Nitronium perchlorate

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Nitronium perchlorate
IUPAC name
Nitronium perchlorate
Other names
Nitroxyl perchlorate
Nitryl perchlorate
Molar mass 145.4561 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor Acrid
Density 2.2 g/cm3[1]
Melting point 135 °C (275 °F; 408 K) (decomposes)
Boiling point (decomposes)
Solubility Reacts with many solvents
Soluble in fuming nitric acid, nitromethane, perchloric acid, phosphoryl chloride
Almost insoluble in halocarbons
Solubility in carbon tetrachloride 0.145456 g/100 ml (25 °C)[2]
Solubility in nitromethane 11.6365 g/100 ml (25 °C)[3]
31.8 kJ/mol[4]
Safety data sheet None
Flash point None
Related compounds
Related compounds
Nitronium tetrafluoroborate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Nitronium perchlorate, NO2ClO4, also known as nitryl perchlorate and nitroxyl perchlorate, is an inorganic chemical, the salt of the perchlorate anion and the nitronium cation.



Of all perchlorates, nitronium perchlorate is the most powerful oxidizer.

It reacts extremely powerful with organic solvents, and can cause ignition.

Nitronium perchlorate reacts exothermically with water.


Nitronium perchlorate is a colorless hygroscopic solid, which reacts with many solvents.


Although the compound has been described as "safe", contact with flammable organic solvents such as acetone or diethyl ether has been described as explosive.[5]


Nitronium perchlorate doesn't appear to be commercially available, so it must be prepared in situ.


There are several routes to this compound.

A good route involves reacting dinitrogen pentoxide and anh. perchloric acid. Nitric acid may be formed as side product:[6]

N2O5 + HClO4 → NO2ClO4 + H+ + NO3-

Nitric acid can be used, but the reaction produces water as side product, which must be removed to prevent hydrolysis:[7]

HNO3 + HClO4 → NO2ClO4 + H2O

Both reactions take place in anhydrous nitromethane, at -40 °C.

Addition of dichlorine hexoxide to anh. nitric acid will produce nitronium perchlorate. The product is purified via sublimation under vacuum, with a reported yield of 53 %.[8]

Reacting dichlorine heptoxide with dinitrogen pentoxide in dry carbon tetrachloride will also yield nitronium perchlorate.[9]

A simpler reaction involves addition of nitryl chloride to silver perchlorate. Silver chloride precipitates out of the solution, while the product is purified.[10]

Some sources indicate that this compound can also be produced by reacting nitrogen dioxide and chlorine dioxide with an excess of ozone.


  • Rocker propellant
  • Source of nitronium ions



Nitronium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizer and highly corrosive. It will cause significant burns if it enters contact with skin.


Should not be kept for long periods of time.


Should be carefully added in ice cold water, in small batches at a time, then the solution is neutralized with a base.


  1. Truter, M. R.; Cruickshank, D. W. J.; Jeffrey, G. A.; Acta Crystallographica; vol. 13; (1960); p. 855 - 862
  2. Goddard, D. R.; Hughes, E. D.; Ingold, C. K.; Journal of the Chemical Society; (1950); p. 2559 - 2575
  3. Goddard, D. R.; Hughes, E. D.; Ingold, C. K.; Journal of the Chemical Society; (1950); p. 2559 - 2575
  4. Gilliland, A. A.; Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, Section A: Physics and Chemistry; vol. 66; (1962); p. 447 - 449
  5. Gordon, W. E.; Spinks, J. W. T.; Canadian Journal of Research, Section B: Chemical Sciences; vol. 18; (1940); p. 358 - 362
  6. Goddard, D. R.; Hughes, E. D.; Ingold, C. K.; Journal of the Chemical Society; (1950); p. 2559 - 2575
  7. Goddard, D. R.; Hughes, E. D.; Ingold, C. K.; Journal of the Chemical Society; (1950); p. 2559 - 2575
  8. Pascal, Jean-Louis; Hassan, Abduljabbar; Potier, Jacqueline; Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences, Serie II: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de la Terre et de l'Univers; vol. 302; (1986); p. 817 - 820
  9. Potier, A.; Potier, J.; Rousselet, D.; Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences; vol. 261; (1965); p. 4115 - 4118
  10. Schmeisser, M.; Angewandte Chemie; vol. 67; (1955); p. 493 - 501

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