Difference between revisions of "Safe handling and storage of chemicals"

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(Incompatible chemicals)
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{{Stub}}
 
{{Stub}}
'''Storage''' of many chemicals require additional or special requirements, to avoid hazards as well as contamination. However, manipulating said chemicals does not end with the storage area and '''handling them safely''', during various lab practices, such as purification, distillation, preparation for reaction or simply when moving them around, is equally important.
+
'''Storage''' of many chemicals require additional or special requirements, to avoid hazards as well as contamination. However, manipulating said chemicals does not end with the storage area and '''handling them safely''', during various lab practices, such as purification, distillation, transferring, reaction conditions or simply when moving them around the lab, is equally important.
  
 
==Storage area guidelines==
 
==Storage area guidelines==
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*Amines should also not be stored in the same cabinet as acids, as their fumes will react to form a very fine dust.
 
*Amines should also not be stored in the same cabinet as acids, as their fumes will react to form a very fine dust.
  
===Refrigerators===
+
===[[Refrigerator]]s===
 
Refrigerators can be used to store volatile substances and to cool exothermic reactions.
 
Refrigerators can be used to store volatile substances and to cool exothermic reactions.
 
Although domestic refrigerators can be used to store many chemicals, they are unsuitable for storing corrosive chemicals, such as acids. Several important guidelines:
 
Although domestic refrigerators can be used to store many chemicals, they are unsuitable for storing corrosive chemicals, such as acids. Several important guidelines:
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*Periodically open the lids of chemicals which decompose, to allow pressure buildup to release itself. ALWAYS do this when you move a solvent bottle from a cold place to a warm one (some solvents have a very high vapor pressure and can burst if too much pressure builds up inside the reagent bottle).
 
*Periodically open the lids of chemicals which decompose, to allow pressure buildup to release itself. ALWAYS do this when you move a solvent bottle from a cold place to a warm one (some solvents have a very high vapor pressure and can burst if too much pressure builds up inside the reagent bottle).
 
*Although it is usually not a safety hazard, make sure to store dehydrated chemicals in completely sealed, (usually) glass, containers.
 
*Although it is usually not a safety hazard, make sure to store dehydrated chemicals in completely sealed, (usually) glass, containers.
 +
*While not a general rule, it's a good idea to keep extremely hazardous chemicals in plastic bottles, as long as they're compatible, as in the unfortunate event you drop the container on a hard surface, the container must not break, and thus spread the hazardous material all over the floor, which will require cleaning and decontamination. If the hazardous material cannot be stored in a plastic container, and only glass, keep the glass container in a plastic box at all times. This method however is impractical for large bottles, but except for volatile acids you won't usually work with large quantities of hazardous chemicals.
  
 
==Storage of specific materials==
 
==Storage of specific materials==
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===Bases===
 
===Bases===
 
====Alkali bases====
 
====Alkali bases====
Most alkali bases are extremely hygroscopic and will slowly attack glass, and will degrade plastic materials. The also tend to absorb carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide from air. They should be kept in closed thick bottles, made of PE.
+
Most alkali bases are extremely hygroscopic and will slowly attack glass, and will degrade plastic materials. They also tend to absorb carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide from air. Alkali bases should be kept in closed thick bottles, made of PE. Stainless steel containers are also suitable for storage.
  
 
Alkali hydrides will react with both water and air, and must be kept in sealed containers or ampoules.
 
Alkali hydrides will react with both water and air, and must be kept in sealed containers or ampoules.
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===Ethers===
 
===Ethers===
Ethers stored for long periods of time in contact with air will form explosive peroxides, that are a hazard, usually during the distillation, or when opening the storage bottle. Ethers like [[dimethyl ether]], [[methyl tert-butyl ether]] or [[di-tert-butyl ether]] do not form explosive peroxides, while common ethers, like [[diethyl ether]] or [[THF]] will slowly form explosive peroxides over the course of several months. [[Diisopropyl ether]] tends to form explosive peroxides much easier than the former two, and its use in chemistry is generally avoided. To avoid this unpleasant effect, adding small amounts of an anti-oxidant like BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), or a clean copper wire will prevent the formation of peroxides. [[Iron(II) sulfate]] can also be added to neutralize the peroxides. [[Sodium hydroxide]] flakes are generally added to precipitate any forming peroxides. Ethers in general are never distilled to dryness, as ether peroxides tend to explode when dry. Adding dry glycerin may help in keeping the distillation residue wet.  
+
Ethers stored for long periods of time in contact with air will form explosive peroxides, that are a hazard, usually during the distillation, or when opening the storage bottle. Ethers like [[dimethyl ether]], [[methyl tert-butyl ether]] or [[di-tert-butyl ether]] do not form explosive peroxides, while common ethers, like [[diethyl ether]] or [[THF]] will slowly form explosive peroxides over the course of several months. [[Diisopropyl ether]] tends to form explosive peroxides much easier than the former two, and its use in chemistry is generally avoided. To avoid this unpleasant effect, adding small amounts of an anti-oxidant like BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), or a clean copper wire will prevent the formation of peroxides. Sodium metal can also be added to destroy the peroxides, though this is not recommended if you store large amounts of ether, as ether also contains traces of water, which will consume the sodium. [[Iron(II) sulfate]] can also be added to neutralize the peroxides. [[Sodium hydroxide]] flakes are generally added to precipitate any forming peroxides. Ethers in general are never distilled to dryness, as ether peroxides tend to explode when dry. Adding dry glycerin or some other solvent with a very high boiling point may help in keeping the distillation residue wet.
  
 
===[[Gallium]]===
 
===[[Gallium]]===
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====[[Iodine]]====
 
====[[Iodine]]====
 
Iodine is notorious for escaping the storage vessel, as well as corroding almost any material, except glass and noble metals. Its vapors will destroy aluminium, severely corrode iron and its alloys and irreversibly stain most plastic materials. Ampouling is recommended, while sealing the bottle with parafilm or PTFE will only slow its escape. Since its vapors aren't as dangerous to health as bromine, simple storing the container in a corrosive cabinet is usually sufficient.
 
Iodine is notorious for escaping the storage vessel, as well as corroding almost any material, except glass and noble metals. Its vapors will destroy aluminium, severely corrode iron and its alloys and irreversibly stain most plastic materials. Ampouling is recommended, while sealing the bottle with parafilm or PTFE will only slow its escape. Since its vapors aren't as dangerous to health as bromine, simple storing the container in a corrosive cabinet is usually sufficient.
 
===Higher alchols===
 
Alcohols such as [[isopropanol]], [[butanol]], [[2-Butanol|sec-butanol]], have been observed to form explosive peroxides upon storage in the presence of air over very long periods of time (usually years), in the absence of an anti-oxidant. Just like in the case of ethers, they have a much higher boiling point than their respective alcohols, and are prone to detonation when dry. Periodically check the alcohols for any signs of peroxides.
 
  
 
===[[Mercury]]===
 
===[[Mercury]]===
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===Phosphides===
 
===Phosphides===
 
Phosphides, such as [[aluminium phosphide]] are, just like group II carbides, sensitive to water. The reaction of phosphides with water releases the extremely toxic phosphine gas, which in sufficient quantity may cause death. Always keep the phosphide in an air-tight sealed container, in a plastic bag to limit the moisture. It's also recommended to keep it very safe (or not experiment with it at all), as the phosphine smell is usually associated with meth labs, and you may not want the police to pay you a visit in case of a leak.
 
Phosphides, such as [[aluminium phosphide]] are, just like group II carbides, sensitive to water. The reaction of phosphides with water releases the extremely toxic phosphine gas, which in sufficient quantity may cause death. Always keep the phosphide in an air-tight sealed container, in a plastic bag to limit the moisture. It's also recommended to keep it very safe (or not experiment with it at all), as the phosphine smell is usually associated with meth labs, and you may not want the police to pay you a visit in case of a leak.
 +
 +
===Radioactives===
 +
Radioactive elements and their compounds should be kept in thick glass vials, which offer sufficient protection. For more permanent storage, a box made of lead is preferred. When handling radioactive materials, always wear thick gloves, goggles and most importantly a mask. This is because radioactive metals, like [[uranium]], [[thorium]] or [[americium]] rapidly oxidize in air and if the oxide dust is inhaled, it may lead to internal irradiation and heavy metal poisoning.
 +
 +
===Secondary alchols===
 +
Alcohols such as [[isopropanol]], [[2-Butanol|sec-butanol]], have been observed to form explosive peroxides upon storage in the presence of air over very long periods of time (usually years), in the absence of an anti-oxidant. Just like in the case of ethers, they have a much higher boiling point than their respective alcohols, and are prone to detonation when dry. Periodically check the alcohols for any signs of peroxides.
  
 
===Volatile chemicals===
 
===Volatile chemicals===
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In many jurisdictions, dangerous and toxic chemicals need to be stored in a locker, under key. Volatile chemicals must be stored in places with proper ventilation and a fire suppression system or fire extinguisher must be present at all times. Most residential areas do not allow the storage of large amounts of reagents, especially flammable materials or oxidizers.
 
In many jurisdictions, dangerous and toxic chemicals need to be stored in a locker, under key. Volatile chemicals must be stored in places with proper ventilation and a fire suppression system or fire extinguisher must be present at all times. Most residential areas do not allow the storage of large amounts of reagents, especially flammable materials or oxidizers.
  
Keep in mind that the information from this wiki is merely a collection of observations of various chemists and should not be used as a guideline when working with reagents.
+
'''Keep in mind that the information from this wiki is merely a collection of observations of various chemists and should NOT be used as a guideline when working with reagents'''. Always check your local laws first when working with reagents.
  
 
==Incompatible chemicals==
 
==Incompatible chemicals==
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! scope="col"|Keep out of contact with<ref>http://ccc.chem.pitt.edu/wipf/Web/Chemical_Incompatibilities.pdf</ref>
 
! scope="col"|Keep out of contact with<ref>http://ccc.chem.pitt.edu/wipf/Web/Chemical_Incompatibilities.pdf</ref>
 
! scope="col"|Additional notes
 
! scope="col"|Additional notes
 +
|-
 +
| [[1,2-Dichloroethane]]
 +
| Alkali metals, chloric acid, chlorosulfuric acid, chromium (VI) oxide, manganese (VII) oxide, magnesium, metal hydrides, PCl<sub>3</sub>
 +
| Fire hazard, reaction
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[1,2,4-Butanetriol trinitrate]]
 
| [[1,2,4-Butanetriol trinitrate]]
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| Fire hazard, explosion, reaction
 
| Fire hazard, explosion, reaction
 
|-
 
|-
| [[1,2-Dichloroethane]]
+
| [[1,4-Dichlorobenzene]]
| Alkali metals, chloric acid, chlorosulfuric acid, chromium (VI) oxide, manganese (VII) oxide, magnesium, metal hydrides, PCl<sub>3</sub>
+
|  
| Fire hazard, reaction
+
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[1,4-Dioxane]]
 
| [[1,4-Dioxane]]
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| Alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, calcium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates, phosphorus pentoxide
 
| Alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, calcium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates, phosphorus pentoxide
 
| Fire and explosive hazard; Chemical reaction
 
| Fire and explosive hazard; Chemical reaction
 +
|-
 +
| [[4-Aminoantipyrine]]
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Acetaldehyde]]
 
| [[Acetaldehyde]]
 
| Alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, calcium chloride, chloric acid, chlorosulfuric acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates
 
| Alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, calcium chloride, chloric acid, chlorosulfuric acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates
 
| Fire and explosive hazard; Chemical reaction
 
| Fire and explosive hazard; Chemical reaction
 +
|-
 +
| [[Acetamide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Acetic acid]]
 
| [[Acetic acid]]
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| Acetic acid, acids, alkali metals, bases, chromic acid, nitrating agents, nitric acid, oleum, perchlorates, reducing agents, sodium peroxide, steam, diphenyl sulfoxide, trichlorosilane, certain plastics (ABD, CPVC, PVC)
 
| Acetic acid, acids, alkali metals, bases, chromic acid, nitrating agents, nitric acid, oleum, perchlorates, reducing agents, sodium peroxide, steam, diphenyl sulfoxide, trichlorosilane, certain plastics (ABD, CPVC, PVC)
 
| Fire hazard and decomposition
 
| Fire hazard and decomposition
 +
|-
 +
| [[Acetophenone]]
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Acetyl chloride]]
 
| [[Acetyl chloride]]
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Acetylsalicylic acid]]
 
| [[Acetylsalicylic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Acrolein]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Activated carbon]]
 
| [[Activated carbon]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Agar]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Alnico]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Aluminium sulfide]]
 
| [[Aluminium sulfide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Aminoguanidine]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Aminoguanidinium nitrate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ammonium bicarbonate]]
 
| [[Ammonium bicarbonate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ammonium bisulfate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ammonium carbonate]]
 
| [[Ammonium carbonate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ammonium chlorate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ammonium chloride]]
 
| [[Ammonium chloride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ammonium chromate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate]]
 
| [[Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ammonium dinitramide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ammonium heptamolybdate]]
 
| [[Ammonium heptamolybdate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ammonium iron(II) sulfate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ammonium nitrate]]
 
| [[Ammonium nitrate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ammonium nitrite]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Aniline]]
 
| [[Aniline]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Anisole]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Anthraquinone]]
 
| [[Anthraquinone]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Antimony(III) chloride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Antimony(III) oxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Arabitol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Armstrong's mixture]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ascorbic acid]]
 
| [[Ascorbic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Barbituric acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Barium nitrate]]
 
| [[Barium nitrate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Barium oxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Barium perchlorate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Barium permanganate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Barium peroxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Basic lead chromate]]
 
| [[Basic lead chromate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Basic lead picrate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Benzoic acid]]
 
| [[Benzoic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Benzonitrile]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Benzophenone]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Benzoquinone]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Benzyl alcohol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Benzyl chloride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Bis(ethylenediamine)copper(II) perchlorate]]
 
| [[Bis(ethylenediamine)copper(II) perchlorate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Bismuth chloride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Boric acid]]
 
| [[Boric acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Borneol]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Boron trioxide]]
 
| [[Boron trioxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Bromoacetic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Butyl acetate]]
 
| [[Butyl acetate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Butylated hydroxytoluene]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Butyric acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Cadmium acetate]]
 
| [[Cadmium acetate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Cadmium nitrate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Cadmium sulfate]]
 
| [[Cadmium sulfate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Caesium chloride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Caesium hydroxide]]
 
| [[Caesium hydroxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Caffeine]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Calcium chloride]]
 
| [[Calcium chloride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Calcium chromate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Calcium cyanamide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Calcium perchlorate]]
 
| [[Calcium perchlorate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Calcium propionate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Calcium sulfate]]
 
| [[Calcium sulfate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Camphor]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Cellulose]]
 
| [[Cellulose]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Cerium(IV) oxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Chloric acid]]
 
| [[Chloric acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Chlorine dioxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Chloroacetic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Chloroform]]
 
| [[Chloroform]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Chloromethane]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Chloroplatinic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Chlorous acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Chromium trioxide]]
 
| [[Chromium trioxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Chromium(III) chloride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Citric acid]]
 
| [[Citric acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Coal]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Copper(I) chloride]]
 
| [[Copper(I) chloride]]
 +
| Hydrogen peroxide
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Copper(I) oxide]]
 
| Hydrogen peroxide
 
| Hydrogen peroxide
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Curcumin]]
 
| [[Curcumin]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Cyanogen]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Cyanuric acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Diatomaceous earth]]
 
| [[Diatomaceous earth]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Dichloroacetic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Dichloromethane]]
 
| [[Dichloromethane]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Dicyanoacetylene]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Diethyl ether]]
 
| [[Diethyl ether]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Difluoroacetic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Diisopropyl ether]]
 
| [[Diisopropyl ether]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Dimethyl dioxane]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Dimethyl sulfoxide]]
 
| [[Dimethyl sulfoxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Dimethyldioxirane]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Dimethylformamide]]
 
| [[Dimethylformamide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Dinitrogen pentoxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Dinitrogen tetroxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Dinitrogen trioxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Dipicolinic acid]]
 
| [[Dipicolinic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Dipotassium phosphate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Dynamite]]
 
| [[Dynamite]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Dysprosium(III) nitrate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Erbium(III) oxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ethanol]]
 
| [[Ethanol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ethanolamine]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ethenone]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
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|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ethyl iodide]]
 
| [[Ethyl iodide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ethylene]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 747: Line 1,023:
 
| Nitromethane
 
| Nitromethane
 
| Explosion
 
| Explosion
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Eucalyptol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ferrocerium]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ferulic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Fluorescein]]
 
| [[Fluorescein]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Fluoroacetic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Fluorosulfuric acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Formaldehyde]]
 
| [[Formaldehyde]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Formamide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 765: Line 1,069:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Furfural]]
 
| [[Furfural]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Galactitol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Gelatin]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Glucose]]
 
| [[Glucose]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Glutamic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Glycerol]]
 
| [[Glycerol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Glycine]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Glycolic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Guanidine]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Guanidinium bicarbonate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Guanidinium carbonate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Guanidinium chloride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Guanidinium nitrate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Guanidinium perchlorate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Guanidinium sulfate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Gum arabic]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 797: Line 1,153:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Hexane]]
 
| [[Hexane]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[HMX]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 857: Line 1,221:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Hydroiodic acid]]
 
| [[Hydroiodic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Hydroquinone]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Hydroxylamine]]
 
| [[Hydroxylamine]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Hypochlorous acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Iditol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Inositol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Iodoacetic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Iodoform]]
 
| [[Iodoform]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Iron(II) chloride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 901: Line 1,289:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Isopropylamine]]
 
| [[Isopropylamine]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Juglone]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Kojic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Lactic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 929: Line 1,329:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Lead(IV) acetate]]
 
| [[Lead(IV) acetate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Lead(IV) oxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Lead styphnate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 937: Line 1,345:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Lithium aluminium hydride]]
 
| [[Lithium aluminium hydride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Lithium borohydride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 945: Line 1,357:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Lithium chloride]]
 
| [[Lithium chloride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Lithium hydride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Lithium hydroxide]]
 
| [[Lithium hydroxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Magnesium carbonate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 957: Line 1,377:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Magnesium hydroxide]]
 
| [[Magnesium hydroxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Magnesium nitrate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Magnesium oxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 969: Line 1,397:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Manganese heptoxide]]
 
| [[Manganese heptoxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Manganese(II) chloride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Manganese(II) sulfate]]
 
| [[Manganese(II) sulfate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Mannitol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Mannitol hexanitrate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 993: Line 1,433:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Mercury(II) nitrate]]
 
| [[Mercury(II) nitrate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Mercury(II) oxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,017: Line 1,461:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Methyl blue]]
 
| [[Methyl blue]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Methyl cellosolve]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,069: Line 1,517:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Murexide]]
 
| [[Murexide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[N-Allylthiourea]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,089: Line 1,541:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Niacin]]
 
| [[Niacin]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Nickel hydrazine nitrate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,101: Line 1,557:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Nitric acid]]
 
| [[Nitric acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Nitric oxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Nitrobenzene]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,109: Line 1,573:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Nitrogen dioxide]]
 
| [[Nitrogen dioxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Nitroethane]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,121: Line 1,589:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Nitroglycerin]]
 
| [[Nitroglycerin]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Nitroguanidine]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Nitromethane]]
 
| [[Nitromethane]]
 +
| Amines
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Nitrosyl chloride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,145: Line 1,621:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Octyl acetate]]
 
| [[Octyl acetate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Osmium tetroxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Oxalic acid]]
 
| [[Oxalic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Oxalyl chloride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ozone]]
 
| [[Ozone]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[p-Dimethylaminobenzalrhodanine]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,165: Line 1,653:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Pentane]]
 
| [[Pentane]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Pentanoic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Pentanol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Peracetic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,173: Line 1,673:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Permanganic acid]]
 
| [[Permanganic acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Peroxydisulfuric acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Peroxymonosulfuric acid]]
 
| [[Peroxymonosulfuric acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Petroleum]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Petroleum ether]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,233: Line 1,745:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Phosphoryl chloride]]
 
| [[Phosphoryl chloride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Phthalic anhydride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,257: Line 1,773:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Potassium bisulfite]]
 
| [[Potassium bisulfite]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Potassium bitartrate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,301: Line 1,821:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Potassium hexachlorostannate]]
 
| [[Potassium hexachlorostannate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Potassium hydrogen phthalate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Potassium hydroxide]]
 
| [[Potassium hydroxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Potassium hypochlorite]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,349: Line 1,877:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Potassium sodium tartrate]]
 
| [[Potassium sodium tartrate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Potassium sorbate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,357: Line 1,889:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Potassium sulfite]]
 
| [[Potassium sulfite]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Potassium tert-butoxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,377: Line 1,913:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Propylene glycol]]
 
| [[Propylene glycol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Propylene oxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,389: Line 1,929:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Pyridine]]
 
| [[Pyridine]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Quinine]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[RDX]]
 
| [[RDX]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Resorcinol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ribitol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Ricinoleic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Rosocyanine]]
 
| [[Rosocyanine]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Rubidium hydroxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,412: Line 1,972:
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
| [[sec-Butanol]]
+
| [[sec-Butanol|''sec''-Butanol]]
 
| Alkali hydroxides, alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, carboxylic acids, chloric acid, chromic acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, manganese (VII) oxide, nitric acid, organic acid anhydrides, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates
 
| Alkali hydroxides, alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, carboxylic acids, chloric acid, chromic acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, manganese (VII) oxide, nitric acid, organic acid anhydrides, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates
 
| Fire hazard, esterification with acids
 
| Fire hazard, esterification with acids
Line 1,421: Line 1,981:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Silicon dioxide]]
 
| [[Silicon dioxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Silver acetate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Silver azide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Silver carbonate]]
 
| [[Silver carbonate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Silver(I) fluoride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Silver fulminate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Silver nitrate]]
 
| [[Silver nitrate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Silver nitrite]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,445: Line 2,025:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium acetylsalicylate]]
 
| [[Sodium acetylsalicylate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium aluminium hydride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium amide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,465: Line 2,053:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium bisulfite]]
 
| [[Sodium bisulfite]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium borohydride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium bromide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,477: Line 2,073:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium chloride]]
 
| [[Sodium chloride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium chlorite]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium chromate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium cyanide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium dichromate]]
 
| [[Sodium dichromate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium dithionite]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium dodecyl sulfate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium ethoxide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium ferrate]]
 
| [[Sodium ferrate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium fluoride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium formate]]
 
| [[Sodium formate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium hexafluoroaluminate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium hexametaphosphate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium hydride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,497: Line 2,133:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium hypochlorite]]
 
| [[Sodium hypochlorite]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium iodide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,505: Line 2,145:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium methoxide]]
 
| [[Sodium methoxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium methyl sulfate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,513: Line 2,157:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium nitrite]]
 
| [[Sodium nitrite]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium nitroprusside]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium oxide]]
 
| [[Sodium oxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium perborate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,525: Line 2,177:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium perchlorate]]
 
| [[Sodium perchlorate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium permanganate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium peroxide]]
 
| [[Sodium peroxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium persulfate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,541: Line 2,201:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sodium sulfate]]
 
| [[Sodium sulfate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sodium sulfide]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,553: Line 2,217:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Solochrome cyanine R]]
 
| [[Solochrome cyanine R]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sorbic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,565: Line 2,233:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Strontium carbonate]]
 
| [[Strontium carbonate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Strontium nitrate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Strontium oxide]]
 
| [[Strontium oxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Strontium sulfate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,577: Line 2,253:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sucrose]]
 
| [[Sucrose]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sulfamic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sulfanilamide]]
 
| [[Sulfanilamide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Sulfanilic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,605: Line 2,289:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Sulfuryl chloride]]
 
| [[Sulfuryl chloride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Tartaric acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Tartrazine]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,620: Line 2,312:
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
| [[tert-Butanol]]
+
| [[tert-Amyl alcohol|''tert''-Amyl alcohol]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[tert-Butanol|''tert''-Butanol]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,645: Line 2,341:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Tetryl]]
 
| [[Tetryl]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Thioglycolic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Thionyl chloride]]
 
| [[Thionyl chloride]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Thiourea]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Threitol]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,661: Line 2,369:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Titanium dioxide]]
 
| [[Titanium dioxide]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Titanium(IV) chloride]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Toluene]]
 
| [[Toluene]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Trichloroacetic acid]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,673: Line 2,389:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Trichloroisocyanuric acid]]
 
| [[Trichloroisocyanuric acid]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Triethyl borate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Triethyl citrate]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 1,685: Line 2,409:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Trimethyl borate]]
 
| [[Trimethyl borate]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Trimethylphosphine]]
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Trinitrotoluene]]
 
| [[Trinitrotoluene]]
 +
|
 +
|
 +
|-
 +
| [[Triphenylphosphine]]
 
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[[Category:Lab safety]]
 
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[[Category:Practices]]

Latest revision as of 19:43, 6 October 2019

Storage of many chemicals require additional or special requirements, to avoid hazards as well as contamination. However, manipulating said chemicals does not end with the storage area and handling them safely, during various lab practices, such as purification, distillation, transferring, reaction conditions or simply when moving them around the lab, is equally important.

Storage area guidelines

Storage cabinets and shelves

  • Oxidizing acids and flammable solvents must be stored in separate locations.
  • Solvents in general must be stored away from any source of heat and light.
  • Hazardous materials, especially those that are water sensitive, should not be stored under sinks (except cleaners).[1]

Corrosive chemicals cabinet

Strong acids are usually stored here

  • Such cabinets should either be made from chemical resistant materials or lined with such.
  • A double door is recommended.
  • Scrubbers are optional, but recommended. An open container of baking soda should take care of acidic vapors.
  • Do not store metals or other reducing chemicals in the same cabinet.
  • Do not store nitrates and oxochlorine anions in the acids cabinet.
  • Amines should also not be stored in the same cabinet as acids, as their fumes will react to form a very fine dust.

Refrigerators

Refrigerators can be used to store volatile substances and to cool exothermic reactions. Although domestic refrigerators can be used to store many chemicals, they are unsuitable for storing corrosive chemicals, such as acids. Several important guidelines:

  • Avoid storing acids, as the escaping vapors will corrode the refrigerator.
  • Do not store food in the same refrigerator. Do not reuse a chemical refrigerator for food.

Cryonics

  • Avoid storing the cryogenic container in light or near a heat source.
  • Periodically check the valves.
  • Always ensure that cryogenic container has a pressure release valve

Distillation

  • Always turn on the cooling first before performing any other operation.
  • Ethers and long-chained alcohols must never be distilled to dryness, as they tend form explosive peroxides during storage that can explode when dry.

Containers

  • Never store solvents in plastic containers, even those which are supposed to be insoluble in the solvent. One exception is hydrofluoric acid, which cannot be kept in glass, and is generally kept in thick polyethylene or PTFE bottles.
  • Periodically open the lids of chemicals which decompose, to allow pressure buildup to release itself. ALWAYS do this when you move a solvent bottle from a cold place to a warm one (some solvents have a very high vapor pressure and can burst if too much pressure builds up inside the reagent bottle).
  • Although it is usually not a safety hazard, make sure to store dehydrated chemicals in completely sealed, (usually) glass, containers.
  • While not a general rule, it's a good idea to keep extremely hazardous chemicals in plastic bottles, as long as they're compatible, as in the unfortunate event you drop the container on a hard surface, the container must not break, and thus spread the hazardous material all over the floor, which will require cleaning and decontamination. If the hazardous material cannot be stored in a plastic container, and only glass, keep the glass container in a plastic box at all times. This method however is impractical for large bottles, but except for volatile acids you won't usually work with large quantities of hazardous chemicals.

Storage of specific materials

Alkali metals

Lithium

Lithium poses an unusual problem in that it is lighter than almost every single nonpolar organic solvent. The only ones in which it sinks are liquid ethane and methane, which are generally not available or feasible to the amateur chemist. Weighting pieces of lithium down with a heavier metal, such as copper or lead, is common practice. If the metal consists of large or flat pieces, a neat trick is to place a flipped small stainless steel sifter over them. The sieve's weight will hold the lithium chunks at the bottom of the oil container, while allowing the oil to pass through its holes. And since lithium is harder than the other alkali metals, it will not extrude itself through the sifter holes due to its buoyancy. Try using sifters with large holes.

If the bottle can be sealed efficiently, you can also simply flip it upside down, like seen here. This reduces significantly the amount of oxygen that enters the bottle, as oxygen is extremely poorly soluble in mineral oil.

Sodium

Sodium is more reactive than lithium, but it's denser than mineral oil and most organic solvents and can be easily stored for months.

Potassium

Potassium is more reactive than the first two and while it can be stored under mineral oil, it will corrode much faster. A a black layer of oxides and superoxides will slowly form on the surface of the metal after 1-2 months, which is known to be a shock sensitive explosive when thick enough. As such, sealing the bottle is recommended. Ampouling is sometimes used.

If you cannot ampoule the metal or use it quickly, you must clean it every few weeks by removing the black layer, using isopropanol.

Rubidium and caesium

Both rubidium and cesium are extremely reactive and even pyrophoric. They can only be stored under mineral oil for short periods, ampouling is used instead.

NaK

Unlike the pure alkali metals, the sodium-potassium mixture, in a 77:23 K-Na ratio, is liquid at standard conditions. It is pyrophoric and less dense than water. It is usually stored under hexane or ampouled, since it's lighter than most organic solvents used to store alkali metals. It will also corrode PTFE.

Ammonium compounds

While ammonium salts of strong acids are stable and can be kept for long periods of time, even in the presence of moisture, the salts of weaker acids will slowly decompose over time, to release ammonia gas, as well as vapors of the said acid (ammonium acetate for example tends to give off a strong vinegar smell over time). This can be limited if the container is kept at low temperatures. Such container should be open periodically, to release the ammonia build-up.

Bases

Alkali bases

Most alkali bases are extremely hygroscopic and will slowly attack glass, and will degrade plastic materials. They also tend to absorb carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide from air. Alkali bases should be kept in closed thick bottles, made of PE. Stainless steel containers are also suitable for storage.

Alkali hydrides will react with both water and air, and must be kept in sealed containers or ampoules.

Alkaline earth bases

Alkaline earth bases are less hygroscopic that their alkali counterparts, but will still react with water and carbon and sulfur dioxides. They can be kept in both plastic and glass containers, as they react much slower with them than the alkali bases.

Alkaline earth hydrides are less reactive that their alkali counterparts, but they still have to be kept in sealed containers, away from moisture and most gasses.

Beryllium

Although beryllium and its compounds have very useful properties in many applications, their toxicity limits their use. Beryllium metal will slowly oxidize in open air to form beryllium oxide, which is easy to scrape off the metal and get airborne. If inhaled, beryllium can cause various illnesses, such as berylliosis. Bulk metal is less prone to releasing toxic dust, but finely powdered beryllium is a greater hazard, and is best to keep it ampouled or in a container with inert gas, to limit oxidation.

Carbides

Calcium carbide

Calcium carbide, like most alkaline earth carbides is sensitive to moisture, and will release acetylene gas in contact with water. Consumer grade CaC2 also contains traces of calcium phosphide, which in contact with water releases toxic phosphine gas, which gives carbide its bad smell, and may also pose a fire hazard. Always keep the calcium carbide in a closed or sealed container, and absolutely away from moisture. Since air contains moisture, the bottle must also be kept airtight.

Ethers

Ethers stored for long periods of time in contact with air will form explosive peroxides, that are a hazard, usually during the distillation, or when opening the storage bottle. Ethers like dimethyl ether, methyl tert-butyl ether or di-tert-butyl ether do not form explosive peroxides, while common ethers, like diethyl ether or THF will slowly form explosive peroxides over the course of several months. Diisopropyl ether tends to form explosive peroxides much easier than the former two, and its use in chemistry is generally avoided. To avoid this unpleasant effect, adding small amounts of an anti-oxidant like BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), or a clean copper wire will prevent the formation of peroxides. Sodium metal can also be added to destroy the peroxides, though this is not recommended if you store large amounts of ether, as ether also contains traces of water, which will consume the sodium. Iron(II) sulfate can also be added to neutralize the peroxides. Sodium hydroxide flakes are generally added to precipitate any forming peroxides. Ethers in general are never distilled to dryness, as ether peroxides tend to explode when dry. Adding dry glycerin or some other solvent with a very high boiling point may help in keeping the distillation residue wet.

Gallium

Gallium has a very low melting point of only 29.76 °C, which means it can melt in one's hand. While it is non-toxic, liquid gallium will rapidly diffuse in aluminium and severely damage it. The resulting gallium-aluminium alloy will react with acids much faster, but will also react with alcohols and even water. Because of this phenomenon, avoid putting gallium on aluminium objects or other gallium susceptible alloys. Unlike most materials, gallium will expand as it solidifies, a property similar to that of water, bismuth, germanium, silicon and plutonium. It cannot be stored in glass containers, as the expansion will crack the glass, nor metal as it will also deform metal container. Instead, gallium is best stored in thick PE bottles.

Halogenated carbons

Chloroform

Chloroform will form phosgene over long periods of time, in contact with air and UV light. Keep the chloroform in amber bottles and add a small quantity of ethanol or other preservative to limit the formation of phosgene.

Halogens

Bromine

Bromine is extremely difficult to safely store, as its vapors will escape the storing bottle and corrode most metals and many plastic materials. Sealing the storage bottle with parafilm or PTFE will slow the vapors from escaping, but parafilm will eventually degrade, and needs to be replaced periodically. Ampouling is recommended, though sealing the ampoule is complicated by the volatility of bromine. Unlike iodine vapors, the bromine ones are more toxic, and is recommended that the bottle should be stored in a container with a scrubbing agent, like a thiosulfate salt, inside the storage cabinet.

Iodine

Iodine is notorious for escaping the storage vessel, as well as corroding almost any material, except glass and noble metals. Its vapors will destroy aluminium, severely corrode iron and its alloys and irreversibly stain most plastic materials. Ampouling is recommended, while sealing the bottle with parafilm or PTFE will only slow its escape. Since its vapors aren't as dangerous to health as bromine, simple storing the container in a corrosive cabinet is usually sufficient.

Mercury

Mercury is the only liquid metal at room temperature, and as such it can flow from its container in the event of a spill. While the metal itself is relative inert, its vapors pose a hazard if inhaled over a long period of time. Mercury can be stored in glass or plastic bottles, away from certain metals such as aluminium. It is not always necessary to seal the container, but it is recommended to limit the exposure to mercury vapors. The mercury container can also be placed in another, where sulfur powder is added, to absorb its fumes and limit its escape.

Osmium

Bulk osmium is extremely resistant to corrosion and does not oxidize under standard conditions, but fine osmium powder is much more reactive and will slowly oxidize to form the dangerous osmium tetroxide, which has a relative low melting point (40.25 °C) and tends to volatilize easily. The biggest hazard is that it takes a few hours for the poisoning symptoms to appear, so it's difficult to determine the level of exposure. A good tip is to add a gas heavier than air inside the container, like carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride, argon, etc., to limit the oxidation of the osmium powder.

Phosphides

Phosphides, such as aluminium phosphide are, just like group II carbides, sensitive to water. The reaction of phosphides with water releases the extremely toxic phosphine gas, which in sufficient quantity may cause death. Always keep the phosphide in an air-tight sealed container, in a plastic bag to limit the moisture. It's also recommended to keep it very safe (or not experiment with it at all), as the phosphine smell is usually associated with meth labs, and you may not want the police to pay you a visit in case of a leak.

Radioactives

Radioactive elements and their compounds should be kept in thick glass vials, which offer sufficient protection. For more permanent storage, a box made of lead is preferred. When handling radioactive materials, always wear thick gloves, goggles and most importantly a mask. This is because radioactive metals, like uranium, thorium or americium rapidly oxidize in air and if the oxide dust is inhaled, it may lead to internal irradiation and heavy metal poisoning.

Secondary alchols

Alcohols such as isopropanol, sec-butanol, have been observed to form explosive peroxides upon storage in the presence of air over very long periods of time (usually years), in the absence of an anti-oxidant. Just like in the case of ethers, they have a much higher boiling point than their respective alcohols, and are prone to detonation when dry. Periodically check the alcohols for any signs of peroxides.

Volatile chemicals

Unless you're perfectly sealing the containers, volatile chemicals such as volatile solvents will eventually escape the bottle. While you can seal the bottles with tape to limit the evaporation, you must make sure the reagents are kept at low temperatures if stored for long periods of time.

Chemical compounds with a boiling point between the freezing point of water and room temperature should either be kept in a freezer, or in a gas cylinder under pressure, while compounds with a boiling point lower than the freezing point of water must always be kept in a gas cylinder.

White phosphorus

White phosphorus should be tightly sealed in an extremely durable container, away from light to prevent degradation. WP can be safely stored underwater. Always check the water lever, to make sure the phosphorus is not exposed to air.

Handling

Acids

Hydrofluoric acid

Hydrofluoric acid should never be kept or handled in glass containers (e.g. beakers), because of its ability to dissolve (most) oxides and silicates. It should be handled in thick plastic containers. It should only be handled in a fume hood, or gloveboxes. Nitrile gloves are not very useful at concentrations higher than 30%. For concentrations between 30-70%, butyl rubber and neoprene gloves offer protection for at least 4 hours, where as for concentrations higher than 70%, gloves made of neoprene rubber, Barrier® (PE/PA/PE), Trellchem® HPS or Tychem® TK will offer protection for a same time period.[2] Always use thick gloves, never thin. A good tip is to wear two pairs of gloves at a time, changing the outer pair after a few uses. NEVER use natural rubber, as HF readily penetrates it. For body protection, always wear a long-sleeved lab coat and chemical-resistant apron over long-sleeved shirt, long pants, and closed shoes. Goggles, along with a face shield or a mask should be worn as face protection. A neutralizing agent such as sodium bicarbonate or calcium carbonate should be kept near the working stand. An antidote, like calcium gluconate should be kept close in the event of an accident.

Perchloric acid

The maximum concentration at which perchloric acid can be safely stored is 70%. As it is a very powerful oxidizer, all the glassware where is about to be poured in should be inspected for any organic traces. The storage containers and beakers should be perfectly cleaned and dry. While experiments with perchloric acid can be performed outside, there is a risk of contaminating both the acid and glassware with organic materials such as dust, insects or other particulates, especially when working at high concentrations. Gloveboxes are not entirely suitable, as the closed environment may allow the build-up of dangerous perchloric acid vapors. If you have the skills, you may be able to construct a washing system to flush out the acid vapors and safely neutralize them. Specially designed fume hoods with wash down systems are generally preferred when working with perchloric acid. These fume hoods are lined with PVC or 316 type stainless steel and have a wash down system than removes the perchloric acid vapors, which are drained to labeled waste containers.

Legal considerations

In many jurisdictions, dangerous and toxic chemicals need to be stored in a locker, under key. Volatile chemicals must be stored in places with proper ventilation and a fire suppression system or fire extinguisher must be present at all times. Most residential areas do not allow the storage of large amounts of reagents, especially flammable materials or oxidizers.

Keep in mind that the information from this wiki is merely a collection of observations of various chemists and should NOT be used as a guideline when working with reagents. Always check your local laws first when working with reagents.

Incompatible chemicals

Chemical Keep out of contact with[3] Additional notes
1,2-Dichloroethane Alkali metals, chloric acid, chlorosulfuric acid, chromium (VI) oxide, manganese (VII) oxide, magnesium, metal hydrides, PCl3 Fire hazard, reaction
1,2,4-Butanetriol trinitrate Alkali metals, chloric acid, chlorosulfuric acid, chromium (VI) oxide, manganese (VII) oxide, magnesium, metal hydrides, PCl3 Fire hazard, explosion, reaction
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
1,4-Dioxane Chloric acid, chromic acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, manganese (VII) oxide, nitric acid, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates Fire hazard; peroxide formation
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Chloric acid, chromic acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, manganese (VII) oxide, nitric acid, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides Fire hazard
2,4-Dinitrobromobenzene Alkali hydroxides, alkali metals, chloric acid, chromic acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, manganese (VII) oxide, nitric acid, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates Fire hazard, hydrolysis with bases
2-nitrotoluene Alkali hydroxides, alkali metals, chloric acid, chromic acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, manganese (VII) oxide, nitric acid, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates Fire hazard, hydrolysis with bases
2-Octanone Alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, calcium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates, phosphorus pentoxide Fire and explosive hazard; Chemical reaction
4-Aminoantipyrine
Acetaldehyde Alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, calcium chloride, chloric acid, chlorosulfuric acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates Fire and explosive hazard; Chemical reaction
Acetamide
Acetic acid Alkali metals, chloric acid, chlorosulfuric acid, chromium (VI) oxide, ethylene glycol, ethylene-imine, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl compounds, manganese (VII) oxide, magnesium, metal hydrides, nitric acid, oleum, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates, potassium tert-butoxide, PCl3 Fire hazard
Acetic anhydride Alkali metals, chloric acid, chlorosulfuric acid, chromium (VI) oxide, ethylene glycol, ethylene-imine, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl compounds, manganese (VII) oxide, magnesium, metal hydrides, nitric acid, oleum, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates, potassium tert-butoxide, PCl3, water Fire hazard
Acetone Alkali metals, calcium chloride, chloric acid, chlorosulfuric acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates, phosphorus pentoxide Fire and explosive hazard; Chemical reaction
Acetone peroxide Most common metals, static-prone materials (cloths) Explosive hazard
Acetonitrile Acetic acid, acids, alkali metals, bases, chromic acid, nitrating agents, nitric acid, oleum, perchlorates, reducing agents, sodium peroxide, steam, diphenyl sulfoxide, trichlorosilane, certain plastics (ABD, CPVC, PVC) Fire hazard and decomposition
Acetophenone
Acetyl chloride
Acetylene Alkali hydrides, brass, bromine, chlorine, copper, copper salts, fluorine, mercury, mercury salts, nitric acid, potassium. silver, silver salts Fire and explosive hazard
Acetylsalicylic acid
Acrolein
Activated carbon
Agar
Alnico
Alpha-pinene
Aluminium chloride
Aluminium isopropoxide
Aluminium nitrate
Aluminium oxide
Aluminium sulfate
Aluminium sulfide
Aminoguanidine
Aminoguanidinium nitrate
Ammonia
Ammonium acetate
Ammonium azide Copper Explosion
Ammonium bicarbonate
Ammonium bisulfate
Ammonium bisulfite
Ammonium carbonate
Ammonium chlorate
Ammonium chloride
Ammonium chromate
Ammonium dichromate
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate
Ammonium dinitramide
Ammonium formate
Ammonium heptamolybdate
Ammonium iron(II) sulfate
Ammonium nitrate
Ammonium nitrite
Ammonium oxalate
Ammonium perchlorate
Ammonium permanganate
Ammonium persulfate
Ammonium sulfate
Ammonium sulfide
Ammonium sulfite
Ammonium thiosulfate
Aniline
Anisole
Anthocyanin
Anthraquinone
Antimony(III) chloride
Antimony(III) oxide
Arabitol
Armstrong's mixture
Asbestos
Ascorbic acid
Barbituric acid
Barium carbonate
Barium chlorate
Barium chloride
Barium ferrate
Barium manganate
Barium nitrate
Barium oxide
Barium perchlorate
Barium permanganate
Barium peroxide
Barium sulfate
Basic lead chromate
Basic lead picrate
Benzaldehyde
Benzene
Benzocaine
Benzododecinium bromide
Benzoic acid
Benzonitrile
Benzophenone
Benzoquinone
Benzyl alcohol
Benzyl chloride
Bis(ethylenediamine)copper(II) perchlorate
Bismuth chloride
Bismuth trioxide
Biuret
Biuret reagent
Black powder
Borax
Boric acid
Borneol
Boron trioxide
Bromoacetic acid
Bromocresol green
Bromothymol blue
Butane
Butanol
Butyl acetate
Butylated hydroxytoluene
Butyric acid
Cadmium acetate
Cadmium nitrate
Cadmium sulfate
Caesium chloride
Caesium hydroxide
Caffeine
Calcium acetate
Calcium carbide
Calcium carbonate
Calcium chloride
Calcium chromate
Calcium cyanamide
Calcium fluoride
Calcium gluconate
Calcium hydride
Calcium hydroxide
Calcium hypochlorite
Calcium nitrate
Calcium oxide
Calcium perchlorate
Calcium propionate
Calcium sulfate
Camphor
Carbon dioxide
Carbon disulfide
Carbon monoxide
Carbon tetrachloride
Carbonic acid
Cellulose
Cerium(IV) oxide
Charcoal
Chevreul's salt
Chloric acid
Chlorine dioxide
Chloroacetic acid
Chloroauric acid
Chlorobutanol
Chloroform
Chloromethane
Chloroplatinic acid
Chlorous acid
Chromic acid
Chromium trioxide
Chromium(III) chloride
Chromium(III) oxide
Chromium(III) sulfate
Chromium(VI) oxide peroxide
Chromyl chloride
Citric acid
Coal
Cobalt (III) oxide
Cobalt(II) chloride
Cobalt(II) sulfate
Copper chromite
Copper citrate
Copper oxychloride
Copper(I) chloride Hydrogen peroxide
Copper(I) oxide Hydrogen peroxide
Copper(II) acetate
Copper(II) acetylsalicylate
Copper(II) carbonate
Copper(II) chloride
Copper(II) hydroxide
Copper(II) nitrate
Copper(II) oxide
Copper(II) phosphate
Copper(II) sulfate
Curcumin
Cyanogen
Cyanuric acid
Cyclohexane
Decane
Dextrin
Di-tert-butyl ether
Diatomaceous earth
Dichloroacetic acid
Dichloromethane
Dicyanoacetylene
Diethyl ether
Difluoroacetic acid
Diisopropyl ether
Dimethyl dioxane
Dimethyl ether
Dimethyl sulfoxide
Dimethyldioxirane
Dimethylformamide
Dinitrogen pentoxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide
Dinitrogen trioxide
Dipicolinic acid
Dipotassium phosphate
Disulfur dichloride
Dynamite
Dysprosium(III) nitrate
Erbium(III) oxide
Eriochrome Black T
Erythritol
Erythritol tetranitrate
Ethane
Ethanol
Ethanolamine
Ethenone
Ethyl acetate
Ethyl formate
Ethyl iodide
Ethylene
Ethylene glycol
Ethylene glycol dinitrate
Ethylene oxide
Ethylenediamine Nitromethane Explosion
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
Eucalyptol
Ferrocerium
Ferulic acid
Fluorescein
Fluoroacetic acid
Fluorosulfuric acid
Formaldehyde
Formamide
Formic acid
Fructose
Furfural
Galactitol
Gelatin
Glucose
Glutamic acid
Glycerol
Glycine
Glycolic acid
Guanidine
Guanidinium bicarbonate
Guanidinium carbonate
Guanidinium chloride
Guanidinium nitrate
Guanidinium perchlorate
Guanidinium sulfate
Gum arabic
Haematoxylin
Hematein
Heptane
Hexamethylene triperoxide diamine
Hexamine
Hexane
Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane
HMX
Holmium citrate
Hydrazine
Hydrazine sulfate
Hydrazoic acid
Hydrobromic acid
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrofluoric acid
Hydrogen bromide
Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen cyanide
Hydrogen fluoride
Hydrogen iodide
Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen sulfide
Hydroiodic acid
Hydroquinone
Hydroxylamine
Hypochlorous acid
Iditol
Inositol
Iodoacetic acid
Iodoform
Iron(II) chloride
Iron(II) sulfate
Iron(II,III) oxide
Iron(III) chloride
Iron(III) oxide
Iron(III) sulfate
Isobutanol
Isopropanol
Isopropyl nitrite
Isopropylamine
Juglone
Kojic acid
Lactic acid
Lead(II) acetate
Lead(II) azide
Lead(II) chromate
Lead(II) nitrate
Lead(II) oxide
Lead(II,IV) oxide
Lead(IV) acetate
Lead(IV) oxide
Lead styphnate
Limonene
Lithium aluminium hydride
Lithium borohydride
Lithium carbonate
Lithium chloride
Lithium hydride
Lithium hydroxide
Magnesium carbonate
Magnesium chloride
Magnesium hydroxide
Magnesium nitrate
Magnesium oxide
Magnesium sulfate
Manganese dioxide
Manganese heptoxide
Manganese(II) chloride
Manganese(II) sulfate
Mannitol
Mannitol hexanitrate
Menthol
Mercury sulfide
Mercury(II) chloride
Mercury(II) fulminate
Mercury(II) nitrate
Mercury(II) oxide
Mercury(II) sulfate
Mercury(II) thiocyanate
Methane
Methanol
Methyl acetate
Methyl blue
Methyl cellosolve
Methyl ethyl ketone
Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide
Methyl formate
Methyl iodide
Methyl nitrate
Methyl orange
Methyl red
Methyl salicylate
Methyl tert-butyl ether
Methylamine
Methylene blue
Monopotassium phosphate
Murexide
N-Allylthiourea
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone
Naphthalene
Naphthol Green B
Neodymium oxalate
Niacin
Nickel hydrazine nitrate
Nickel(II) sulfate
Nicotine
Nitric acid
Nitric oxide
Nitrobenzene
Nitrocellulose
Nitrogen dioxide
Nitroethane
Nitrogen trichloride
Nitrogen triiodide
Nitroglycerin
Nitroguanidine
Nitromethane Amines
Nitrosyl chloride
Nitrous acid
Nitrous oxide
Nonane
Octane
Octyl acetate
Osmium tetroxide
Oxalic acid
Oxalyl chloride
Ozone
p-Dimethylaminobenzalrhodanine
Pentaerythritol
Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
Pentane
Pentanoic acid
Pentanol
Peracetic acid
Perchloric acid
Permanganic acid
Peroxydisulfuric acid
Peroxymonosulfuric acid
Petroleum
Petroleum ether
Phenanthroline
Phenol
Phenolphthalein
Phosgene
Phosphine
Phosphoric acid
Phosphorus pentabromide
Phosphorus pentachloride
Phosphorus pentoxide
Phosphorus tribromide
Phosphorus trichloride
Phosphorus triiodide
Phosphoryl bromide
Phosphoryl chloride
Phthalic anhydride
Picric acid
Polytetrafluoroethylene
Potassium antimony tartrate
Potassium bicarbonate
Potassium bisulfate
Potassium bisulfite
Potassium bitartrate
Potassium bromide
Potassium carbonate
Potassium chlorate
Potassium chloride
Potassium chromate
Potassium cyanide
Potassium dichromate
Potassium ferrate
Potassium ferricyanide
Potassium ferrocyanide
Potassium hexachlorostannate
Potassium hydrogen phthalate
Potassium hydroxide
Potassium hypochlorite
Potassium iodide
Potassium manganate
Potassium metabisulfite
Potassium nitrate
Potassium perchlorate
Potassium permanganate
Potassium peroxochromate
Potassium peroxymonosulfate
Potassium persulfate
Potassium rhodizonate
Potassium sodium tartrate
Potassium sorbate
Potassium sulfate
Potassium sulfite
Potassium tert-butoxide
Propane
Propanol
Propionic acid
Propylene carbonate
Propylene glycol
Propylene oxide
Prussian blue
Pyranine
Pyridine
Quinine
RDX
Resorcinol
Ribitol
Ricinoleic acid
Rosocyanine
Rubidium hydroxide
Safrole
Salicylic acid
Schweizer's reagent
sec-Butanol Alkali hydroxides, alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, carboxylic acids, chloric acid, chromic acid, chromium (VI) oxide, hydrogen peroxide, manganese (VII) oxide, nitric acid, organic acid anhydrides, ozone, perchloric acid, peroxides, permanganates Fire hazard, esterification with acids
Silicon carbide
Silicon dioxide
Silver acetate
Silver azide
Silver carbonate
Silver(I) fluoride
Silver fulminate
Silver nitrate
Silver nitrite
Silver perchlorate
Silver sulfate
Sodium acetate
Sodium acetylsalicylate
Sodium aluminium hydride
Sodium amide
Sodium azide
Sodium benzoate
Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bisulfate
Sodium bisulfite
Sodium borohydride
Sodium bromide
Sodium carbonate
Sodium chlorate
Sodium chloride
Sodium chlorite
Sodium chromate
Sodium cyanide
Sodium dichromate
Sodium dithionite
Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Sodium ethoxide
Sodium ferrate
Sodium fluoride
Sodium formate
Sodium hexafluoroaluminate
Sodium hexametaphosphate
Sodium hydride
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hypochlorite
Sodium iodide
Sodium metabisulfite
Sodium methoxide
Sodium methyl sulfate
Sodium nitrate
Sodium nitrite
Sodium nitroprusside
Sodium oxide
Sodium perborate
Sodium percarbonate
Sodium perchlorate
Sodium permanganate
Sodium peroxide
Sodium persulfate
Sodium pyrosulfate
Sodium silicate
Sodium sulfate
Sodium sulfide
Sodium sulfite
Sodium thiosulfate
Solochrome cyanine R
Sorbic acid
Sorbitol
Starch
Strontium carbonate
Strontium nitrate
Strontium oxide
Strontium sulfate
Succinic acid
Sucrose
Sulfamic acid
Sulfanilamide
Sulfanilic acid
Sulfur dichloride
Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur hexafluoride
Sulfur trioxide
Sulfuric acid
Sulfuryl chloride
Tartaric acid
Tartrazine
Terbium acetate
Terbium sulfate
Terbium(III) oxide
tert-Amyl alcohol
tert-Butanol
Tetraamine copper(II) complex
Tetraaminecopper(II) persulphate
Tetrachlorocupric acid
Tetrahydrofuran
Tetralin
Tetryl
Thioglycolic acid
Thionyl chloride
Thiourea
Threitol
Tin(II) chloride
Tin(IV) chloride
Titanium dioxide
Titanium(IV) chloride
Toluene
Trichloroacetic acid
Trichloroethylene
Trichloroisocyanuric acid
Triethyl borate
Triethyl citrate
Triethylamine
Trifluoroacetic acid
Trimethyl borate
Trimethylphosphine
Trinitrotoluene
Triphenylphosphine
Tris(ethylenediamine)nickel perchlorate
Tungsten carbide
Urea
Urea nitrate
Urea peroxide
Vanadium pentoxide
Warfarin
Water
Whistle mix
Xylene
Xylitol
Ytterbium(III) oxide
Yttrium(III) oxide
Zinc acetate
Zinc carbonate
Zinc chloride
Zinc chromate
Zinc nitrate
Zinc oxide
Zinc peroxide
Zinc phosphate
Zinc sulfate
Zinc sulfide
Zirconyl chloride

References

  1. http://www2.lbl.gov/ehs/chsp/html/storage.shtml
  2. http://chemistry.harvard.edu/files/chemistry/files/safe_use_of_hf_0.pdf
  3. http://ccc.chem.pitt.edu/wipf/Web/Chemical_Incompatibilities.pdf

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