Nonane

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Nonane
Names
IUPAC name
n-Nonane
Systematic IUPAC name
Nonane
Identifiers
Jmol-3D images Image
Properties
C9H20
Molar mass 128.26 g/mol
Appearance Colorless viscous liquid
Odor Gasoline-like
Density 0.718 g/cm3
Melting point −54.1 – −53.1 °C (−65.4 – −63.6 °F; 219.1–220.1 K)
Boiling point 150.4–151.0 °C (302.7–303.8 °F; 423.5–424.1 K)
Insoluble
Solubility Miscible with hydrocarbons, halocarbons
Vapor pressure 0.59 kPa (at 25.0 °C)
Thermochemistry
−275.7 – −273.7 kJ·mol−1
Hazards
Safety data sheet ScienceLab
Flash point 31.0 °C
Related compounds
Related compounds
Octane
Decane
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Nonane or n-nonane is an organic chemical compound, a straight-chain hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C9H20. Unlike most alkanes, the numeric prefix in its name derives from Latin, rather than Greek (using a Greek prefix would be enneane).

Properties

Chemical

Nonane will burn in air in the presence of an ignition source.

C9H20 + 14 O2 → 9 CO2 + 10 H2O

Physical

Nonane is a colorless liquid, with a petroleum odor, insoluble in water, but miscible with other organic solvents.

Availability

Nonane can be extracted from various petroleum solvents, such as Stoddard solvent (which contains a mixture of aliphatic and alicyclic C7 to C12 hydrocarbons), via fractional distillation, though you need a large amount of Stoddard solvent to obtain any useful amount of n-nonane.

Nonane can also be purchased from chemical suppliers.

Preparation

One way of obtaining (relative) pure nonane is through the decarboxylation of capric acid and its salts. However, this process will also give many side products and purification is required.

Nonane is best purchased than prepared.

Projects

  • Organic extractions

Handling

Safety

Nonane vapors are irritant and because it's flammable, it is considered a fire hazard. However, as it is less volatile than most alkanes, its vapors are generally less of a problem.

Storage

In closed bottles, away from any heat source.

Disposal

Nonane can be safely burned.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads

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