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Author: Subject: NPED detonator
Laboratory of Liptakov
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[*] posted on 7-10-2014 at 14:14
NPED


I use a translator. Maybe I do not understand the answers from Ral123. If it is easy to add monohydrazinenitrate? Let's do it. In the patent, the catalyst / modifier: beta resorcin lead and lead salicylate. 2 + 2%. And black lamp 0.2%. Based on the content of nitrocellulose. NC12,6N is a binder for the agglomerates from 0.1 to 0.5 millimeters. NC content is 5%. MHN is stable? At least to 80C for several hours? If so, try it. Or try to use only black lamp. About 0.4% from NC. Here are suggestions on how to simplify the design. Fig. 1,2,3,4. LL

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[*] posted on 7-10-2014 at 16:06


Or was it mannitol hexanitrate?
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[*] posted on 7-10-2014 at 16:29


Mannitol Hexanitrate. And Ral123 is right. Stability of this compound is not too great, perhaps slightly better with a betaine stabilizer. You would have to make them and use them to order. As a stability test for my references I made two sets of MHN dets. Two of them kept in an old hot car in the yard for a 3 weeks, and two were made for immediate use. The cars temp during the day would have been 30-40℃ and upon testing them the warm stored ones showed a definite loss of power over the fresh units.



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[*] posted on 8-10-2014 at 00:07


If the MHN has decomposed to the point it has lost power, that's telling how dangerous it is, I thought it was more stable. How was it purified?
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[*] posted on 8-10-2014 at 08:15
NPED


Who of us amateurs will leave detonators in a hot car three weeks? It will not do even with original detonators. As a stability test = excellent. Mannitol hexanitrate can try. But it is necessary to perform many tests. Other pressing pressures. I advocate keeping with PETN. Should the test PETN. Together with catalysts. Lamp black or ammonium perchlorate. Or other available accelerators.
LL
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[*] posted on 9-10-2014 at 12:43
NPED


The picture is what to do with PETN. The catalyst need not be present there. System NPED works without catalysts. The cavity 8 mm system should work. The catalysts are added for reliable function at - 30C. Do not use acetone. Use EtOAc-. Densities what are the figures must be tested. Number of press operations as well. I recommend to start Fig.4.
LL

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[*] posted on 17-11-2014 at 07:01
NPED


Another way to make a strong NPED detonator is this. Who has PETN, may try to make. It should work. LL

NPED petn.jpg - 67kB
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[*] posted on 21-11-2014 at 06:15


Nitro Nobel experimented with zener diodes ( reverse polarity ). Ignition of smokeless powder.

For example, different diodes :

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywdtKZb_JIQ

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUTUa8Ngt-M

[Edited on 21-11-2014 by specialactivitieSK]
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[*] posted on 21-11-2014 at 09:49
kick


If the electronic component (capacitor, diode, transistor, etc.) managed to kick the PETN detonation velocity, it would be interesting. As I know, the only thing that works is exploding wire. That's no way for amateur research. LL
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[*] posted on 21-11-2014 at 10:55


Managing to assemble a big enough capacitor bank, no problem.

High voltage power supply, a little challenge, a bit of danger.

Making a fast enough switching circuit that won't self destruct and configuring the whole firing system including the OUTPUT LINE so that current rise across the exploding element is steep enough... Big challenge for a non engineer. And since you will likely be losing at least part of your output line on many uses?




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[*] posted on 5-2-2015 at 06:55
BERTA system




Pyro amateurs around the world still use HMTD, TATP and other dangerous substances. Here I present, makes available invention Ecological shock tubes on the based TeACP. Stability DDT is limited to 90 days at ambient temperature 15C. Confirmed.
Ecological initiator is safe for production. Made over 1000 without incident, without exploding. This is the main reason for the publication. The development lasted more than two years. The device is called Berta system. This is the Czech acronym commercial designation. English is: lead-free ecological impact tube on the tetraammin based. Here you have the opportunity to study ecological initiator system Berta. The design is very simple and easy. But for the production of the required precision press and precision stamping tools. Experienced researchers and professionals are able to construct a system Berta. This requires knowledge of mechanics. Accurate and detailed description of tools and products for production will not be published. Technological process will not be published. This is to protect against hot heads. For filling the shock tube, it is necessary to produce a specific grain size and composition. And follows: 1) TeACP fraction is basic to 0,05 to 0,2 mm, wet 1-3%. 2) In 5g NH3 25% aq, dissolved 1.4 g NH4ClO4. 3) This was mixed with 8.4 g TeACP fraction. Arises dough. 4) The dough is dried to form wet lumps having a water content of about 10-20%. 6) Wet lumps through a sieve 2x2m. This produces granules. 8) The granules are dried to a moisture content of 1-5% H2O/NH3 free. 9) Use 1x1m sieve is collected, separated fine particles smaller than 1x1m. We therefore granule 1x1 to 2x2m. Like for gunpowder. These grains are then compressed according to the diagram. First, 3700 kg / cm2. The area is 0.502 cm2. This means the pressing pressure 1850 kg /cm2. Tolerance pressure is 10%. Weight is 0.5 grams for a segment. A total of 3 g + - 10% as well. Then 1000 kg and so on, by diagram. Both ends are provided with PIB. Protection against loss of H20 and NH3 from molecule TeACP. In this way stability is achieved for 90 days. For reliable transition DDT. Rezistor is clasic metalic 1R5/0,6W. BasicVoltage is 6V/1A, delay 1s. Or 12V/ xA from acumulator, delay about 0,05s (instant). Berta no contains bulkheads and other excipients.Only 86 TeACP, 14 NH4ClO4 + H2O/ NH3 free. This is key for reliability DDT. Confirmed. Production TeACP is very easy. No carcinogenic metals. Ni, Co, Pb, Hg and others.For production, it should only NH4ClO4, Cu wire and ammonia water 24-25% technical quality. Detonation pressure detonator Berta is 25 GPa. RDX has 28 GPa. Deminers around the world looking for a safe initiator without primary substances, without the heavy metals. Here it is. This is a ecological Berta high explosive system. Use as a pellet Tetryl, for example 4,5g 15x15mm pellets. ingredients: TeACP fine dust 93% + 3% H2O / NH3 free, 2% PIB and 2% oil 5W40. Pressing to a density of 1.75 -1.85 g / cm3. VoD 7000-7500 m /s. Like is Berta detonator output segment.
This system is able to launch any secondary explosive. Albert Einstein once said. Things should be done as simply as possible. But not simpler. This system is Berta. Simply. For research purposes and tests. Cu tube is 50x8/10mm.
...:cool:...LL

Berta system.jpg - 127kB
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[*] posted on 17-2-2015 at 13:31
tetraamine copper perchlorate


@LL I thought I had posted this before long ago.

You may find this information on TACP interesting

http://parazite.nn.fi/roguesci/index.php/t-158-p-7.html

file attached for posterity



Attachment: TACC, TACN, and tetramine copper perchlorate [Archive] - Page 7 - The Explos.pdf (37kB)
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[*] posted on 18-2-2015 at 01:58
Berta system


Yes, I read these articles before about 1 year. It's a good article, description TACP. Berta system is the next step. A comprehensive system that works reliably. For Berta initiator is important to 1-5% moisture prior to pressing. Production of shock tubes Berta here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JFxbdp-I0hw
Easy prepare TACP here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CEdMVq1uM4I
...LL...:cool:
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[*] posted on 18-2-2015 at 08:48


TACP has a positive oxygen balance which enables use of a fuel or use of an energetic fuel in mixture with TACP to achieve oxygen balance. The oxygen balanced mixture is also more sensitive to initiation. I tried this using paraffin as 2.75 parts plus 97.25 parts TACP for a good mixture.

I did not test a mixture 85:15 of TACP with NH4ClO4 which would have even greater positive oxygen balance. I do not know why you would use 15%
of NH4ClO4 or what is the advantage for such a mixture compared with 100% TACP.

Why do you use 15% NH4ClO4?
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[*] posted on 18-2-2015 at 10:49
Berta system


Who would have thought that an emulsion containing 12% water and ammonium nitrate will be the explosive?
Or Guglielmo Marconi. Antenna across the ocean does not work upwards? Put it in reverse. Was performed (Berta) over 1000 trials. Every little differently. The oxygen balance in Berta is + 17.42. I know it sounds like nonsense. Similarly, as the above examples. Without AP Berta also works. Very poorly, or not at all. Unfortunately, I can not explain it. Containing 12-15% of the AP is working at 100%...:cool:...LL
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[Edited on 18-2-2015 by Laboratory of Liptakov]
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[*] posted on 18-2-2015 at 11:50


Perhaps the detonation of AP is catalyzed by the Cu ion from the TACP.
Have you tried paraffin as a sensitizer and graining additive for the 85:15 mixture?

You describe a good 90 day storage for the 85:15 mixture. There appeared to be no storage issue for the sample of unmixed TACP which I tested. The sample was kept for a couple of years and it showed no apparent change.
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[*] posted on 18-2-2015 at 14:38


The addition of paraffin to 85:15 Not tested, no paraffin. Dry TACP (about 0,3% H2O) loses the ability to DDT. After 3 days. And it certainly. In the tube not work a like detonator. Loss of DDT. Confirmed at least 100x. 3-5 days old dry TACP@1,85 with primer LA 200mg, full detonation, speed of 7500 m/s. 10 -20 days old dry TACP@1,85 init. LA, only deflagration. Total loss of DDT, in Cu tube 8/10 of course. It is my experience...:cool:...LL
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[*] posted on 18-2-2015 at 17:04


For 1.5 grams TACP with no paraffin a 1/4" column diameter loaded at 8,000 psi, 300mg LA produced complete detonation.

For 1.5 grams TACP with paraffin 2.75% a 1/4" column diameter loaded at 8,000 psi, 200mg LA was reduced amount produced complete detonation.

The same test condition for TACP from the same batch with paraffin increased to 6.75% produced only partial detonation.

All tests unreenforced caps fired by fuse not crimped

There were not repeated tests done on material after long storage. But there was no apparent change in the stored samples, no odor of ammonia on opening containers, no color change. The material dried at 95C appeared storage stable to me. I also left a sample out openly exposed to air for extended time and it appeared stable also.
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[*] posted on 12-3-2015 at 09:10


Berta also works in other specific forms. For example TACP + HMTA 100: 7. Even in the cavity 6 mm. Or with clean TACP. But the stability of the transition DDT is not verified. (3 mon.) It's still research...:cool:...LL
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[*] posted on 7-4-2015 at 13:54
Thermal Shock Initiation Using Molten Metal


Was doing some soldering today and out of curiosity I dropped little blobs of molten 60-40 solder on very small quantities of ETN sitting on a piece of scrap wood which caused the ETN to flash and snap loudly. I think this effect could be harnessed and used for a NPED design.

Lead and some of its alloys have very good thermal conductivity, significant ability to store energy as latent and sensible heats especially if considered in terms of volume, flow well when molten and have a melting point above that which is needed to thermally shock ETN, MHN, NG and others.

Haven't quite got all the specifics worked out, but I think this could work well. I does rely on gravity, however, since molten metal falls towards the center of the earth which will govern the orientation of at least that part of the cap. Even 60-40, tin-lead, solder has a melting point over 180C and with a little ingenuity it can be heated well above its melting point before being dumped on the secondary explosive below thermally shocking it into detonation. My initial thought was that the heating element (electrical resistive element) could be positioned high in the lead alloy and the bottom could have a layer of higher melting alloy to ensure that the main bulk of the lower melting alloy above was well above its solidification point before the bottom layer melted dumping the molten heat sink. The molten lead would provide confinement as well, during the initial moments of contact, which would increase the effect. Obviously the heating element will have to be electrically insulated from the conductive lead alloy (something which I am still thinking about). I suppose a hot burning pyrotechnic mixture placed over the solid lead such as a thermite type mixture could be used in place of the electrical heat element (not sure if this is practical).

Here are some thermal properties of 60-40 solder taken from the following website:

http://www.matweb.com/search/datasheet.aspx?matguid=06a31d97...

Heat of Fusion: 37.0 J/g
Specific Heat Capacity: 0.173 J/g.C
Thermal Conductivity: 49.8 W/m.K
Melting Point: 183-190C
Solidus: 183C
Liquidus: 190C

Also the viscosity is given as 2cP at 190C, which is only double that of room temperature water, and so will flow through holes and into tight crevices making excellent contact with the explosive to be initiated very quickly.

Attachment: Alloy Temperature Chart (Kester).pdf (74kB)
This file has been downloaded 603 times

Cap Without Primary.jpg - 16kB

The thermal conductivities of the common lead free solders are even higher at about 60 W/m.K, as well as having higher melting temperatures and greater heat capacities owing to the much higher tin content and no lead.

edit:
I suppose a bit of glass or maybe ceramic tubing, or some other electrical insulator, could be used to hold the alloy to be melted and it could be heated through the tubing sidewall by nichrome wire or other resistive element wrapped around the tubing. Still thinking.


[Edited on 7-4-2015 by Hennig Brand]




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[*] posted on 8-4-2015 at 08:48


This is very interesting. Dripping lead (solder) on ETN. But the condition of gravity, it is a big limitation. I see a similarity. ETN heated and molten on the aluminum thin plate (foil) exploded. Reliably. But the practical use (as detonator) is very difficult...LL
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[*] posted on 8-4-2015 at 11:23


Other ideas:
Fe powder + S (flower) --> FeS (like a cigarette burning)
Al2+ 3S --> Al2S3 (with exces Al for ETN ignition)
FeO or Fe2O3 thermite
PbO or PbO2 thermite
Cu2O or CuO thermite




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[*] posted on 8-4-2015 at 16:12


Quote: Originally posted by Laboratory of Liptakov  
This is very interesting. Dripping lead (solder) on ETN. But the condition of gravity, it is a big limitation. I see a similarity. ETN heated and molten on the aluminum thin plate (foil) exploded. Reliably. But the practical use (as detonator) is very difficult...LL


I think the molten metal, at a temperature above the decomposition temperature of the explosive, could easily provide a great deal more near instantaneous thermal shock, which I think would result in more reliability. I haven't tested it, but it seems logical. I am thinking of the experiments where NG is dropped on hot steel and made to detonate.




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[*] posted on 8-4-2015 at 19:39
Thermite


I agree with the others, you could use an electric current in a high resistant wire to heat up lead and drip it onto ETN, or you could make molten iron from thermite instantly. I would be curious if anyone had had any success on this?
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[*] posted on 9-4-2015 at 04:31


There may be a certain temperature, or range of temperatures, that works best to initiate the ETN or MHN, etc (like NG being dripped on hot steel where the right temperature causes immediate detonation). By choosing the correct alloy with the correct melting point it should be possible to set the temperature reasonably accurately. Thermal shock to me indicates very rapid transfer of energy to increase the temperature of the explosive extremely quickly to above its decomposition point and I think dropping a highly conductive molten metal of low viscosity on the sample does it well. I suppose a thermite type reaction could work as well, but I don't think lighting a combustible mixture in contact with the explosive will provide nearly the same thermal shock (steep power curve) or be as controllable with regards to temperature or rate of heat transfer. Maybe it won't work at all, but it seems promising to me except for the gravity issue.



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