Sciencemadness Discussion Board

Help add to the sciencemadness wiki

symboom - 3-9-2020 at 19:08

I hope this question is not too vague

For example I would add
That silica gel can absorb iodine, Bromine, nitrogen dioxide and sulfuric acid
solidified form making it a storage medium for reactions.
Nitrogen dioxide

I also came across how sodium can be absorbed on silica which is not well known.

Added to

Anyone have any posts of chemical synthesis that is missing on the wiki. From youtube videos such as the poor man's chemist which has many uncommon chemicals that could be added or from sciencemadness posts.

[Edited on 4-9-2020 by symboom]

symboom - 28-9-2020 at 17:43

Format of the science madness wiki

IUPAC chemical name
Quick information

(Infobox on the right)







Relevant Sciencemadness threads
These are chemicals not found on the sciencemadness wiki

Here is from the poormanschemist channel
Sodium bismuthate

Chemicals for synthesis
bismuth trioxide
aqueous sodium hydroxide.

Formula weight 280.0. Fine yellow needles. Variable water content may go as high as 5 H2O. The usual formula is NaBiO3 • 3.5 H3O. Reacts with acids with partial decomposition and formation of higher bismuth oxides; oxidizes Mn(II) in H2SO4to MnO4 in the cold."

"Bi2O3 + 6NaOH + 2 Br2 = 2 NaBiO3 + 4 NaBr + 3 H2O
A suspension of 170 g. of Bi3O3 in 1.5 liters of 40% sodium hydroxide is vigorously stirred and oxidized at the boiling point by gradually added Br3 (300 g.). The brown precipitate formed is filtered off, washed with 40% sodium hydroxide, and suspended in three liters of H3O. The suspension is now agitated for a while, until the color changes from brown through light brown to yellow. The precipitate is then allowed to settle; it is filtered, added to 1.5 liters of 53% NaOH, and refluxed for one half hour. The resultant brown precipitate is readily filtered off after settling. It is washed with 50% sodium hydroxide, placed, while still damp, in three liters of H3O, and briefly agitated. When the yellow precipitate settles, it is filtered, thoroughly washed with water, and finally dried on clay. The yield is 170 g.

Oxidative cleavage of glycol, ketol or alpha hydroxy acids
Determine if manganese is present in sample


The following synthesis is taken from The Handbook of Preparative Inorganic
Chemistry, edited by Georg Brauer. Volume 1 page 627-628. It has been modified slightly for clarity.
Potassium bromate

Preparation and References

Antimony iodide

Preparation and References

Indium monoiodide

Preparation and References
Bismith pentoxide

Preparation and References

Sodium metavanadate

Preparation and References
Tellurium iodide

Preparation and References

Preparation and References
Reiecke's salt

Preparation and References


Light forming crystalization of strontium compound
Crystalloluminescence of strontium bromate

Samarium iodide/chloride/ salts??

[Edited on 29-9-2020 by symboom]

B(a)P - 28-9-2020 at 18:42

I am a little confused. Are you looking for assistance to write these up or for more content that people have noticed is missing? I would be happy to draft up a few if that was of assistance.

symboom - 28-9-2020 at 19:07

I'm adding the link to preparation and the video of synthesis.

add what chemicals are missing that you think the wiki should have. It's more of an example. It doesn't have to be absolute just what ever chemical and section you can add to. this should help build the wiki. Well I'd be interested in what chemical you want to add put the information here.

Hope that is more clear. Happy to have the assistance.

[Edited on 29-9-2020 by symboom]

B(a)P - 28-9-2020 at 19:28

I am happy to help with any of them. Feel free to send one or two my way and I will send you a write up for review.
I just noticed that nickel perchlorate has an error in the wiki, in the first sentence of the first paragraph it starts nickel nitrate......
It would also be nice to include:
ammonium iodide
cesium fluoride
antimony sulfide

I could make a start on these three or any others that you think are more necessary.

symboom - 28-9-2020 at 19:30

I can't think of any right now just common salts.
That would be great start there is a lot to add.
There is a lot of red links here
Samarium oxide
Samarium chloride
Samarium iodide

I feel like this could be a thread to add compounds and pages to the wiki

And the wiki discussion seems to turn in to a thread to declare what needs to be fixed and corrected.

[Edited on 29-9-2020 by symboom]

symboom - 30-9-2020 at 09:53

Samarium oxide
thermal decomposition of samarium(III) carbonate, hydroxide, nitrate, oxalate or sulfate:

Sm2(CO3)3 → Sm2O3 + 3 CO2
2. by burning the metal in air or oxygen at a temperature above 150 °C

The oxide can be reduced to metallic samarium by heating with a reducing agent, such as hydrogen or carbon monoxide, at elevated temperatures

Catalytic properties used in dehydrogenation and dehydration of alcohols and the dehydrogenation of tetralin.

Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Division of chemical science
Samarium trichloride

SmCl3 is prepared by the "ammonium chloride" route, which involves the initial synthesis of (NH4)2[SmCl5]. This material can be prepared from ammonium chloride and samarium oxide at reaction temperatures of 230 °C from samarium oxide:

10 NH4Cl + Sm2O3 → 2 (NH4)2[SmCl5] + 6 NH3 + 3 H2O
The pentachloride is then heated to 350-400 °C resulting in evolution of ammonium chloride and leaving a residue of the anhydrous samarium trichloride:

(NH4)2[SmCl5] → 2 NH4Cl + SmCl3

Samarium (III) fluoride

Aqueous solutions of samarium chloride can be used to prepare samarium trifluoride

SmCl3 + 3 KF → SmF3 + 3 KCl
Samarium (II) fluoride

Samarium(II) fluoride can be produced by using samarium or hydrogen gas to reduce samarium(III) fluoride
Samarium (II) iodide
When employed as a solution for organic synthesis, it is known as Kagan's reagent. Typical reaction conditions use SmI2 in THF in the presence of catalytic NiI2.
It is a strong one-electron reducing agent that is used in organic synthesis it is a very strong reducing agent. it rapidly reduces water to hydrogen

Samarium iodide is easily prepared in nearly quantitative yields from samarium metal and either diiodomethane or 1,2-diiodoethane.
Ammonium bromide

Ammonium bromide can be prepared by the direct action of hydrogen bromide on ammonia.

NH3 + HBr → NH4Br
It can also be prepared by the reaction of ammonia with iron(II) bromide or iron(III) bromide, which may be obtained by passing aqueous bromine solution over iron filings.

2 NH3 + FeBr2 + 2 H2O → 2 NH4Br + Fe(OH)2

Modified version of the solvay process
product of the Solvay process used to produce sodium carbonate:[3]

CO2 + 2 NH3 + 2 NaBr + H2O → 2 NH4Br + Na2CO3

Calcium Bromide and ammonium sulfate can also for ammonium bromide due to insoluble calcium sulfate that is formed to drive the reaction forward.

[Edited on 30-9-2020 by symboom]

[Edited on 30-9-2020 by symboom]

symboom - 20-10-2020 at 00:32

Aluminium chlorate

mixing aluminium sulfate and barium chlorate, removing the barium sulphate, and evaporating the cold solution over sulphuric acid, is very soluble in water. From a hot solution it separates as the hexahydrate. The salt is easily decomposed by heat, and explodes when slowly heated.


Phosphorous trioxide

Phosphorous oxide has also been prepared by the action of the trichloride on phosphorous acid, thus

H3PO3 + PCl3 = P2O3 + 3HCl

It is also produced when phosphorus trichloride is used to replace the hydroxyl group of anhydrous acetic acid, thus

phosphorous acid

white phosphorus is placed in a deep cylinder and covered with water. The element is melted and chlorine is passed in through a tube which dips well into the phosphorus. Large quantities may be quickly obtained by this method, but the product contains phosphoric acid. Regulated action of PCl3 on water may be effected by passing a current of dry air through the trichloride kept at 60° C. and then through two wash- bottles containing water. The action is also much less violent if an acid such as concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid is used in place of the water. Oxalic acid is most suitable, since it is dehydrated with decomposition when heated in a flask with phosphorus trichloride. The flask is furnished with a reflux condenser. Much of the HCl is evolved and a concentrated solution of phosphorous acid remains:—

PCl3 + 3H2C2O4 = H3PO3 + 3CO + 3CO2 + 3HCl

these preparations it is usually necessary to remove the hydrochloric acid which is produced; this may be done by distilling the solution up to a temperature not exceeding 180° C. A syrupy liquid is then obtained which, after cooling, crystallises quickly, or at any rate within a few hours. The process may be hastened as usual by seeding

crystalline acid was found to melt at 70.1° C., 74° C. The density of the liquid supercooled at 21° C. was 1.651. The latent heat of fusion of the acid was found to be 7.07 Cals. The heat of solution of the acid per mol dissolved in 400 mols or more of water was +233 Cals. The heat of formation of the crystallised acid has been given as +227.7 Cals.

Sodium phosphite

neutralising phosphorous acid to the appropriate end point with alkali hydroxides and evaporating to crystallisation.
By neutralising a solution of phosphorous acid, or one made from PCl3, with ammonia and adding a salt of the required metal.
By dissolving the hydroxide of the base in phosphorous acid.

phosphites are fairly stable in the absence of oxidising agents and dilute solutions may even be boiled without decomposition. More concentrated solutions may decompose, giving hydrogen; thus

Na2HPO3 + NaOH = Na3PO4 + H2
Sodium perphosphate

Simular to sodium percarbonate it is an adduct with hydrogen peroxide

Peroxymonophosphoric acid

most widely used method of preparation is the hydrolysis of potassium of lithium peroxydiphosphate in a strong acid such as perchloric acid.

can be obtained from the reaction between phosphorus pentoxide and highly-concentrated hydrogen peroxide within an inert solvent like acetonitrile or carbon tetrachloride
((less vigorous method of preparing peroxyphosphoric acid by introducing the inert solvent acetonitrile instead of by themselves was described by Gerrit Toennies in 1937. This method was shown to be unsuitable in diethyl ether or isoamyl alcohol.))
Peroxodiphosphates can be obtained by electrolysis of phosphate solutions
The Sodium hyponitrite

, Na2N2O2, can be prepared by reducing sodium nitrite with sodium-amalgam and precipitating the solid by addition of alcohol to the solution. The reduction can also be effected by means of sulphur dioxide.

Sodium hyponitrite is readily soluble in water, the concentrated solution being stable in presence of a large proportion of sodium hydroxide. On crystallization the salt is deposited as pentahydrate, this substance losing its water of crystallization in a desiccator or on exposure to air. The anhydrous salt is the more stable form; it melts with decomposition at 300° C. The cryoscopic method gives the double molecular formula, Na2N2O2.
Hydroxylamine phosphite, (NH2OH)2.H3PO3, was prepared by double decomposition of one mol of Na2HPO3 with two mols of NH2OH.HCl. The sodium chloride was crystallised out by evaporation in vacuo, and the very soluble hydroxylamine salt crystallised from alcohol. It melts easily, is inflammable and is a strong reducing agent. Hydrazine phosphite, N2H4.H3PO3, has also been prepared, from barium phosphite and hydrazine sulphate.

[Edited on 20-10-2020 by symboom]

B(a)P - 3-11-2020 at 00:57

For review/inclusion in the wiki

IUPAC chemical name
diantimony trisulfide, antimony(III) sulfide

Quick information
Other names
antimony sulfide, antimonious sulfide, antimony sesquisulfide, antimony vermilion, black antimony, sulphuret of antimony

Antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) occurs in nature as the mineral stibnite. It is formed as a low temperature deposit from hot solutions often associated with arsenic minerals and cinnabar.
Significant deposits occur in Algeria, Borneo, Canada, China, Czechoslovakia, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Mexico and Peru (Pough, 1960; Roberts et al., 1974; Palencia & Mishra, 1986). Antimony trisulfide is a moderately acid soluble antimony source.

Antimony trisulfide in its mineral form, stibnite, is an orthorhombic-bipyramidal crystalline structure
(Roberts et al., 1974).
Molecular weight: 339.68 g/mol
Appearance: grey / black orthorhombic crystal (stibnite)
Density: 4.562 g/cm3 (Lide, 2001)
Melting point: 550 C (Merck, 2001)
Solubility: H2O 175 ug/100 mL; soluble in alkalies and in concentrated hydrochloric acid and sulfide solutions, and in ethanol (Herbst et al., 1985; Lewis, 2002; Lide, 2001; Merck, 2001)


Amorphous (red to yellow-orange) antimony trisulfide can be prepared by treating an antimony trichloride solution with hydrogen sulfide or sodium thiosulfate, or by heating metallic antimony or antimony trioxide with sulfur (Freedman et al., 1992)


Antimony trisulfide is used in combination with potassium chlorate (along with other compounds) to make friction primers.
Crude commercial antimony trisulfide can be used directly in the manufacture of matches or Bengal lights. For the production of high-quality pyrotechnics, e.g., electrically ignited detonators, the crude compound must be remelted in a reducing atmosphere at as slow a temperature as possible. A well-crystallized, readily ground product is obtained (Herbst et al., 1985).
Antimony trisulfide is used in the production of vermilion or yellow pigment and antimony salts such as antimony oxide and chloride, and in the manufacture of ruby glass (Mannsvle Chemical Products Corp., 1985; Palencia & Mishra, 1986; Hawley, 1981).

Flammable/combustible material; may be ignited by friction, heat, sparks, or flames.
In industry, antimony enters the body almost entirely by inhalation of dust or fumes from processing or packing antimony compounds (McCallum, 1989).
OSHA PEL 0.5 mg/m8 8h TWA

Keep container tightly sealed
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers
Ensure good ventilation in storage area

Depends on jurisdiction, not appropriate to dispose to sewer or stormwater, seek advice from local environmental/waste regulator or waste disposal company


Freedman, L.D., Doak, G.O. & Long, G.G. (1992) Antimony compounds. In: Kroschwitz, J.I. & Howe-Grant, M., eds., Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd ed., Vol. 3, New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp 382-412
Hawley, G.G. (1981) Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 10th ed., New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., pp. 81–82.
Herbst, K.A., Rose, G., Hanusch, K., Schumann, H.& Wolf, H.U. (1985) Antimony and antimony compounds. In: Elvers, B., Hawkins, S. & Russey, W., eds., Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Vol. A3, VCH Publishers, pp 55-76
Lewis, R.J., ed. (2002) Hawley’s Condensed Chemical Dictionary
Lide, D.R., ed. (2001) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 80th ed., (On CD-Rom) Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press
McCallum, R.I. (1989) The industrial toxicology of antimony. J.R. Coll. Physicians Lond
Merck (2001) Antimony trisulfide. The Merck Index, 12.3 ed. (On CD-Rom). Boca Raton, FL, Chapman & Hall
Palencia, C.M. & Mishra, C.P. (1986) Antimony Availability — Market Economy Countries, A Minerals Availability Appraisal (Bureau of Mines Information Circular 9098), Washington DC, US Department of the Interior
Pough, F.H. (1960), A Field Guide to Rocks and Minerals, 3rd ed., Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin Co., p. 102
Roberts, W.L., Rapp, G.R., Jr & Weber, J. (1974) Encyclopedia of Minerals, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., p. 582

Relevant Sciencemadness threads

B(a)P - 3-11-2020 at 01:48

IUPAC chemical name
Caesium fluoride

Quick information
Other names
Cesium fluoride

Caesium fluoride is an inorganic ionic compound usually found as a hygroscopic white solid. It is more soluble and more readily dissociated than sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride. Caesium has the highest electropositivity of all non-radioactive elements and fluorine has the highest electronegativity of all elements.

Caesium fluoride has a cubic crystal structure (Haynes 2011)
Molecular weight: 151.903 g/mol
Appearance: white crystalline solid
Density: 4.62 g/cm3 (Haynes 2011)
Melting point: 550 C (Haynes 2011)
Solubility: H2O 537 g/100 mL (25 C); Insoluble in acetone, diethyl ether, pyridine and ethanol
191 g/100 mL in methanol (Haynes 2011)


Caesium fluoride may be prepared by the action of hydrofluoric acid on caesium hydroxide or caesium carbonate, followed by removal of water.

Caesium fluoride reacts usually as a source of fluoride ion, F-. It therefore undergoes all of the usual reactions associated with soluble fluorides such as potassium fluoride (Smith 2002).
Being highly dissociated it is quite reactive as a fluoride source under anhydrous conditions too, and it will react with electron-deficient aryl chlorides to form aryl fluorides ( halex reaction). Due to the strength of the Si-F bond, fluoride ion is useful for desilylation reactions (removal of Si groups) in organic chemistry; caesium fluoride is an excellent source of anhydrous fluoride for such reactions (see uses below). As with other soluble fluorides, CsF is moderately basic, due to the fact that HF is a weak acid. The low nucleophilicity of fluoride means it can be a useful base in organic chemistry (Friestad 1999).
Caesium fluoride is a useful base in organic chemistry, due the fact that fluoride ion is largely unreactive as a nucleophile. It is reported that CsF gives higher yields in Knoevenagel condensation reactions than KF or NaF.
Removal of silicon groups (desilylation) is a major application for CsF in the laboratory, as its anhydrous nature allows clean formation of water-sensitive intermediates. Caesium fluoride in THF or DMF can attack a wide variety of organosilicon compounds to produce an organosilicon fluoride and a carbanion, which can then react with electrophiles.
Desilylation is also useful for the removal of silyl protecting groups.
Caesium fluoride is also a popular source of fluoride in organofluorine chemistry. For example, CsF reacts with hexafluoroacetone to form a caesium perfluoroalkoxide salt which is stable up to 60 ° C, unlike the corresponding sodium or potassium salt (Evans 1968)
Single crystals of the salt are transparent into the deep infrared. For this reason it is often used as the windows of cells used for infrared spectroscopy.

Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.
Fatal if swallowed, in contact with skin or inhaled.
Handle under dry protective gas.
Non-flammable (American Elements 2020)
OSHA PEL 2.5 mg/m3 long term

Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool and dry place.
Store away from water and moisture, strong bases and oxidising agents. (American Elements 2020)

Depends on jurisdiction, not appropriate to dispose to sewer or stormwater, seek advice from local environmental/waste regulator or waste disposal company

American Elements, 2020, Safety Data Sheet, Cesium Fluoride
Evans, F. W.; Litt, M. H.; Weidler-Kubanek, A. M.; Avonda, F. P. (1968). "Formation of adducts between fluorinated ketones and metal fluorides". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 33 (5): 1837–1839
Friestad, G. K.; Branchaud, B. P. (1999). Reich, H. J.; Rigby, J. H. (eds.). Handbook of Reagents for Organic Synthesis: Acidic and Basic Reagents. New York: Wiley. pp. 99–103
Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
Smith, Adam P.; Lamba, Jaydeep J. S.; Fraser, Cassandra L. (2002). "Efficient Synthesis of Halomethyl-2,2'-bipyridines: 4,4'-Bis(chloromethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine". Organic Syntheses. 78: 82.; Collective Volume, 10, p. 107

symboom - 5-11-2020 at 19:54

IUPAC chemical name
Indium(III) nitrate


Indium nitrate forms colourless, deliquescent needle shaped crystals. One-third of its water of crystalization is decomposed at 100° and it becomes anhydrous when dessicated with concentrated sulphuric acid. It forms a double salt with ammonium nitrate


Indium metal reacts with nitric acid and reduces the acid to ammonia gas, due to the reducing nature of indium metal. A more pure product can be obtained by reacting indium (III) hydroxide with nitric acid it dissolves slowly in dilute nitric acid and more rapidly in concentrated nitric acid. The indium nitrate crystallises from the nitric acid solution due to its lower soubility in nitric acid due to the common ion effect.


[Edited on 6-11-2020 by symboom]

[Edited on 6-11-2020 by symboom]

symboom - 9-11-2020 at 12:14

IUPAC name
Iodo nitrate

Iodine nitrate is a chemical with formula INO3. (It differs from iodine nitrite with formula INO2).

The compound was first produced by the reaction of mercury(II) nitrate and iodine in ether.
Iodine nitrate is also prepared by the reaction of silver nitrate and iodine within an acetonitrile, ether, or methanol solution.

Hassner, Alfred (15 April 2001). "Iodine Nitrate". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis: ri016
Nickel Bromate

It crystallises in unstable octahedra which are green in colour.

prepared by reaction of barium bromate and nickel sulphate solutions. The barium sulfate precipitates out of the solution leaving nickel bromate

- make Diammonium Nickel Bromate
From its solution in aqueous ammonia, alcohol precipitates the diammoniate, Ni(BrO3)2.2NH3.


[Edited on 9-11-2020 by symboom]

B(a)P - 25-11-2020 at 01:20

I wonder if this information should be added to the picric acid wiki page - very helpful for recrystallisation.

Water Solubility (mg/L):
66,670 at 100 °C (quoted, Windholz et al., 1983)
14,000 at 20 °C, 68,000 at 100 °C (quoted, Verschueren, 1983)

symboom - 25-11-2020 at 15:59

I think if this was edited along the way on the wiki as a draft it would have been a smoother collaboration. Just an idea for next year's newsletter. Especially if a talk page can be added.

[Edited on 26-11-2020 by symboom]

symboom - 2-12-2020 at 23:06

cadmium(II) iodide

Mercurous Nitrate

Thorium Hydroxide
Thorium chromate
Thorium acetate
thorium superoxide // tricesium (IV) heptachlorothorium

Uranyl ferrocyanide
Uranyl acetoacetonate
barium diuranate
Uranyl Hypophosphite //Ammonium Peruranate
Uranium Trioxide
​​​​​Barium Diuranate
Uranyl Sulfate

Thallium(I) Chlorate
thallium(I) carbonate
thallium sulfate

potassium tetrabromoaurate(III) // bromoauric acid

Potassium Platinocyanide

Platnium group
platinum triselenide
Barium Ruthenate // Barium Iridate
barium osmate

Written Procedures

Project los alamos
Poormans chemist
Refractory metal nitrates preparation

[Edited on 4-12-2020 by symboom]

symboom - 30-1-2021 at 22:36

Here is a old compiled list of some compounds
Hate for this effort another member put go to waste maybe some of this could be added to the wiki

garphield - 31-5-2021 at 19:06

For the page on ethylenediamine, can someone put the method RustyShackleford (think that was his username) posted here a few months ago?

Newton2.0 - 3-6-2021 at 12:18

Thanks, Symboom, I was looking for that post for a while.