Difference between revisions of "Aluminium oxide"

From Sciencemadness Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Handling)
(Preparation)
 
(11 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{Stub}}
 
 
{{Chembox
 
{{Chembox
| Name =Aluminium oxide
+
| Name = Aluminium oxide
 
| Reference =
 
| Reference =
| IUPACName =dialuminum;oxygen(2-)
+
| IUPACName = Aluminium(III) oxide
 
| PIN =
 
| PIN =
 
| SystematicName =Aluminium oxide
 
| SystematicName =Aluminium oxide
| OtherNames = {{Unbulleted list
+
| OtherNames = Aloxide<br>Aloxite<br>Alumina<br>Alundum<br>Corundum<br>Ruby<br>Saphire
  | ''name1''alumina
+
  | ''name2''corundum
+
  | ''name3''ruby
+
  | ''name4''Saphire
+
  }}
+
 
<!-- Images -->
 
<!-- Images -->
| ImageFile =  
+
| ImageFile = rubies.jpg
 +
| ImageCaption = Samples of ruby, a red variant of corundum.
 
| ImageSize =  
 
| ImageSize =  
 
| ImageAlt =  
 
| ImageAlt =  
Line 49: Line 44:
 
| 3DMet =  
 
| 3DMet =  
 
| Abbreviations =  
 
| Abbreviations =  
| SMILES =  
+
| SMILES = [Al+3].[Al+3].[O-2].[O-2].[O-2]
 
   }}
 
   }}
 
| Section2 = {{Chembox Properties
 
| Section2 = {{Chembox Properties
 
| AtmosphericOHRateConstant =  
 
| AtmosphericOHRateConstant =  
| Appearance =white solid
+
| Appearance = White solid
| BoilingPt ={{convert|2977|°C|°F K|abbr=on}}
+
| BoilingPt =
| BoilingPtC =  
+
| BoilingPtC = 2977
 
| BoilingPt_ref =  
 
| BoilingPt_ref =  
 
| BoilingPt_notes =  
 
| BoilingPt_notes =  
Line 62: Line 57:
 
| HenryConstant =  
 
| HenryConstant =  
 
| LogP =  
 
| LogP =  
| MolarMass =  
+
| MolarMass = 101.96 g/mol
| MeltingPt ={{convert|2072|°C|°F K|abbr=on}}
+
| MeltingPt =
| MeltingPtC =  
+
| MeltingPtC = 2072
 
| MeltingPt_ref =  
 
| MeltingPt_ref =  
 
| MeltingPt_notes =  
 
| MeltingPt_notes =  
 +
| Odor = Odorless
 
| pKa =  
 
| pKa =  
 
| pKb =  
 
| pKb =  
| Solubility = insoluble
+
| Solubility = Insoluble
| SolubleOther =  
+
| SolubleOther = Reacts with halogenic acids and alkali<br>Insoluble in organic solvents
 
| Solvent =  
 
| Solvent =  
| VaporPressure =  
+
| VaporPressure = ~0 mmHg
 
   }}
 
   }}
 
| Section3 = {{Chembox Structure
 
| Section3 = {{Chembox Structure
| Coordination =  
+
| Coordination = Octahedral
| CrystalStruct =trigonal
+
| CrystalStruct = Trigonal, hR30, space group = R3c, No. 167
 
| MolShape =  
 
| MolShape =  
 
   }}
 
   }}
Line 82: Line 78:
 
| DeltaGf =  
 
| DeltaGf =  
 
| DeltaHc =  
 
| DeltaHc =  
| DeltaHf =  
+
| DeltaHf = −1675.7 kJ/mol
| Entropy =  
+
| Entropy = 50.92 J·mol<sup>−1</sup>·K<sup>−1</sup>
 
| HeatCapacity =  
 
| HeatCapacity =  
 
   }}
 
   }}
Line 93: Line 89:
 
   }}
 
   }}
 
| Section6 = {{Chembox Hazards
 
| Section6 = {{Chembox Hazards
| AutoignitionPt =  
+
| AutoignitionPt = Non-flammable
| ExploLimits =  
+
| ExploLimits = Non-explosive
| ExternalMSDS =  
+
| ExternalMSDS = [https://www.docdroid.net/xD4eXUw/aluminium-oxide-sa.pdf.html Sigma-Aldrich]
| FlashPt =  
+
| FlashPt = Non-flammable
 
| LD50 =  
 
| LD50 =  
 
| LC50 =  
 
| LC50 =  
| MainHazards =  
+
| MainHazards = Irritant
 
| NFPA-F =  
 
| NFPA-F =  
 
| NFPA-H =  
 
| NFPA-H =  
Line 110: Line 106:
 
| OtherFunction =  
 
| OtherFunction =  
 
| OtherFunction_label =  
 
| OtherFunction_label =  
| OtherCompounds =  
+
| OtherCompounds = [[Boron trioxide]]
 
   }}
 
   }}
 
}}
 
}}
Aluminium oxide is chemical compound of [[aluminum]] and [[oxygen]] with chemical formula Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, its most common of several aluminium oxides.
+
'''Aluminium oxide''' or '''alumina''' is the chemical compound of [[aluminium]] and [[oxygen]], with chemical formula '''Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>'''. It's the most common and stable form of the aluminium oxides. Aluminium oxide occurs naturally in it's crystalline alpha phase as mineral '''corundum'''.
Aluminium oxide occurs naturally in it's crystalline alpha phase as mineral '''corundum'''.
+
  
 
==Properties==
 
==Properties==
 
===Chemical===
 
===Chemical===
 +
Aluminium oxide will react with sodium hydroxide to form sodium aluminate.
  
 
===Physical===
 
===Physical===
Aluminium oxide is very hard solid (9 Mohs scale).
+
Aluminium oxide is a white solid compound, insoluble in water and solvent, but will dissolve in non-oxidizing acids. It is odorless and it's very hard (9 Mohs scale). It's an electrical insulator.
It's electrical insulator.
+
  
 
==Availability==
 
==Availability==
Aluminium oxide is often present in sandpapers, you can also buy it from mineral collectors as corrundum or gemstones like ruby or saphire.
+
Aluminium oxide is often present in sandpapers, you can also buy it from mineral collectors as corundum or gemstones like ruby or sapphire. Certain smartphones have colorless transparent protective sheet of synthetic corundum.
 +
 
 +
Heating elements also contain alumina powder which acts as an insulator for the resistance wiring.
  
 
==Preparation==
 
==Preparation==
 
Aluminium oxide is a product of [[thermite]] reaction:
 
Aluminium oxide is a product of [[thermite]] reaction:
M<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> + 2Al → Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> + 2M
 
  
==Projects==
+
:M<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> + 2 Al → Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> + 2 M
  
 +
This reaction also gives various aluminates, and separating the alumina from the slag is complicated and may not worth it.
 +
 +
A much better and simpler method involves the dehydration of aluminium hydroxide, which can be obtained by precipitating an aluminium salt with sodium or potassium hydroxide.
 +
 +
: Al(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub> + 3 NaOH → Al(OH)<sub>3</sub> + 3 NaNO<sub>3</sub>
 +
 +
Another route involves adding an acid to sodium aluminate, forming sodium salt of said acid and aluminium oxide/hydroxide. Excess NaOH can be added after the addition of the acid to prevent the formation of aluminium salts. Sodium aluminate itself is obtained from the reaction of sodium hydroxide and aluminium metal.
 +
 +
: NaOH + Al → NaAlO<sub>2</sub> + H<sub>2</sub>O + H<sub>2</sub>
 +
: NaAlO<sub>2</sub> + H<sup>+</sup> + NaOH → Na<sup>+</sup> + Al(OH)<sub>3</sub>
 +
 +
Aluminium oxide can be obtained by calcinating aluminium hydroxide between 500-850 ºC:
 +
 +
: 2 Al(OH)<sub>3</sub> → Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> + 3 H<sub>2</sub>O
 +
 +
==Projects==
 +
*Make aluminium salts
  
 
==Handling==
 
==Handling==
No special handling is necessary.
 
 
 
===Safety===
 
===Safety===
Avoid inhalating the dust.
+
No special handling is necessary, though it's recommonded to avoid inhaling in in powdered form. Aluminium oxide isn't flamable or explosive.
Aluminium oxide isn't flamable or explosive.
+
 
 
===Storage===
 
===Storage===
 
Storage in closed bottles is adequate.
 
Storage in closed bottles is adequate.
 +
 
===Disposal===
 
===Disposal===
 
Aluminium oxide could be safely dumped with normal trash or spilled out in a soil.
 
Aluminium oxide could be safely dumped with normal trash or spilled out in a soil.
Line 147: Line 159:
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
 
===Relevant Sciencemadness threads===
 
===Relevant Sciencemadness threads===
[[Category:Oxides]]
+
*[http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=61897 Making Relatively Pure Alumina]
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Chemical compounds]]
 +
[[Category:Inorganic compounds]]
 
[[Category:Aluminium compounds]]
 
[[Category:Aluminium compounds]]
 +
[[Category:Oxides]]
 +
[[Category:Materials unstable in acidic solution]]
 +
[[Category:Materials unstable in basic solution]]
 
[[Category:Solids]]
 
[[Category:Solids]]
 
[[Category:Minerals]]
 
[[Category:Minerals]]

Latest revision as of 08:11, 21 June 2018

Aluminium oxide
Rubies.jpg
Samples of ruby, a red variant of corundum.
Names
IUPAC name
Aluminium(III) oxide
Systematic IUPAC name
Aluminium oxide
Other names
Aloxide
Aloxite
Alumina
Alundum
Corundum
Ruby
Saphire
Identifiers
Jmol-3D images Image
Properties
Al2O3
Molar mass 101.96 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor Odorless
Density 3.95–4.1 g/cm3
Melting point 2,072 °C (3,762 °F; 2,345 K)
Boiling point 2,977 °C (5,391 °F; 3,250 K)
Insoluble
Solubility Reacts with halogenic acids and alkali
Insoluble in organic solvents
Vapor pressure ~0 mmHg
Thermochemistry
50.92 J·mol−1·K−1
−1675.7 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Related compounds
Boron trioxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Aluminium oxide or alumina is the chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen, with chemical formula Al2O3. It's the most common and stable form of the aluminium oxides. Aluminium oxide occurs naturally in it's crystalline alpha phase as mineral corundum.

Properties

Chemical

Aluminium oxide will react with sodium hydroxide to form sodium aluminate.

Physical

Aluminium oxide is a white solid compound, insoluble in water and solvent, but will dissolve in non-oxidizing acids. It is odorless and it's very hard (9 Mohs scale). It's an electrical insulator.

Availability

Aluminium oxide is often present in sandpapers, you can also buy it from mineral collectors as corundum or gemstones like ruby or sapphire. Certain smartphones have colorless transparent protective sheet of synthetic corundum.

Heating elements also contain alumina powder which acts as an insulator for the resistance wiring.

Preparation

Aluminium oxide is a product of thermite reaction:

M2O3 + 2 Al → Al2O3 + 2 M

This reaction also gives various aluminates, and separating the alumina from the slag is complicated and may not worth it.

A much better and simpler method involves the dehydration of aluminium hydroxide, which can be obtained by precipitating an aluminium salt with sodium or potassium hydroxide.

Al(NO3)3 + 3 NaOH → Al(OH)3 + 3 NaNO3

Another route involves adding an acid to sodium aluminate, forming sodium salt of said acid and aluminium oxide/hydroxide. Excess NaOH can be added after the addition of the acid to prevent the formation of aluminium salts. Sodium aluminate itself is obtained from the reaction of sodium hydroxide and aluminium metal.

NaOH + Al → NaAlO2 + H2O + H2
NaAlO2 + H+ + NaOH → Na+ + Al(OH)3

Aluminium oxide can be obtained by calcinating aluminium hydroxide between 500-850 ºC:

2 Al(OH)3 → Al2O3 + 3 H2O

Projects

  • Make aluminium salts

Handling

Safety

No special handling is necessary, though it's recommonded to avoid inhaling in in powdered form. Aluminium oxide isn't flamable or explosive.

Storage

Storage in closed bottles is adequate.

Disposal

Aluminium oxide could be safely dumped with normal trash or spilled out in a soil.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads