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[*] posted on 8-5-2011 at 08:35
Hydrofluoric Acid Burn Treatement


CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety
2nd ed. 1971

NB This was originally published 1966 use it
for clinical judgement at your own risk.

HF-Burn-Treatment-1.jpg - 491kB HF-Burn-Treatment-2.jpg - 500kB HF-Burn-Treatment-3.jpg - 251kB


djh
----
I shelve :—

Banks, Sharp & Tatlow Editors
Fluorine : The First Hundred Years
Celebration volume to commemorate the
centenary of the isolation of fluorine by
Henri Moissan on 26th June, 1886
Elsevier Sequoia 1996
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[*] posted on 8-5-2011 at 13:32
HF Burns - From MESH


Taking time out of my medical studies — Gynecology through the
picture study method.
too run HF Burns through MESH.

Hits

281 MEDLINE/PubMed - journal citations, abstracts
0 NLM Catalog - books, AVs, serials
1 Bookshelf - full text biomedical books
152 TOXLINE Subset - toxicology citations
0 DART - Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
0 Meeting Abstracts

Here do be a few of the more current refs. I didn't include
many for which there was no abstract.


Finger burns caused by concentrated hydrofluoric acid, treated with intra-arterial calcium gluconate infusion: case report.
Capitani EM, Hirano ES, Zuim Ide S, Bertanha L, Vieira RJ, Madureira PR, Bucaretchi F.
Sao Paulo Med J. 2009 Nov;127(6):379-81.
Poison Control Center, School of Medicine, University Hospital, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. capitani@fcm.unicamp.br

CONTEXT: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is widely used in industry and at home. Severe lesions can occur after contact with highly concentrated solutions, leading to tissue necrosis and bone destruction. Specific treatment is based on neutralization of fluoride ions with calcium or magnesium solutions.

CASE REPORT: A 41-year-old male was seen at the emergency department 35 minutes after skin contact with 70% HF, showing whitened swollen lesions on the middle and fourth fingers of his right hand with severe pain starting immediately after contact. 2.5% calcium gluconate ointment was applied. Twenty-four hours later, the patient was still in severe pain and the lesions had worsened. Considering the high concentration of the solution, early start of severe pain, lesion characteristics and impossibility of administering calcium gluconate subcutaneously because of the lesion location, the radial artery was catheterized and 2% calcium gluconate was administered via infusion pump for 36 hours, until the pain subsided. No adverse effects were seen during the procedure. Ten days later, the lesions were stable, without bone abnormalities on X-rays. Six months later, a complete recovery was seen.

CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial calcium gluconate might be considered for finger burns caused by concentrated HF. Complete recovery of wounded fingers can be achieved with this technique even if started 24 hours after the exposure. However, controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness and safety of this intervention.

Survival after hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia and cardiac arrest following mild hydrofluoric acid burn.
Wu ML, Deng JF, Fan JS.
Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 Nov;48(9):953-5.
Division of Toxicology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. mlwu@vghtpe.gov.tw

BACKGROUND: Although hydrofluoric (HF) acid burns may cause extensive tissue damage, severe systemic toxicity is not common after mild dermal exposure.

CASE: A 36-year-old worker suffered a first-degree burn of 3% of his total body surface area as a result of being splashed on the right thigh with 20% HF acid. Immediate irrigation and topical use of calcium gluconate gel prevented local injury. However, the patient developed hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, bradycardia, and eventually had asystole at 16 h post-exposure, which were unusual findings. He was successfully resuscitated by administration of calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

CONCLUSION: This report highlights a late risk of HF acid dermal exposure.

[The patient later died when his ass-hole snapped shut upon receiving the hospital bill.]

Hydrofluoric acid burns: rational treatment.
Burd A.
J Burn Care Res. 2009 Sep-Oct;30(5):908.

Hydrofluoric acid burns: a 15-year experience.
Stuke LE, Arnoldo BD, Hunt JL, Purdue GF.
J Burn Care Res. 2008 Nov-Dec;29(6):893-6.
Comment in:
• J Burn Care Res. 2009 Sep-Oct;30(5):908. PMID: 19692923.
Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Memorial Hospital Burn Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9158, USA.

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a strong inorganic acid commonly used in many domestic and industrial settings. It is one of the most common chemical burns encountered in a burn center and frequently engenders controversy in its management. We report our 15 year experience with management of HF burns. We reviewed our experience from 1990 to 2005 for patients admitted with HF burns. Primary treatment was with calcium gluconate gel. Arterial infusion of calcium and fingernail removal were reserved for unrelenting symptoms. There were 7944 acute burn admissions to our center during this study period, 204 of which were chemical burns. HF burns comprised 17% of these chemical burn admissions (35 patients). All were men, with a mean burn size of 2.1 +/- 1.5% (range, 1-6%) and hospital stay of 1.6 +/- 0.7 days (range, 0-3 days). The most common seasonal time of injury was in the summer. Twelve patients (34%) were admitted to the intensive care unit for a total of 14 intensive care unit days, primarily for arterial infusions. Ventilator support was not required in any patient. No electrolyte abnormalities occurred. All burns were either partial thickness or small full thickness with no operative intervention required and no deaths. The upper extremity was most commonly involved (29 patients, 83%). The most common cause was air conditioner cleaner (8 patients, 23%). HF is a common cause of chemical burns. Although hospital admission is usually required for vigorous treatment and pain control, burn size is usually small and does not cause electrolyte abnormalities, significant morbidity, or death.

Hazardous brick cleaning.
Ferng M, Gupta R, Bryant SM.
J Emerg Med. 2009 Oct;37(3):305-7. Epub 2008 Jun 20.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia following hydrofluoric acid chemical injury.
Dalamaga M, Karmaniolas K, Nikolaidou A, Papadavid E.
J Burn Care Res. 2008 May-Jun;29(3):541-3.
Department of Internal Medicine, NIMTS General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Dermal exposure to hydrofluoric acid could potentially result in severe serum calcium and magnesium depletion induced by binding with fluoride anion. This report describes the case of a 48-year-old man who developed hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia accompanied by hypokalemia-an interesting finding-following a chemical injury with exposure to 70% hydrofluoric acid. Successful treatment included administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium both intravenously and topically.

Hydrofluoric acid burn to penis.
Schmidt MJ, Bryant SM.
Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2007 Sep;45(6):732.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.


Opical treatment of experimental hydrofluoric acid skin burns by 2.5% calcium gluconate.
Roblin I, Urban M, Flicoteau D, Martin C, Pradeau D.
J Burn Care Res. 2006 Nov-Dec;27(6):889-94.
Laboratoire de Développement Analytique, Agence Générale des Equipements et Produits de Santé, (AP-HP), Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Université Paris V, Paris, France.

Topical therapy with 2.5% calcium gluconate gel is considered as the "first-aid" treatment of accidental hydrofluoric acid skin burns. The efficacy of three different gel formulations varying in the amount and/or nature of their gelling and moisturizing agents was experimentally evaluated. Thirty male Wistar-Han rats (250 g) were exposed to 60 mul of 40% hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes on two spots (4 cm) of skin under pentobarbital anesthesia. One lesion was massaged with 1 g of gel (10 rats/type of gel) at 3 minutes; 30 minutes; 1 hour; 1 hour, 30 minutes; 2 hours; 3 hours; and 4 hours after injury. During the next 3 days, rats received a single daily application of gel. The other lesion for each rat remained untreated (control). From day 1 after injury to the end of the study (day 17), gel therapy reduced the number of extensive (-66%), severe (-44%), and moderate (-34%) lesions (P < .0001). It reduced (P < .001) the median Area Under the Curve day 0-17 of burn injury from 34.0 (25th to 75th percentile: 18.2-44.5; untreated lesions) to 17.7 (7.0-26.7); overall, there was three cases of treatment failure. At day 17, full wound recovery was obtained in 14 cases by gel therapy compared with 6 in the absence of treatment. The efficacy of the three gel formulations was comparable for all evaluated parameters. Repeated applications of a 2.5% calcium gluconate gel is an efficient treatment of experimental 40% hydrofluoric acid skin burn; few differences were observed between evaluated gel formulations.

7 cases of hydrofluoric acid burn in which calcium gluconate was effective for relief of severe pain.
Ohata U, Hara H, Suzuki H.
Contact Dermatitis. 2005 Mar;52(3):133-7.
Department of Dermatology, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamimachi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0032, Japan. utaken@nifty.com

We report 7 cases of chemical burns due to hydrofluoric acid (HF). The patients suffered from severe pain. However, the pain was relieved after treatment with calcium gluconate. 6 out of the 7 cases were men. At the accidental exposures, all the patients had been engaged in washing or cleaning work and received burns on their hands and/or fingers. In one case, the forearm was also involved. During such work, all the patients had used rubber gloves, but the gloves had pinholes. For the treatments, 4% calcium gluconate jelly was applied in 5 cases and 4 of 7 were subcutaneously injected with 8.5% calcium gluconate. The involved nails were removed in 5 cases. It is concluded that physicians should provide calcium gluconate jelly and subcutaneous injections to treat an HF burn and should not hesitate to remove the involved nails. To prevent chemical burn due to HF, education and reeducation of workers regarding the hazard of this chemical are necessary.

Lethal inhalation exposure during maintenance operation of a hydrogen fluoride liquefying tank.
Dote T, Kono K, Usuda K, Shimizu H, Kawasaki T, Dote E.
Toxicol Ind Health. 2003 Jul;19(2-6):51-4.
Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki City, Osaka, Japan. rhart99@comcast.net

Calcium sulfate adheres to the inside of liquefying pipes during the production of liquefied hydrogen fluoride. It is regularly washed away with water jets every six months. Two days before the operation, the pipes were experimentally washed down with water and the safety of the operation was confirmed with acidic washing fluid (pH 5). A 65-year-old man was severely sprayed on his face just after the start of the operation. He died half an hour later from acute respiratory failure. High serum concentrations of ionized fluoride indicated massive exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HFA). Pathological findings revealed severe bilateral pulmonary congestion and edema. It was hypothesized that calcium sulfate hardened with the water during the experimental washing and caused some blockages in the pipes. Consequently, choking of the pipes caused the HFA to collect and the washing fluid ran back. Weak HFA is not pungent to skin and mucous membranes. Therefore, it was suggested that a low concentration of HFA was inhaled directly into the peripheral respiratory tracts. No risk management against HFA exposure was in place during the operation. It is especially important to take thorough safety measures against inhalation of HFA. It is also essential that there are no stoppages of the pipes before the operation.

Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burn to the face by carotid artery infusion of calcium gluconate.
Nguyen LT, Mohr WJ 3rd, Ahrenholz DH, Solem LD.
J Burn Care Rehabil. 2004 Sep-Oct;25(5):421-4.
Comment in:
• J Burn Care Rehabil. 2005 May-Jun;26(3):291. PMID: 15879755.
Regions Hospital, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101, USA.

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is highly corrosive substance often used in industrial processes. HF burns to the skin cause local tissue injury. Systemic hypocalcemia may ensue, with the potential to produce life-threatening arrhythmias. Medical treatment consists of local application of topical calcium gels, subcutaneous injection of calcium gluconate, and intravenous or intra-arterial infusion of calcium gluconate. Calcium gluconate infusions have been used for HF burns on distal extremities and digits. We report a case of HF burn to the face that was treated by the use of calcium gluconate infusion via the external carotid artery.

[Hydrofluoric acid burns. A rare chemical emergency situation].
Richter H, Hollenberg S, Sachs HJ, Oeltjenbruns J, Weimann J.
Anaesthesist. 2005 Feb;54(2):123-6.
[Article in German]
Klinik für Anaesthesiologie und operative Intensivmedizin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin. hrichter@zedat.fu-berlin.de

Burns caused by hydrofluoric acid can be life-threatening. Of special significance is the often underestimated local and sometimes delayed deep action of the highly diffusible free fluoride ions and the accompanying systemic toxicity. The specific antidote calcium gluconate can be topically applied, injected into tissue or infused intra-arterially. Because of the extreme danger of systemic toxicity even after seemingly trivial injuries, monitoring in the intensive care station, especially by measuring the calcium concentration in blood and electrocardiography, and therapy is recommended.

. Hydrofluoric acid-induced burns and life-threatening systemic poisoning--favorable outcome after hemodialysis.
Björnhagen V, Höjer J, Karlson-Stiber C, Seldén AI, Sundbom M.
J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2003;41(6):855-60.
Department of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

BACKGROUND: Skin contact with hydrofluoric acid (HF) may cause serious burns and life-threatening systemic poisoning. The use of hemodialysis in fluoride intoxication after severe dermal exposure to HF has been recommended but not reported.

CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old previously healthy man had 7% of his body surface exposed to 71% HE Despite prompt management, with subsequent normalization of the serum electrolytes, recurrent ventricular fibrillation occurred. On clinical suspicion of fluoride-induced cardiotoxicity, acute hemodialysis was performed. The circulatory status stabilized and the patient fully recovered. High fluoride levels in the urine and serum were confirmed by the laboratory.

DISCUSSION: There is no ultimate proof that the favorable outcome in this case was significantly attributable to the dialysis. However, most reported exposures of this magnitude have resulted in fatal poisoning. As our patient had normal serum electrolytes and no hypoxia or acidosis at the time of his arrhythmias, it was decided that all efforts should be focused on removing fluoride from his blood. The rationale for performing hemodialysis for this purpose is clear, even though such intervention is more obviously indicated in patients with renal failure.

CONCLUSION: Hemodialysis may be an effective and potentially lifesaving additional treatment for severe exposure to HF when standard management has proven insufficient.

Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns.
Schiettecatte D, Mullie G, Depoorter M.
Acta Chir Belg. 2003 Aug;103(4):375-8.
Department of Plastic Surgery, AZ Sint-Jan Brugge, Belgium.

Hydrofluoric acid injuries have a potential for both systemic as well as severe local tissue destruction. In this article the different treatment modalities will be presented. Hydrofluoric acid is frequently found in the semiconductor industry, in rust removers and façade cleansers. The negligence or carelessness of workers and ignorance of the risks of hydrofluoric acid promote the incidence of these severe burns. To prevent these burns, adequate information for the workers is necessary. Splash goggles and neoprene gloves as well as laboratory coats should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact. In cases of exposure, therapy should be accurate and immediate.


----
I disposed of my bottle of HF acid some years back (by dilution)
the plastic bottle was looking Ifffff-yyy! I had visions of me picking
it and having it splinter.

Say - anyone remember the days before plastic — when HF acid
came in wax bottles? You cut a small piece of the tube projecting
out of the top off with a hot knife, and then heated it to seal it off
again.

I remember chloroacetic acid came in a glass bottle with a
tube projecting from the top, you cut it open, later flamed
it shut again.

CA Acid is some corrosive ----.



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AndersHoveland
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[*] posted on 9-5-2011 at 13:59
fluorine, mangansese trifluoride


So to summarize, one should take every precaution possible to prevent any HF solution from coming in contact with skin, which results in severe burns deep into the tissue. If some of the solution nevertheless gets onto your skin, IMMEDIATELY throw water onto the area as fast as you can, even if you do not feel any pain. A delay of only a few seconds can make a big difference in the severity of the burn.
(preferably you should have on big plastic container of calcium acetate solution (without a lid, and within easy reach next to the expiriment) to dump on the area. I would advise doing the expiriment outside, to avoid fumes. Sometimes the fan in the fumehood can be too noisy and distracting. You will be safer if you are using all your concentration to avoid an accident. If doing the expiriment outside, be sure not to abandon the HF solution at any time. Someone else could find your expiriment and not realize the danger.

MnF3 decomposes to manganese(II) fluoride above 600°C.
In situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction study of manganese trifluoride thermal decomposition , J.V. Raua, V. Rossi Albertinib, N.S. Chilingarova, S. Colonnab, U. Anselmi Tamburini, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 4506 (2001) 1–4

(2)KMnO4 + (2)KF + (10)HF + (3)H2O2 --> (2)K2MnF6 + (8)H2O + (3)O2
(solution is 50% aqueous HF, the potassium fluoromanganate precipitates out)
http://www.thieme-chemistry.com/fileadmin/Thieme/HW-100/pdf/...

MnF3 itself hydrolyzes with water.

Potassium hexafluoronickelate likely coud be prepared in a similar reaction. At 400°C, a mixture of solid K2NiF6 and KF disproportionates/decomposes to form K3NiF6 and F2. (the reaction is reversible at 250°C).

also see wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manganese(IV)_fluoride


[Edited on 9-5-2011 by AndersHoveland]
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[*] posted on 20-10-2011 at 09:28


To preface: I am a fluorine chemist with ~8 years of handling HF, F2, Metal fluorides, XeF2, etc etc etc etc.

There is so much inaccurate information in this thread that I'm not even going to start to address, instead I'll focus on the posters question.

CuF2 --950C--> Cu + F2

While on paper this may be possible, feasibly it is not. You will not be able to find a reactor that is stable to fluorine at these temperatures. Graphite will react. Teflon will degrade. Even corrosive resistant metals and alloys such nickle 201, inconel, monel, etc will react and flake away.

HF/F2 is dangerous...but it can be handled safely. Oddly enough, in my corresponences with docters who treat HF burns, the group of people who most frequently are admitted and treated for HF burns are people who have fancy expensive rims on their cars. The cleaners for these aluminum rims has HF on it and they don't read the warning label and don't wear gloves.
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[*] posted on 20-10-2011 at 09:32


BTW...if you're going to be working with HF or any metal fluorides which can hydrolyze to HF (i.e. with the moisture on your skin), order some calcium gluconate gel (Brand name Calgonate). Use butyl rubber gloves and garments (NOT latex/nitrile!). Keep a spray bottle of dilute ammonium hydroxide around and spray everything you think might have been contaminated. Basic fluoride is MUCH less dangerous than acidic fluoride.
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[*] posted on 20-10-2011 at 10:34


Quote: Originally posted by Bubafat  
You will not be able to find a reactor that is stable to fluorine at these temperatures. Graphite will react. Teflon will degrade. Even corrosive resistant metals and alloys such nickle 201, inconel, monel, etc will react and flake away.
I take it in these conditions that fluorine will displace oxygen in ceramics and create fluxing compounds. Correct?
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[*] posted on 20-10-2011 at 12:01


Precautions for Fluorine Gas
Fluorine ignites on contact and easily burns through concrete. Stainless steel also burns easily in fluorine gas, but generally does not spontaneously react without ignition. Stainless steel valves have been used to handle fluorine gas, despite the danger. The inside of the valve must be free from any contaminants that could cause ignition of the steel. The valve is then gradually exposed to progressively increased concentrations of fluorine mixtures to oxidize any trace contaminants. Despite the precautions, for reasons not entirely understood, the valves have often spontaneously ignited when, after several minutes of operation without incident, the flow rate was suddenly increased.


More Ideas
The below are ideas for extreme reactions, which have not yet been investigated.

H2O2 + 6HF + FeO4(-2) --> FeF6(-2) + 4H2O + O2
The H2O2 and HF must be premixed, then added to ferrate solution. A similar reaction is known to occurr for permanganate.

After completion of reaction, a solution of calcium nitrate is added, which would cause CaFeF6 to precipitate out. The solution is filtered, and the precipitate is dried.

The fluoroferrate ion FeF6(-2) is probably only stable in alkaline solution. Addition of acid likely would cause hydrolysis, with the loss of oxygen:
4 FeF6(-2) + 2 H2O + 8 H+(aq) --> 4 FeF3 + 12 HF + O2

Calcium fluoroferrate could possibly be used as a powerful dehydrating agent. While acting as a base towards nitric acid, it would simultaneously dehydrate a small portion of the acid to dinitrogen pentoxide.
(2)CaFeF6 + (24)HNO3 --> (4)Ca[NO3]2 + (4)Fe[NO3]3 + (24)HF + (2)N2O5 + O2
Ideally the concentration of the nitric acid used in the reaction should be greater than 98%.

MnF3 decomposes to manganese(II) fluoride above 600°C.
(2)KMnO4 + (2)KF + (10)HF + (3)H2O2 --> (2)K2MnF6 + (8)H2O + (3)O2
(solution is 50% aqueous HF, the potassium fluoromanganate precipitates out)

MnF3 itself hydrolyzes with water.

Potassium hexafluoronickelate likely coud be prepared in a similar reaction. At 400°C, a mixture of solid K2NiF6 and KF disproportionates/decomposes to form K3NiF6 and F2. (the reaction is reversible at 250°C). One would think this would also work with K2FeF6.





I'm not saying let's go kill all the stupid people...I'm just saying lets remove all the warning labels and let the problem sort itself out.
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[*] posted on 20-10-2011 at 12:09


Quote: Originally posted by watson.fawkes  
I take it in these conditions that fluorine will displace oxygen in ceramics and create fluxing compounds. Correct?


Not sure about that at RT but certainly fluorination of D and F block elements by treating their (highly stable) oxides with F2 is an industrial practice. I would think ceramic would be attacked somewhat slowly.

Unlike this chicken that got fried with F2 by some German scientists:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M5_9z1TxUfg

'Vorsprung durch nonsense', something like that...




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[*] posted on 23-10-2011 at 07:55


oh, you beat me to it.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wqLnSkLalOE

fluorine + brick
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[*] posted on 23-10-2011 at 08:18


Quote: Originally posted by Neil  

fluorine + brick


Yeah, it's quite remarkable and at RT too! Makes me think that ceramics won't stand much chance either, although they're compacter and that might help a little...




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[*] posted on 23-10-2011 at 17:51


Quote: Originally posted by Bubafat  
To preface: I am a fluorine chemist with ~8 years of handling HF, F2, Metal fluorides, XeF2, etc etc etc etc.


So does it have an odor, f2 that is? Taste? is it soluble in anything at cryotemps? Is it reactive with liquid nitrogen at those temperatures. Can i burn off a wart with it? Can i turn a disused copper water line into a fluorine manifold at home?

Some of the later questions are silly, oh and also the taste one, but the others are of interest. Do F2 researchers buy the fluorine in or make it in the lab. If its bought in what delivery protocol does it have? Is it a cylinder handcuffed to a guy with a machine gun or does USPS delivery it. These are all fascinating questions i would love to know the answer to if you can be bothered.




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[*] posted on 24-10-2011 at 05:07


Quote: Originally posted by Panache  
Do F2 researchers buy the fluorine in or make it in the lab. If its bought in what delivery protocol does it have?


It's bottled, of course. Sold only to 'authorised personnel' I would imagine, using specialist couriers for transport.

Wiki states that 'about 17,000 tonnes of fluorine are produced per year by 11 companies in G7 countries'. That's quite a bit of F2... I used to live relatively near one ('F2 Chemicals' in Preston).




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[*] posted on 24-10-2011 at 21:05


Quote:
I take it in these conditions that fluorine will displace oxygen in ceramics and create fluxing compounds. Correct?


Yes.

Quote:
Stainless steel valves have been used to handle fluorine gas, despite the danger.

Same goes with teflon and/or FEP tubing. Even at room temperature, if you flow fluorine through them too fast they WILL catch on fire (and scare the crap out of you in the process). Thankfully the "fire" can be extinguished by simply turning off or slowing down the fluorine.

Quote:
So does it have an odor, f2 that is?

As you might imagine, it smells very similar to a combination of chlorine and ozone. More chlorine than ozone.

Quote:
Taste?

Dunno...not dumb enough to try that one...since it would immediately start my tongue on fire.

Quote:
Is it soluble in anything at cryotemps?

It's a liquid with a significant vapor pressure at -196C. Meaning that while you can condense it, if you pull a vacuum on it, it will bubble up. Soluble in anything at that temp...dunno, never tried condensing too much of it.

Quote:
Is it reactive with liquid nitrogen at those temperatures?

No. Fluorine requires either high temperatures, a catalyst or a spark to react with nitrogen (producing NF3, N2F4, etc).

Quote:
Can i burn off a wart with it?

Yes. My graduate adviser told me stories of how his boss used to detect pinhole leaks in his F2 line by licking his finger and then passing it over the vacuum line...if it got hot = leak.

Quote:
Can i turn a disused copper water line into a fluorine manifold at home?

I wouldn't. Stainless steel would be better, but without proper training you'd be putting yourself and others at significant risk. Fluorine is nothing to laugh at.

Quote:
Do F2 researchers buy the fluorine in or make it in the lab?

Most buy it, however due to some pesky laws, researchers in Japan have to make it (via electrolysis) and consume it immediately.

Quote:
If its bought in what delivery protocol does it have?

Can't say. :cool:
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[*] posted on 25-10-2011 at 04:27


Thanks for all the warnings and advice guys. I've finally managed to get a water soluble tantalum compound (K2TaF7) and will treat this with great care.

I made a 2% solution of this and boiled it for just a minute - Test tube turned white!

2K2TaF7 + 3H2O ---> K2Ta2O3F6 + 2KF + 6HF

I was careful but still didn't expect such a corrosive mix.
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