Difference between revisions of "Sulfur"

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|alt name=Sulphur
 
|alt name=Sulphur
 
|alt names=
 
|alt names=
|allotropes=
+
|allotropes=More than 30
 
|appearance=Yellow solid
 
|appearance=Yellow solid
 
<!-- Periodic table -->
 
<!-- Periodic table -->
|above=O
+
|above=[[Oxygen|O]]
|below=Se
+
|below=[[Selenium|Se]]
|left=Phosphorus
+
|left=[[Phosphorus]]
|right=Chlorine
+
|right=[[Chlorine]]
 
|number=16
 
|number=16
 
|atomic mass=32.065
 
|atomic mass=32.065
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|block ref=
 
|block ref=
 
|block comment=
 
|block comment=
|electron configuration=
+
|electron configuration=[Ne] 3s<sup>2</sup> 3p<sup>4</sup>
 
|electron configuration ref=
 
|electron configuration ref=
 
|electron configuration comment=
 
|electron configuration comment=
|electrons per shell=
+
|electrons per shell=2, 8, 6
 
|electrons per shell ref=
 
|electrons per shell ref=
 
|electrons per shell comment=
 
|electrons per shell comment=
 
<!-- Physical properties -->
 
<!-- Physical properties -->
 
|physical properties comment=
 
|physical properties comment=
|color=
+
|color=Yellow
 
|phase=Solid
 
|phase=Solid
 
|phase ref=
 
|phase ref=
 
|phase comment=
 
|phase comment=
|melting point K=
+
|melting point K=388.36
 
|melting point C=115.21
 
|melting point C=115.21
|melting point F=
+
|melting point F=​239.38
 
|melting point ref=
 
|melting point ref=
 
|melting point comment=
 
|melting point comment=
|boiling point K=
+
|boiling point K=717.8
 
|boiling point C=444.6
 
|boiling point C=444.6
|boiling point F=
+
|boiling point F=832.3
 
|boiling point ref=
 
|boiling point ref=
 
|boiling point comment=
 
|boiling point comment=
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|density gplstp ref=
 
|density gplstp ref=
 
|density gplstp comment=
 
|density gplstp comment=
|density gpcm3nrt=
+
|density gpcm3nrt=2.07
 
|density gpcm3nrt ref=
 
|density gpcm3nrt ref=
|density gpcm3nrt comment=
+
|density gpcm3nrt comment=(alpha)
|density gpcm3nrt 2=
+
|density gpcm3nrt 2=1.96
 
|density gpcm3nrt 2 ref=
 
|density gpcm3nrt 2 ref=
|density gpcm3nrt 2 comment=
+
|density gpcm3nrt 2 comment=(beta)
|density gpcm3nrt 3=
+
|density gpcm3nrt 3=1.92
 
|density gpcm3nrt 3 ref=
 
|density gpcm3nrt 3 ref=
|density gpcm3nrt 3 comment=
+
|density gpcm3nrt 3 comment=(gamma)
|density gpcm3mp=
+
|density gpcm3mp=1.819
 
|density gpcm3mp ref=
 
|density gpcm3mp ref=
 
|density gpcm3mp comment=
 
|density gpcm3mp comment=
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|triple point 2 ref=
 
|triple point 2 ref=
 
|triple point 2 comment=
 
|triple point 2 comment=
|critical point K=
+
|critical point K=1314
|critical point MPa=
+
|critical point MPa=20.7
 
|critical point ref=
 
|critical point ref=
 
|critical point comment=
 
|critical point comment=
|heat fusion=
+
|heat fusion=1.727
 
|heat fusion ref=
 
|heat fusion ref=
|heat fusion comment=
+
|heat fusion comment=(mono)
 
|heat fusion 2=
 
|heat fusion 2=
 
|heat fusion 2 ref=
 
|heat fusion 2 ref=
 
|heat fusion 2 comment=
 
|heat fusion 2 comment=
|heat vaporization=
+
|heat vaporization=45
 
|heat vaporization ref=
 
|heat vaporization ref=
|heat vaporization comment=
+
|heat vaporization comment=(mono)
|heat capacity=
+
|heat capacity=22.75
 
|heat capacity ref=
 
|heat capacity ref=
 
|heat capacity comment=
 
|heat capacity comment=
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|heat capacity 2 ref=
 
|heat capacity 2 ref=
 
|heat capacity 2 comment=
 
|heat capacity 2 comment=
|vapor pressure 1=
+
|vapor pressure 1=375
|vapor pressure 10=
+
|vapor pressure 10=408
|vapor pressure 100=
+
|vapor pressure 100=449
|vapor pressure 1 k=
+
|vapor pressure 1 k=508
|vapor pressure 10 k=
+
|vapor pressure 10 k=591
|vapor pressure 100 k=
+
|vapor pressure 100 k=717
 
|vapor pressure ref=
 
|vapor pressure ref=
 
|vapor pressure comment=
 
|vapor pressure comment=
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<!-- Atomic properties -->
 
<!-- Atomic properties -->
 
|atomic properties comment=
 
|atomic properties comment=
|oxidation states=6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2
+
|oxidation states='''6''', 5, '''4''', 3, '''2''', 1, -1, '''-2'''
 
|oxidation states ref=
 
|oxidation states ref=
|oxidation states comment=
+
|oxidation states comment=​(a strongly acidic oxide)
 
|electronegativity=2.58
 
|electronegativity=2.58
 
|electronegativity ref=
 
|electronegativity ref=
 
|electronegativity comment=
 
|electronegativity comment=
|ionization energy 1=
+
|ionization energy 1=999.6
 
|ionization energy 1 ref=
 
|ionization energy 1 ref=
 
|ionization energy 1 comment=
 
|ionization energy 1 comment=
|ionization energy 2=
+
|ionization energy 2=2252
 
|ionization energy 2 ref=
 
|ionization energy 2 ref=
 
|ionization energy 2 comment=
 
|ionization energy 2 comment=
|ionization energy 3=
+
|ionization energy 3=3357
 
|ionization energy 3 ref=
 
|ionization energy 3 ref=
 
|ionization energy 3 comment=
 
|ionization energy 3 comment=
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|atomic radius calculated ref=
 
|atomic radius calculated ref=
 
|atomic radius calculated comment=
 
|atomic radius calculated comment=
|covalent radius=
+
|covalent radius=105±3
 
|covalent radius ref=
 
|covalent radius ref=
 
|covalent radius comment=
 
|covalent radius comment=
|Van der Waals radius=
+
|Van der Waals radius=180
 
|Van der Waals radius ref=
 
|Van der Waals radius ref=
 
|Van der Waals radius comment=
 
|Van der Waals radius comment=
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|crystal structure prefix=
 
|crystal structure prefix=
 
|crystal structure ref=
 
|crystal structure ref=
|crystal structure comment=
+
|crystal structure comment= Orthorhombic
 
|crystal structure 2=
 
|crystal structure 2=
 
|crystal structure 2 prefix=
 
|crystal structure 2 prefix=
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|thermal expansion at 25 ref=
 
|thermal expansion at 25 ref=
 
|thermal expansion at 25 comment=
 
|thermal expansion at 25 comment=
|thermal conductivity=
+
|thermal conductivity=0.205
 
|thermal conductivity ref=
 
|thermal conductivity ref=
|thermal conductivity comment=
+
|thermal conductivity comment=(amorphous)
 
|thermal conductivity 2=
 
|thermal conductivity 2=
 
|thermal conductivity 2 ref=
 
|thermal conductivity 2 ref=
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|electrical resistivity at 0 ref=
 
|electrical resistivity at 0 ref=
 
|electrical resistivity at 0 comment=
 
|electrical resistivity at 0 comment=
|electrical resistivity at 20=
+
|electrical resistivity at 20=2×10<sup>15</sup>
 
|electrical resistivity at 20 ref=
 
|electrical resistivity at 20 ref=
|electrical resistivity at 20 comment=
+
|electrical resistivity at 20 comment=(amorphous)
 
|band gap=
 
|band gap=
 
|band gap ref=
 
|band gap ref=
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|Curie point ref=
 
|Curie point ref=
 
|Curie point comment=
 
|Curie point comment=
|magnetic ordering=
+
|magnetic ordering=Diamagnetic
 
|magnetic ordering ref=
 
|magnetic ordering ref=
 
|magnetic ordering comment=
 
|magnetic ordering comment=
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|Shear modulus ref=
 
|Shear modulus ref=
 
|Shear modulus comment=
 
|Shear modulus comment=
|Bulk modulus=
+
|Bulk modulus=7.7
 
|Bulk modulus ref=
 
|Bulk modulus ref=
 
|Bulk modulus comment=
 
|Bulk modulus comment=
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|Poisson ratio ref=
 
|Poisson ratio ref=
 
|Poisson ratio comment=
 
|Poisson ratio comment=
|Mohs hardness=
+
|Mohs hardness=2.0
 
|Mohs hardness ref=
 
|Mohs hardness ref=
 
|Mohs hardness comment=
 
|Mohs hardness comment=
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|Brinell hardness ref=
 
|Brinell hardness ref=
 
|Brinell hardness comment=
 
|Brinell hardness comment=
|CAS number=
+
|CAS number= 7704-34-9
 
|CAS number ref=
 
|CAS number ref=
 
|CAS number comment=
 
|CAS number comment=
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|prediction date ref=
 
|prediction date ref=
 
|prediction date=
 
|prediction date=
|discovered by=
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|discovered by=China
 
|discovery date ref=
 
|discovery date ref=
|discovery date=
+
|discovery date=before 2000 BCE
 
|first isolation by=
 
|first isolation by=
 
|first isolation date ref=
 
|first isolation date ref=
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|engvar=
 
|engvar=
 
  }}
 
  }}
'''Sulfur''' (or '''sulphur''') is a chemical element with the atomic number 16. It is a brittle, yellow nonmetal with a faint yet distinct odor. Sulfur is found commonly on Earth in elemental form and also in the form of [[sulfide]] and [[sulfate]] minerals.<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur</ref>
+
'''Sulfur''' (or '''sulphur''') is a chemical element with the atomic number 16 and the symbol '''S'''. It is a brittle, yellow nonmetal with a very faint yet distinct odor. Sulfur is found commonly on Earth in elemental form and also in the form of [[sulfide]] and [[sulfate]] minerals. Pure sulfur is produced from volcanic emmisions.<ref>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur</ref>
  
 
==Properties==
 
==Properties==
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===Physical===
 
===Physical===
Sulfur is a yellow solid under standard conditions. It is brittle; chunks of it can easily be broken by hand. Sulfur will melt at about 115°C, and is a viscous, blood red liquid when molten. Sulfur is insoluble in most common solvents, but is soluble in [[carbon disulfude]], benzene and toluene. There are over 30 [[Allotrope|allotropes]] of sulfur, more than any other element. The most common of these is α-octasulfur (S<sub>8</sub>), which is the form it is almost always seen in. When sulfur is melted and quickly cooled, amorphous polymeric sulfur is formed, which is light brown and has a rubbery consistency. It will only remain as this allotrope for a certain amount of time, varying from a few minutes to a few hours, eventually reverting back to octasulfur.<ref>Shakhashiri, ''Chemical Demonstrations, Vol. 1''</ref>
+
Sulfur is a yellow solid under standard conditions. It is brittle; chunks of it can easily be broken by hand. Sulfur will melt at about 115 °C, and is a viscous, blood red liquid when molten. Sulfur is insoluble in most common solvents and water, but is soluble in [[carbon disulfide]], [[benzene]], [[toluene]] and [[xylene]]. There are over 30 [[allotrope]]s of sulfur, more than any other element. The most common of these is α-octasulfur (S<sub>8</sub>), which is the form it is almost always seen in. When sulfur is melted and quickly cooled, amorphous polymeric sulfur is formed, which is light brown and has a rubbery consistency. It will only remain as this allotrope for a certain amount of time, varying from a few minutes to a few hours, eventually reverting back to octasulfur.<ref>Shakhashiri, ''Chemical Demonstrations, Vol. 1''</ref>
 
+
Sulfur is not soluble in water, but it is soluble in organic solvents, like [[carbon disulfide]], [[toluene]] and [[xylene]].
+
  
 
==Availability==
 
==Availability==
 
[[File:Recrystallized_sulfur_xylene.jpg|thumb|250px|Sulfur recrystallized from hot xylene.]]
 
[[File:Recrystallized_sulfur_xylene.jpg|thumb|250px|Sulfur recrystallized from hot xylene.]]
Sulfur is the 10th most abundant element in the universe. Sulfur can be acquired at some garden stores as an insect repellant or fungicidal powder, although it is not usually very pure in these products, generally containing about 10% bentonite, a common clay. It can be extracted from the mixture by dissolving it in hot [[Toluene|toluene]] or [[Xylene|xylene]], in which sulfur is very soluble. Once the mixture cools, elemental sulfur will begin to precipitate, as while it's very soluble in hot solvent, it's not very soluble when cold. Because the melting point of sulfur (115.21 °C) is slightly higher than the boiling point of toluene (111°C) and slightly below xylene's boiling point (138-144°C), it is best to avoid heating the precipitated sulfur too much as it will melt. Vacuum drying the sulfur is recommended, especially if there's a large quantity of it. Melting also works, but requires grinding afterwards.
+
Sulfur is the 10th most abundant element in the universe. Sulfur can be acquired at some garden stores as an insect repellent or fungicidal powder, although it is not usually very pure in these products, generally containing about 10% bentonite, a common clay. It can be extracted from the mixture by dissolving it in hot [[toluene]] or [[xylene]], in which sulfur is very soluble. Once the mixture cools, elemental sulfur will begin to precipitate, as while it's very soluble in hot solvent, it's not very soluble when cold. Because the melting point of sulfur (115.21 °C) is slightly higher than the boiling point of toluene (111°C) and slightly below xylene's boiling point (138-144°C), it is best to avoid heating the precipitated sulfur too much as it will melt. Vacuum drying the sulfur is recommended, especially if there's a large quantity of it. Melting also works, but requires grinding afterwards.
  
 
Sulfur can be purchased in fairly pure form on the internet from chemical and industrial companies that are willing to sell to individuals.<ref>http://www.dudadiesel.com/search.php?query=sulfur</ref>
 
Sulfur can be purchased in fairly pure form on the internet from chemical and industrial companies that are willing to sell to individuals.<ref>http://www.dudadiesel.com/search.php?query=sulfur</ref>
  
Sulfur can also be obtained by the decomposition (through heat) of Cinnabar ([[Mercury(II) sulfide]]), which forms [[mercury]] and sulfur. This method is rather dangerous and complicated for any amateur, as it produces mercury vapor, which is highly toxic as well as an environmental hazard.
+
Sulfur can also be obtained by the decomposition (through heat) of cinnabar ([[mercury sulfide]]), which forms [[mercury]] and sulfur. This method is rather dangerous and complicated for any amateur, as it produces mercury vapor, which is highly toxic as well as an environmental hazard.
  
 
==Preparation==
 
==Preparation==
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*Make [[thermate]]
 
*Make [[thermate]]
 
*Neutralize mercury and other toxic heavy metal spills
 
*Neutralize mercury and other toxic heavy metal spills
 +
*Make sulfur chlorides and sulfur bromides
  
 
==Handling==
 
==Handling==
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===Disposal===
 
===Disposal===
Burning sulfur is not recommended as it releases the toxic and corrosive sulfur dioxide. Although it may be dumped in the soil, large quantities will be oxidized by the microorganisms in sulfuric acid, which increases the acidity of the soil. Sulfur wastes are best disposed by mixing it with lime.<ref>http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/library/7417.pdf</ref>
+
Burning sulfur is not recommended as it releases the toxic and corrosive sulfur dioxide. Although it may be dumped in the soil, large quantities will be oxidized by the microorganisms to sulfuric acid, which increases the acidity of the soil. Sulfur wastes are best disposed by mixing it with lime.<ref>http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/library/7417.pdf</ref>
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references />
 
<references />
 
===Relevant Sciencemadness threads===
 
===Relevant Sciencemadness threads===
 +
*[http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=65817 Sulfur purity]
 +
*[http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=7260 What can I do with Sulfur?]
  
 
[[Category:Elements]]
 
[[Category:Elements]]

Latest revision as of 14:35, 13 August 2019

Sulfur,  16S
Native sulfur zts16.jpg
A native sulfur chunk of low purity
General properties
Name, symbol Sulfur, S
Alternative name Sulphur
Allotropes More than 30
Appearance Yellow solid
Sulfur in the periodic table
O

S

Se
PhosphorusSulfurChlorine
Atomic number 16
Standard atomic weight (Ar) 32.065
Group, block , p-block
Period period 3
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p4
per shell
2, 8, 6
Physical properties
Yellow
Phase Solid
Melting point 388.36 K ​(115.21 °C, ​​239.38 °F)
Boiling point 717.8 K ​(444.6 °C, ​832.3 °F)
Density near r.t. 2.07 g/cm3 (alpha)
1.96 g/cm3 (beta)
1.92 g/cm3 (gamma)
when liquid, at  1.819 g/cm3
Critical point 1314 K, 20.7 MPa
Heat of fusion 1.727 kJ/mol (mono)
Heat of 45 kJ/mol (mono)
Molar heat capacity 22.75 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2 ​​(a strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.58
energies 1st: 999.6 kJ/mol
2nd: 2252 kJ/mol
3rd: 3357 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 105±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 180 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure ​Orthorhombic
Thermal conductivity 0.205 W/(m·K) (amorphous)
Electrical resistivity 2×1015 Ω·m (at 20 °C) (amorphous)
Magnetic ordering Diamagnetic
Bulk modulus 7.7 GPa
Mohs hardness 2.0
CAS Registry Number 7704-34-9
History
Discovery China (before 2000 BCE)
· references

Sulfur (or sulphur) is a chemical element with the atomic number 16 and the symbol S. It is a brittle, yellow nonmetal with a very faint yet distinct odor. Sulfur is found commonly on Earth in elemental form and also in the form of sulfide and sulfate minerals. Pure sulfur is produced from volcanic emmisions.[1]

Properties

Chemical

Blue flames created by burning molten sulfur.

When burned in air, sulfur burns with a blue flame and sulfur dioxide gas is formed. Sulfur will also react readily with the air to form sulfur dioxide when it is molten. Sulfur reacts with chlorine gas to form sulfur chlorides, namely disulfur dichloride and sulfur dichloride, and similarly reacts with bromine to form disulfur dibromide.[2]

Sulfur can be digested in a strong solution of sodium hydroxide to form sodium sulfide, a useful precursor to other sulfides.

Physical

Sulfur is a yellow solid under standard conditions. It is brittle; chunks of it can easily be broken by hand. Sulfur will melt at about 115 °C, and is a viscous, blood red liquid when molten. Sulfur is insoluble in most common solvents and water, but is soluble in carbon disulfide, benzene, toluene and xylene. There are over 30 allotropes of sulfur, more than any other element. The most common of these is α-octasulfur (S8), which is the form it is almost always seen in. When sulfur is melted and quickly cooled, amorphous polymeric sulfur is formed, which is light brown and has a rubbery consistency. It will only remain as this allotrope for a certain amount of time, varying from a few minutes to a few hours, eventually reverting back to octasulfur.[3]

Availability

Sulfur recrystallized from hot xylene.

Sulfur is the 10th most abundant element in the universe. Sulfur can be acquired at some garden stores as an insect repellent or fungicidal powder, although it is not usually very pure in these products, generally containing about 10% bentonite, a common clay. It can be extracted from the mixture by dissolving it in hot toluene or xylene, in which sulfur is very soluble. Once the mixture cools, elemental sulfur will begin to precipitate, as while it's very soluble in hot solvent, it's not very soluble when cold. Because the melting point of sulfur (115.21 °C) is slightly higher than the boiling point of toluene (111°C) and slightly below xylene's boiling point (138-144°C), it is best to avoid heating the precipitated sulfur too much as it will melt. Vacuum drying the sulfur is recommended, especially if there's a large quantity of it. Melting also works, but requires grinding afterwards.

Sulfur can be purchased in fairly pure form on the internet from chemical and industrial companies that are willing to sell to individuals.[4]

Sulfur can also be obtained by the decomposition (through heat) of cinnabar (mercury sulfide), which forms mercury and sulfur. This method is rather dangerous and complicated for any amateur, as it produces mercury vapor, which is highly toxic as well as an environmental hazard.

Preparation

Sulfur can be prepared by reducing sulfur dioxide with hydrogen sulfide, process known as "Claus process", used in industry to remove hydrogen sulfide. This is a very useful way to neutralize hydrogen sulfide, as opposed to burning it, as it produces elemental sulfur and water and does not generate dangerous gases.

Sulfur can also be made from thioethers, which take the form R-S-R':

R-S-R + 2 H2 → 2 RH + H2S
2 H2S + SO2 → 3 S + 2 H2O

Projects

  • Make polymeric sulfur
  • Make gunpowder
  • Make sulfides
  • Make sulfuric acid
  • Make aluminium sulfide
  • Make hydrogen sulfide
  • Make thermate
  • Neutralize mercury and other toxic heavy metal spills
  • Make sulfur chlorides and sulfur bromides

Handling

Safety

Elemental sulfur is not toxic, but when burned or melted it produces highly toxic sulfur dioxide gas. Care must be taken to perform any experiments involving sulfur dioxide in a fume hood or an otherwise well-ventilated area.

Sulfides react with many acids to produce extremely toxic hydrogen sulfide, which smells like rotten eggs.

Storage

Sulfur should be kept in closed bottles away from any flame source or acidic vapors.

Disposal

Burning sulfur is not recommended as it releases the toxic and corrosive sulfur dioxide. Although it may be dumped in the soil, large quantities will be oxidized by the microorganisms to sulfuric acid, which increases the acidity of the soil. Sulfur wastes are best disposed by mixing it with lime.[5]

References

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfur
  2. http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=2467
  3. Shakhashiri, Chemical Demonstrations, Vol. 1
  4. http://www.dudadiesel.com/search.php?query=sulfur
  5. http://environment.gov.ab.ca/info/library/7417.pdf

Relevant Sciencemadness threads