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- MeOH + HNO3 → MeONO2 + H2O
Single Alcohol Nitrate Esters
Non-Cyclic Alkyl Polyol Nitrate Esters
- Ethylene glycol / Ethylene glycol dinitrate
- Propylene glycol / Propylene glycol dinitrate
- Glycerol / Glycerol trinitrate (nitroglycerin)
- Erythritol / Erythritol tetranitrate
- Xylitol / Xylitol pentanitrate
- Sorbitol / Sorbitol hexanitrate
- Isosorbitol / Isosorbitol dinitrate
- Mannitol / Mannitol hexanitrate
- Pentaerythritol / Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
Cyclic Polyol Nitrate Esters
Alkyl nitrates are oily liquids or colorless solids, insoluble in water, but more soluble in organic solvents. Due to vasodilatory effects, nitrate esters can cause strong headaches, because blood vessels in the brain widen. The more volatile the ester is, the simpler it is to get a "nitrate headache".
Most alkyl nitrates tend to be explosive, which means proper protection must be worn when working with said compounds.