrating acidic odor
Density 1.726 g/cm3
Melting point −24.1 °C (−11.4 °F; 249.1 K)
Boiling point 136.4 °C (277.5 °F; 409.5 K)
Reacts
Solubility Soluble in ethanol, HCl
Vapor pressure 1.3 kPa (20 °C)
Thermochemistry
355 J·mol−1·K−1
−763 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point Non-flammable
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Titanium(IV) chloride, or more commonly titanium tetrachloride, is a chemical compound with the formulaTiCl4.

Properties

Chemical

Titanium tetrachloride readily reacts with water to release hydrogen chloride and titanium dioxide fumes.

Physical

Titanium(IV) chloride is a colorless fuming liquid, with a string pungent acidic odor.

Availability

Titanium(IV) chloride is sold by chemical suppliers, though it's not easy for the amateur chemist to acquire it.

Preparation

TiCl4 is produced by the chloride process, which involves the reduction of titanium oxide ores, typically ilmenite (FeTiO3) or perovskite (CaTiO3) with carbon under flowing chlorine at 900 °C. Impurities are removed by fractional distillation.

2 FeTiO3 + 7 Cl2 + 6 C → 2 TiCl4 + 2 FeCl3 + 6 CO
2 CaTiO3 + 7 Cl2 + 6 C → 2 TiCl4 + 3 CaCl2 + 6 CO

Titanium tetrachloride can also be prepared by reacting anhydrous calcium chloride with titanium dioxide at very high temperatures. The reaction gives calcium titanate and TiCl4

CaCl2 + 2 TiO2 → CaTiO3 + TiCl4

A verified route by SM user Plante1999 involves reacting heating a mixture of sodium pyrosulfate, a titanate and sodium chloride until it melts. The mixture will give off TiCl4 and sodium sulfate.

4 Na2S2O7 + 4 NaCl + TiO2 → 2 Na2SO4 + TiCl4

Reducing titanium dioxide with carbon will give titanium carbide which reacts more readily with chlorine gas, giving titanium tetrachloride.

Metallic titanium will also react with chlorine above 350 °C, best if the titanium metal is in sponge form.

Projects

  • Make metallic titanium
  • Make organotitanium compounds
  • Synthesis of Ziegler–Natta catalyst

Handling

Safety

Titanium tetrachloride is highly corrosive and dangerous. Proper protection must be worn when handling the compound.

Storage

Titanium tetrachloride must be kept in air-tight containers. Schlenk flasks can be used, though most often TiCl4 is kept in dark amber bottles fitted with a silicon rubber septum.

Disposal

Can be safely neutralized by slowly adding it in a large volume of a diluted alkaline solution.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads