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|Name, symbol||Erbium, Er|
|Erbium in the periodic table|
|Standard atomic weight (Ar)||167.259(3)|
|Group, block||, f-block|
|Electron configuration||[Xe] 4f12 6s2|
|2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2|
|Melting point||1802 K (1529 °C, 2784 °F)|
|Boiling point||3141 K (2868 °C, 5194 °F)|
|Density near r.t.||9.066 g/cm3|
|when liquid, at||8.86 g/cm3|
|Heat of fusion||19.90 kJ/mol|
|Heat of||280 kJ/mol|
|Molar heat capacity||28.12 J/(mol·K)|
|Oxidation states||3, 2, 1 (a basic oxide)|
|Electronegativity||Pauling scale: 1.24|
1st: 589.3 kJ/mol |
2nd: 1150 kJ/mol
3rd: 2194 kJ/mol
|Atomic radius||empirical: 176 pm|
|Covalent radius||189±6 pm|
|Crystal structure||Hexagonal close-packed (hcp)|
|Speed of sound thin rod||2830 m/s (at 20 °C)|
|Thermal expansion||12.2 µm/(m·K) (poly)|
|Thermal conductivity||14.5 W/(m·K)|
|Electrical resistivity||0.86·10-6 Ω·m|
|Young's modulus||69.9 GPa|
|Shear modulus||28.3 GPa|
|Bulk modulus||44.4 GPa|
|Vickers hardness||430–700 MPa|
|Brinell hardness||600–1070 MPa|
|CAS Registry Number||7440-52-0|
|Naming||After Ytterby (Sweden), where it was mined|
|Discovery||Carl Gustaf Mosander (1842)|
Erbium is a chemical element in the lanthanide series, with symbol Er and atomic number 68.
Erbium metal tarnishes slowly in air and burns readily to form erbium(III) oxide:
- 4 Er + 3 O2 → 2 Er2O3
Erbium will slowly react with cold water, but the reaction occurs much faster in hot water.
Erbium is a silvery-white malleable metal. It is stable in air, and does not oxidize as quickly as some other rare-earth metals. Erbium is ferromagnetic below 19 K, antiferromagnetic between 19 and 80 K and paramagnetic above 80 K.
Erbium can be purchased online. Metallium sells erbium coins.
Erbium can be prepared by reducing its oxide or salts with calcium at 1450 °C under argon atmosphere.
- Er2O3 + 3 Ca → 2 Er + 3 CaO
- Make erbium compounds
- Erbium(III) chloride
- Erbium glass
Erbium's toxicity is similar to that of other lanthanides.
Erbium should be kept in closed bottles, away from moisture and corrosive vapors.
Best to try to recycle it.