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| IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass||136.24 g/mol|
|Appearance||Colorless or yellowish liquid|
|Melting point||−74.35 °C (−101.83 °F; 198.80 K)|
|Boiling point||176 °C (349 °F; 449 K)|
| 0.0013 g/100 ml (20 °C)|
0.00138 g/100 ml (25 °C)
|Solubility|| Miscible in alcohol, benzene, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether, oils|
Immiscible with propylene glycol
|Vapor pressure|| 1 mmHg (at 14 °C)|
5 mmHg (at 40 °C)
10 mmHg (at 54 °C)
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich (D-Limonene)|
|Flash point||50 °C (122 °F; 323 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Limonene is a colourless liquid hydrocarbon, classified as a cyclic terpene. The D-isomer is the most common form encountered. The name comes from the lemon, as many citrus fruits and some evergreen plants contain high amounts of the D-isomer. It may be recognized as the smell of oranges, lemons, or other citrus fruits.
Limonene is a relatively stable terpene and can be distilled without decomposition, although at elevated temperatures it cracks to form isoprene.
Limonene is a colorless liquid hydrocarbon. It has a strong smell of orange or lemon peels.
Limonene can be extracted from citrus fruit peels via steam distillation.
Pure limonene can also be bought online.
The synthesis of limonene from basic hydrocarbons is complex, instead it's more efficient to extract it from citrus fruit juice. It is often prepared in introductory organic chemistry classes by steam distilling an orange peel.
- Extract various alkaloids from plants
Limonene and its oxidation products are skin and respiratory irritants, and limonene-1,2-oxide (formed by aerial oxidation) is a known skin sensitizer.
Should be stored under an inert gas, as it will slowly oxidize in contact with air.
Limonene can be safely burned, however this produces lots of soot. Due to its relative high flash point (50 °C) and to reduce soot, mix limonene with a more flammable solvent and then burn it. Best to do it outside.