Difference between revisions of "Hydrazine perchlorate"

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Latest revision as of 22:04, 20 March 2020

Hydrazine perchlorate
Names
IUPAC name
Hydrazine perchlorate
Other names
Hydrazine monoperchlorate
Hydrazine, perchloric acid salt
Hydrazinium perchlorate
Properties
H5N2ClO4
Molar mass 132.504 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor Odorless
Density 1.939 g/cm3[1]
Melting point 140–142 °C (284–288 °F; 413–415 K)
Boiling point Decomposes
23.6 g/100 ml (0 °C)
93.1 g/100 ml (75 °C)
Solubility Insoluble in benzene, diethyl ether, isopropanol, toluene
Solubility in ethanol 69 g/100 ml (60 °C)
Hazards
Safety data sheet None
Related compounds
Related compounds
Hydrazine hydrochloride
Hydrazine nitrate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Hydrazine perchlorate, or more correctly but rarer used hydrazinium perchlorate, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula N2H5ClO4.

Properties

Chemical

Hydrazine perchlorate decomposes violently when subjected to strong heat or open flame.[2]

N2H5ClO4 → N2 + 2 H2O + O2 + HCl

Its decomposition can be accelerated by various compounds, such as copper chromite, potassium dichromate, magnesium oxide, etc.

Physical

Hydrazine perchlorate is a colorless solid, soluble in water. It is almost insoluble in ethanol at room temperature, but its solubility increases with temperature and the salt is quite soluble in hot ethanol.

It forms a semihydrate that melts at 64.5 °C.[3]

Explosive

Hydrazine perchlorate is sensitive to strong friction and shock, which will cause detonation.

Availability

Hydrazine perchlorate doesn't appear to be available and has to be made in situ.

Preparation

Hydrazine perchlorate can be made by reacting a 20% solution of freebase hydrazine with an equimolar solution of perchloric acid.[4]

More concentrated reagents can also be used, although this is dangerous as concentrated hydrazine is very toxic.

One recipe shows that hydrazine perchlorate can be prepared by titrating a solution of 85% freebase aq. hydrazine (hydrazine hydrate) to a pH of 3.2 with a solution of 48% perchloric acid. This yielded a stock solution which could be stored indefinitely. Hydrazine perchlorate was precipitated by pouring a volume of this solution into 5 volumes of isopropanol at 0 °C, which causes the salt to precipitate. The hydra­zine perchlorate was filtered, washed with cold isopropanol, and vacuum dried at 80 °C. The yield of this process is >99% and the melting point of the resulting product is 142-143 °C.[5]

Projects

  • Rocket propellant
  • Metal hydrazine perchlorate complexes

Handling

Safety

Hydrazine perchlorate is explosive and toxic. Wear proper protection when handling the compound.

Storage

Don't store it for long, use it as quickly as possible.

Disposal

Dilution in water, followed by destruction with acidified hypochlorite solution.

References

  1. The Deflagration of Hydrazine Perchlorate, J. B. LEVYG. VON ELBER. FRIEDMANT. WALLINS. J. ADAMS, Advanced Propellant Chemistry, Chapter 7, p. 55-72
  2. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ba-1966-0054.ch007
  3. Barlot, J., Marsaule, S., Compt. Rend. 228, 1947 (1949)
  4. https://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/hydrazine_perchlorate/index.html
  5. The Deflagration of Hydrazine Perchlorate, J. B. LEVYG. VON ELBER. FRIEDMANT. WALLINS. J. ADAMS, Advanced Propellant Chemistry, Chapter 7, p. 55-72

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