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Author: Subject: Trinitrotoluene preparation
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[*] posted on 21-5-2002 at 16:37
Trinitrotoluene preparation


I no longer have Megalomania's instructions for preparation of TNT on my hardrive (computer crashed); the site I uploaded his instructions to has suffered a plague of mysterious file deletion, one of the victims being the TNT preparation file; and, obviously, Megalomania's site is gone. Anyone have a copy of his instructions, or equally reliable and accuration instructions?



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[*] posted on 21-5-2002 at 16:38


I don't have any copies of that site. But I think you are over-crediting that procedure of megalomania. It isn't that great really.
Just use a lot of mixed acid, the more the better, but atleast twice the stochiochemical quantity. Then slowly add the toluene with a sep funnel. Start heating the mixture to about 70 dC and keep that temperature for 2 hours. Most of the toluene is converted to DNT. Then put the mixture in a sep funnel and seperate the acid from the molten DNT. Put some new fresh mixed acid with that and heat the whole mixture again to 70 dC. Put in sep funnel again and seperate. All the boiling and stuff is off course done in a RB flask with a long reflux condensor. Heating off course with a heating mantle or oil bath. This is just from my own experience and works fine. The risk of runnaway reaction should not be underestimated and is quite high.
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[*] posted on 21-5-2002 at 16:39


Could you share information on how to tell if runaway nitration is imminent, such as runaway nitration temperature, changes in appearance, etcetra? I'm assuming that it would also be possible to extract the dinitrotoluene by cooling it, dumping into several times its own
volume of water, neutralizing the solution, and filtering out the dinitrotoluene (cold of course). I've heard that dinitrotoluene is a waxy solid. Is this true? Thanks for the above information. I recently found some very good instructions for someone with lots of patience (very detailed, three step method). It was not some crapbook quality instructions, either... I will try to find a link to those instructions.




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[*] posted on 21-5-2002 at 16:41


Quote:
Mr. Cool: There is also a method similar to the aspirin method for TNP. I haven't tried it myself, but I've heard that it works. You sulphonate the toluene with conc. H2SO4 for several hours under reflux, and then add KNO3. You need more H2SO4 and KNO3 than for TNP, you let it react for longer at each stage, and you do it at a higher temperature. I think using 50% more acid, KNO3, time and temperature will work fine. The person who told me about it apparently used the same molar ratios as for TNP via aspirin on my site (www.flashbangboom.homeste...age.html), and similar times and temperatures.




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[*] posted on 21-5-2002 at 16:42


For those who have little time and a lot of chemicals for cheap the one batch process is the way to go except you manipulate bigger batches to get the same yields and spend a lot more concentrated acids. Risks of runaway are bigger since you try to perform the trinitration in one step; T control is harder too since the batch is bigger...so cooling will be harder!
The economical way to go is to go two or three steps nitration...this allows you even to separate isomers for other synthesis (toluidines, toluols, polynitrotoluens over 3 NO2, nitrobenzoic acids, ....)

The first step involve medium concentration HNO3 (50 to 70%) with a little H2SO4 (medium conc)--> you get after refluxing at 80-90°C almost only mononitrotoluens (ortho, meta and para)(major compounds are ortho and para).

The second nitration requires 70%HNO3 with a little conc H2SO4--> you get dinitroToluens; if you didn't separate the isomer in the previous stage, you will get
2,3-2,4-2,5-2,6 dinitrotoluen
3,4-3,5-3,6 dinitrotoluen
Separation will then be harder now!
Major products are 2,4-2,6!

The third step involves HNO3 conc + H2SO4 conc at the same T:
And will lead to 2,4,6-TNT as a major product and all the other trisome combinations in various amounts:
2,3,4-2,3,5-2,3,6 TNT
2,4,5 TNT
3,4,5-3,4,6 TNT
+Some tertranitroToluens + some trinitrobenzoic acid + some tetranitromethane + some nitroform +....

This mix of isomers explains why DNT is waxy liquid-solid since some form are cristaline but dissolve partially in other isomeric liquid forms; also the presence of impurities in a compound lowers its melting point!

So you see that from this method in 3 steps, you use as efficiently as possible the acids and don't waste valuable conc HNO3 or H2SO4!
You also don't risk runaways this way (since the reaction time is delayed on 3 sessions and the first very exothermic reaction is tempered by the amount of water present in the medium conc acids!

Quantities of acid used are stoechiometric + 10%; and you only require very conc HNO3 for the last step!

Lets compare the two processes:
Fictive example:
You take 10g of toluen for both mono or 3 step:

Single step reaction:
10g Tol + 40 ml 98% HNO3 + 120 ml 98% H2SO4
Total batch size 173 ml! --> 22,2g (TNT 90% yield)

3 step reaction:
10g Tol + 15 ml 50% HNO3 + 30 ml 50% H2SO4
Total batch size 58 ml! -->14,7g (MNT 99% yield)

14,7g MNT + 11 ml 70% HNO3 + 20 ml 98% H2SO4
Total batch size 46 ml! --> 19g (DNT 97% yield)

19g DNT + 7,5 ml 98% HNO3 + 22 ml 98% H2SO4
Tot. b. s. 44,5 ml! --> 23g (TNT 97% yield)

Total of total batch size:
HNO3: 15 ml(50%) + 11 ml(70%) + 7,5 ml(98%)
or 33,5 ml of HNO3 (?%) --> 22,7 ml of 98% HNO3 equivalent!

H2SO4: 30 ml(50%) + 20 ml(98%) + 22 ml(98%)
or 57 ml 98% H2SO4 equivalent!

By comparing now one step vs 3 steps:
HNO3 98%: 40 ml vs 22,7ml
H2SO4 98%: 120 ml vs 57 ml
Yields: 90% (22,2g) vs 92,2% (23g)

Where does this difference come?
-HNO3 conc is used only when needed
-H2SO4 conc is used when needed and increased when needed too
-Volume of concentrated mixed acid is lower and thus solubility of DNT and TNT is lower...lower loss of compound when manipulating
-Better T control
-Less degradation into oxydation products in the two first stages!

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[*] posted on 10-7-2002 at 08:59
TNT


TIP: Don't synthesize your TNT in home. When you are nitrating C7H8 into MNT it stinks really bad like Almond. Also, the smell stays a while on your glassware. So wear Gloves and don't breath any fumes(suspected to be a carcogenic).

btw, i guess you can make TNT in one step, by using a little C7H8 and lots of mixed acids(proboubly highly concentrated , H2SO4 98%> and HNO3 95%>)

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[*] posted on 27-8-2002 at 14:02


How are polynitrotoluenes synthesized?



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[*] posted on 27-8-2002 at 16:42


I just discovered that the temperature where the reaction between toluene and highly concentrated mixed acid makes the transition from nitration to oxidation (runaway nitration) is 75C.



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[*] posted on 8-9-2002 at 15:47


Actually you probably think you can only go to trinitration of toluen-as I did when I was younger; but it is not the case!
Here is an example:
If you isolate metanitrotoluen, you can stil make the trinitration almost without problem in ortho and para position yielding tetranitrotoluen 2,3,4,6!
CH3-C6H5 --> TNT -partial reduction-> CH3-C6H2(NO2)2-NH2 --> HNO3 conc + H2SO4 conc --> CH3-C6(NO2)4-NH2 tetranitrotoluidine.

How do you think it is possible to make hexanitrobenzene?
NH2-C6(NO2)4-CH3 -HNO3/H2SO4/H2O2(all 100%)-> C6(NO2)6 + CO2 + H2O

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wink.gif posted on 17-10-2002 at 22:57


Luckly i save the information in a disk because I know that someone is gonna close down that site after the bombing in finland. So heres meglomania method of making Trinitrotoluene.

melting point
80.1 °C boiling point
ignites at 295 °C trinitrotoluene molecular mass
227.13 g/mol density
1.654 g/mL
class (ABC) sensitivity
very low chemical formula
C7H5N3O6 explosive velocity
7028 m/s estimated cost
$?.00/g


2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, or just TNT, is the oft used military and industrial explosive that may be the among the best recognized explosive around. Other names for TNT include: trinitrotoluol; sym-trinitrotoluene; a-trinitrotoluol; 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene; entsufon; 1-methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; methyltrinitrobenzene; tolite; trilit; s-trinitrotoluene; s-trinitrotoluol; trotyl; sym-trinitrotoluol; alpha-trinitrotoluol; tolite; triton; tritol; trilite; tri; tutol; trinol; füllpulver 1902; Fp02; tritolo; trillit; tolita; tol; and trotil. TNT was first synthesized in 1863 by a scientist named Wilbrand who treated toluene with sulfuric and nitric acid at near boiling temperatures. Although there are several isomers of trinitrotoluene, only the 2,4,6- isomer is of importance. Pure TNT is in the form of small columns or needles and is insoluble in water. It is quite stable, being meltable ,or able to act like a plastic at around 50 °C. TNT can even be boiled although the experiments did this under reduced pressure (50mm Hg) to lower the boiling point to around 245 °C. The normal detonation temperature is 333 °C, the calculated boiling point at normal atmospheric pressure is 345 °C, so don't do it. Some experiments have determined that the presence of foreign material like 1.9% of Fe2O3 will lower the amount of time it takes for TNT to explode once it reaches its critical temperature, or 295 °C, the temperature at which decomposition begins. Also, mixing pure sulfur with TNT will lower the initiation temperature and increase the explosive power. For example, pure TNT explodes at 333 °C, 5% sulfur explodes at 304 °C, 10% sulfur at 294 °C, 20% sulfur at 284 °C, and 30% sulfur at 275 °C. The increase in explosive power is gained through the addition of 5-10% sulfur. Because the stability of TNT is so great, it is harder to detonate it, the sensitivity increases somewhat above 80º C, but is still rather low even when molten. A powerful blasting cap, or booster charge, will be needed to detonate TNT. This lab is carried out in three separate operations, forming mononitrotoluene, then dinitrotoluene, and finally trinitrotoluene. CHEMICALS APPARATUS
ethyl alcohol 100/500/600-mL beaker
nitric acid Buchner funnel
sodium bisulfite graduated cylinder
sulfuric acid pipet/buret
toluene separatory funnel
water stirrer/stirring rod
thermometer


Prepare a nitrating solution of 160 mL of 95% sulfuric acid and 105 mL of 75% nitric acid in a 500-mL beaker set in a salt-ice bath. Mix the acids very slowly to avoid the generation of too much heat. Allow the mixture to cool to room temperature. The acid mixture is slowly added dropwise, with a pipet or buret, to 115 mL of toluene in a 600-mL beaker while stirring rapidly. Maintain the temperature of the beaker during the addition at 30-40 °C by using either a cold water or salt-ice bath. The addition should require 60-90 minutes. After the addition, continue stirring for 30 minutes without any cooling, then let the mixture stand for 8-12 hours in a separatory funnel. The lower layer will be spent acid and the upper layer should be mononitrotoluene, drain the lower layer and keep the upper layer.

Dissolve one-half of the previously prepared mononitrotoluene and 60 mL of 95% sulfuric acid in a 500-mL beaker set in a cold water bath. Prepare a nitrating solution of 30 mL of 95% sulfuric acid and 36.5 mL of 95% nitric acid in a 100-mL beaker. Preheat the beaker of mononitrotoluene to 50 &Deg;C. Very slowly add the nitrating acid to the beaker of mononitrotoluene, with a pipet or buret, drop by drop while stirring rapidly. Regulate the rate of addition to keep the temperature of the reaction between 90-100 °C. The addition will require about 1 hour. After the addition, continue stirring and maintaining the temperature at 90-100 °C for 2 hours. If the beaker is allowed to stand, a layer of dinitrotoluene will separate, it is not necessary to separate the dinitrotoluene from the acid in this step.

While stirring the beaker of dinitrotoluene, heated to 90 °C, slowly add 80 mL of 100% fuming sulfuric acid, containing about 15% SO3, by pouring from a beaker. Prepare a nitrating solution of 40 mL of 100% sulfuric acid, with 15% SO3, and 50 mL of 99% nitric acid. Very slowly add the nitrating acid to the beaker of dinitrotoluene, with a pipet or buret, drop by drop while stirring rapidly. Regulate the rate of addition to keep the temperature of the reaction between 100-115 °C. It may become necessary to heat the beaker after three-quarters of the acid has been added in order to sustain the 100-115 °C temperature. The addition will require about 90-120 minutes. Maintain the stirring and temperature at 100-115 °C for 2 hours after the addition is complete. Allow the beaker to sit undisturbed for 8-12 hours, it should form a solid mass of trinitrotoluene crystals. Pour the contents of the beaker over a Buchner funnel without any filter paper to collect the bulk of the crystals, save the acidic filtrate as well. Break up the collected crystals and wash them with water to remove any excess acid. Add the collected acid and wash filtrates to a large volume of water, this will cause any remaining trinitrotoluene to precipitate. Decant off as much of the water as possible and combine these crystals with the previous ones on the funnel. Drown the crystals in a large volume of water, filter to collect them, and wash several times with water. Wash the crystals by adding them to a beaker of water, heat the water enough to melt the crystals while stirring rapidly. Repeat the melting and stirring with a fresh batch of water three or four times to wash thoroughly. After the last washing, the trinitrotoluene is granulated by allowing it to cool slowly under hot water while the stirring is continued. Filter to collect the crystals and allow to dry. The TNT can be further purified by recrystallizing from ethyl alcohol, dissolve the crystals in 60 °C and allow the solution to cool slowly. A second method of purification is to digest the TNT in 5 times its weight of 5% sodium bisulfite solution heated to 90 °C while stirring rapidly for 30 minutes. Wash the crystals with hot water until the washings are colorless, then allow the crystals to granulate as before. You will need a graduated cylinder for measuring liquids, a stirring rod or magnetic stirrer for mixing, and a thermometer to monitor the temperature.
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wink.gif posted on 17-10-2002 at 23:02


I also have another method from one of those links thats connected to meglomainia's site.Its a more easyior method and can be made form more readly avaliable chemicals.

Despite What Some Preceding Documents May have stated, Crude 2,4,6 TrinitroToluene Can be prepared from less concentrated, more commonly available, easily produced acids. The Process is a Modified Three Step Nitration, Whereby Toluene is converted into MonoNitroToluene, Dinitro, And Finally Trinitro by the addition of fresh portions of Mixed Nitric/Sulfuric Acid. An External Source of heat is neccesary

Purification is accomplished through the usage of a boiling water liquidation, Whereby impurities float to the surface, which are easily decanted.. It can be scaled up or down depending upon materiel availability.

Materiels

Sulfuric Acid 99~%

This can be Found in Home Depot, In White Plastic Containers, Marked "Instant Power Drain Opener" Marketed By Scotch Corporation Of Dallas, Texas - 64Oz Containers of Concentrated Sulfuric Acid Found in the plumbing section. It is of 93% Purity - It must be concentrated via heating at 100C+ For 10 minutes. Water will boil off yielding Theoretically pure H2SO4 - This should be done OUTSIDE, As all Experiments should be.

Nitric Acid 70~99 % Concentration

The ~70% Materiel is available commercially, 99~ materiel is available via 88~C Distillation of Potassium Or Sodium Nitrate With Sulfuric Acid. The 70 % materiel will work, although yields will be less.

Toluene

This is found in the Solvent section of Home Depot in Gallon cans

It is used as a specialty solvent. ACE May carry it if it is unavailable in Home Depot

3 Glass, Heat Resistant Container(Pyrex, Kimax Beaker or Flask Preferably)

Acid Resistant Volume Measurement device( Graduated Cylinder Or Etched Beaker)

Glass Stirring Rod

Plastic Spaluta

Plastic Baster

Heat Source

Thermometer(Optional)

This Item would greatly increase reproducibility - But TNT Will still form without careful temperature control and based on subjective sensory perception. Celsius Has been included for those who do have the luxury of a thermometer. TNT is not a sensitive HE and thus there is no danger of temperature based runaway reactions leading to detonation.

Procedure

Measure Out 300 Milliliters Of ~99% Sulfuric Acid into the heat resistant glass container. It should be able to hold at 1000 ML. Add To This 100 Ml Of Nitric Acid 70%. If One is using 99~ Distillation Acid then 75 ML Of That should be used. Or .75

This is the standard ratio 3/1 Or .75 If 99~ Acid is used. Heat will be generated upon the Nitric acid mixing with the Sulfuric acid and a cloud of barely visible white N0x should be seen wafting over the vessel. Now One adds 100 Milliliters of Toluene. Upon The Toluene contacting the mixed acid, it will convert to a yellowish/Red oil which will float on the surface of the acids - Large Amounts of heat will be generated - This is Good. Just let the vessel sit alone untouched reacting for 2 hours. A very noticeable odor shall appear - This is due to MNT. Do NOT confuse this with the odor of Reddish/Brown N02 which may begin to bubble off the beaker when the reaction temperature reaches a climax. Some reckon it smells like "shoe polish", While others relate to it smelling "Almondish". Personally, it has a completely distinct smell that i do not feel is adequately characterized by any particular description. Let it react for 2 hours

The MNT will be a Aromatic oil on the surface of the acids. It should now have turned cold - Temperature must now be maintained externally. With a bunsen burner, alcohol lamp, or other heating device, heat the beaker to 80C~. If you lack a thermometer, It should be heated to the temperature of the beaker during the vigorous reaction. By this i do not imply one wait around while it is reacting, as Volumes of Nitrogen Dioxide, a reddish Brown gas, is produced, which is quite toxic and will produce pulmonary edema which may go unnoticed for a week, at which point one may die. This does not mean you will die if you take a little whiff, No, But common sense dictates that one should distance themselves from the vessel while it is reacting and avoid inhaling any fumes. It is heated externally for 30 minutes. Now using the Plastic Baster, suck up as much of the now dilute acid from the container and transfer to another suitable container for recycling(See Below) Or should be disposed of properly. Try not to get any of the MNT in with the acid, this will take practice. Now In another container mix another batch of 3/1 acid and add this to the MNT. Repeat above steps involving 2 hour wait and 30 minute external heating. Remove spent acid and add to portion of spent acid recovered form MNT nitration. The DNT will be a Yellow oily liquid, or a waxy yellow solid. Now Comes the final nitration. To The DNT is added a fresh portion of 3/1 acid.

The vessel will get hot and when it cools after 2 hours yellow needles may be visible in addition to some DNT. After allowing the vessel to react for 2 hours, external heating should be applied for 1 hour. When heating is removed the insoluble oil floating on the surface will solidify as it cools, forming a yellow crystalline cake, with many yellow needles embedded into it - This is TNT. Earlier methods involved filtration, but due to economic reasons good filter paper is not used, instead coffee filters - Since corrosion of the cellulose based filters has been shown, a spatula is used to "Fish out" The cake from the surface of the acid and into a separate plastic container like a cream cheese container. This can be done by tilting the container gently and sliding the cake along the side of the vessel and into the empty plastic container.

Purification

The empty cup with the fragments of cake, acid, is covered in about 150 ML Of boiling water - This will melt the TNT into a puddle under the water and cause insoluble droplets of DNT impurity to float onto the surface as an oil. Any Acid Will dissolve in the water. Let this cool, drain off the water and remove the "Wet Cast" TNT from the container, preferably plastic "I Can't Believe Its Not Butter" container, which bends easily allowing the TNT to loosen and fallout without cracking it. Place it on Layers of Paper towel to dry, as TNT will exude a yellow oil. Puddles of such exudate can be found in munitions dumps across the country. You will notice the Paper towels colored yellow. Allow the TNT to lay undisturbed on the towels, and if neccesary fresh portions of towel should be used to dry it. Later Castings should be done dry using a bath of boiling water surrounding a dry container with the TNT in it.

One should not worry too much about possible safety dangers, as TNT is fairly difficult to initiate accidentally. Although it is better to be cautious around explosives paraphernalia.

Acid Recycling

For higher efficiency, Or for 99~ Nitric acid production, a distillation apparatus should be obtained or set up. A decent one can be made with two Flasks and appropriate rubber stoppers and glass tubing, With a bunsen burner or other heating instrument providing the means for distillation and ice water the means for condensation. The efficiency of the above mentioned reaction can be greatly improved if one uses the large amount of still usable acid present in the spent acid. Spent acid can be recycled by adding to it additional sulfuric acid , 2 parts spent acid to 1 part fresh sulfuric acid. Distillation is

effected at 80~C To obtain 99~% nitric acid, which can be reused in above reaction, or for PETN, RDX, NitroCellulose, etc... After Half An Hour of 80C careful distillation, All the Nitric Acid has been driven off, the condensation apparatus is removed and the spent acid vessel is heated to a higher temperature to drive off ALL water from the sulfuric acid. Quite Ingenious

Suggestions

If PETN is available, a Pentolite Booster can be made easily from the powdered, sieved PETN, mixed into the molten TNT, 50/50. If Cost is an issue, an AMATOL should be made. DRY Ammonium Nitrate should be mixed into the molten TNT, 50/50. There is a stichiometric fuel/oxygen balance that makes this explosive more powerful than Either components seperatly. I suggest Gentle heating in an oven on the TOP RACK to drive off any moisture. Also a Tritonal Is an interesting Explosive, If Only for its impressive Night-Time Flash. 20 Parts powdered Aluminum, available form various Mail-Order Pyrotechnics Companies, is sieved into a beaker full of molten TNT, 80 Parts.

-325 Or Better Should be used, German Black Flake 3 micron is Optimal. Care must be taken to avoid Moisture when using this in a sealed casing, as H2 gas will be generated by Aluminum Oxidation, and it may crack a casing before it is given a chance to be employed.

:)
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[*] posted on 16-11-2002 at 07:32
abbreviation of explosives/chemistry


I never knew what all these terms meant when I was first introduced to pyrotechnics and it took me a while to learn them so here they are to make them easier for you (I got most of these from agent boris from TOTSE) :

\LE\ - Low Explosive
\PE\ - Primary
\HE\ - High Explosive
\CH\ - Chemicals
\AP\ - Acetone Peroxide
\ICPM\ - A minute post-blast taggant manufactured by Synthesia, Czech Republic. The taggant is comprised of Urea
Formaldehyde Resin, Silicon Oxide, Rhodamin B, Iron, and oxides of metal.
\HMTD\ - hexamethylene triperoxide diamine
\RDX\ - Explosive crystals used in plastic expolsives (Cyclonate)
\PETN\ - Pentaerythritol tetranitrate
\TATP\ - Triacetone Triperoxide – A highly sensitive primary explosive manufactured from common chemicals such as
acetone, peroxide, and acid
\TNT\ - Trinitrotoluene
\LOW EXPLOSIVES\Explosives which are characterized by deflagration (a rapid combustion that moves through an
explosive material at a velocity less than the speed of sound).
\DMNB\ - Dinitrobutane
\ANFO\ - An explosive material consisting of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil.
\Detonating Cord\ - A flexible cord containing a center core of high explosive and used to initiate other explosives
\Oxydizer\ - A substance, such as a nitrate, that readily yields oxygen or other oxidizing substances to stimulate
the combustion of organic matter or other fuel.
\MEKP\ - Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide is a primary in liquid form

If I can find any more things like this or write my own, I will post them up
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[*] posted on 17-11-2002 at 10:53
more abbreviations


/UHE/ - Ultra High Explosive - explosives with vod > 10k/s
:cool:




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[*] posted on 17-11-2002 at 14:44


Have anybody knowledge of synthesis of TNT by low concetrated acids and by catalysis of the activated copper?
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[*] posted on 18-11-2002 at 20:37


No i dont think low concentration acids will work. I've heard that its very dificult to get the Mono form with low concentration acids.



TNT
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[*] posted on 23-11-2002 at 11:08


OK, I'm sorry for the inaccurate post. I have kept on mind this: There are fragmentary informations in the books of special preparative chemistry. They say, the synthesis of TNT should be realize without oleum (in the common process is used 20%oleum=free SO3 dissolved in H2SO4) by reaction dinitrotoluene(toluene?), nitration mixture and ACTIVATED COPPER as nitration catalyst. In according this, activated copper is going to bond the toluene temporarily(as metalic intetmediate) and allows the nitrogroup entry easily accessible. It is lesser-known method, but it works. I let react toluene, 68% HNO3, 98% H2SO4 and large-grained precipitated copper(I had supposed it could be that activated copper), but the final product brought the melting point 54°C (precipitated from acetone) and smell typically. Damned, only dinitrotoluene.. melting point of chemical clear TNT is 81,8°C. Damned, only dinitrotoluene. Ring is free, it's up for discussion. Should anybody response?



The cyanides are good to digesting!
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[*] posted on 23-11-2002 at 14:25
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Glossary/ Abbreviation of Explosives/Chemistry

LE - Low Explosive

PE - Primary Explosive

HE - High Explosive

CH - Chemicals

AP- Acetone peroxide

HMTD - hexamethylene triperoxide diamine

RDX - Explosive crystals used in plastic expolsives (Cyclonate or Hexogen)

PETN - Pentaerythritol tetranitrate

TATP - Triacetone Triperoxide

TNT - Trinitrotoluene

DMNB - Dinitrobutane

ANFO - An explosive that has ammonium nitrate and fuel oil in it

Detonating Cord - A cord containing a high explosive. It is used to detonate other explosives.

Oxydizing Agent- Something that causes another substance to either gain oxygen, lose hydrogen or lose electrons.

Ion - An atom that has an electrical charge. If an atom loses or gains an electron, it becomes an ion.

HEDM- High Energy Denisty Material

IM- Insensitive Munition

PBX- Plastic Bound Explosive

MgO- Magnesium Oxide

KNO3- Pottasium Nitrate (saltpetre)

H202- Hydrogen Peroxide

NH4NO3- Ammonium Nitrate

HNO3- Nitric Acid

NH3- Ammonia

ADN- An underwater explosive, ammonium DinitrAmide

DPPP- Diphoronepentaperoxide

Ketone- "any of a class of organic compounds having a carbonyl group linked to a carbon atom in each of two hydrocarbon radicals." This information was taken from www.dictionary.com

Perchlorate- A salt of perchloric acid

HClO4- Percloric acid, perchloric acid is a liquid with no colour. It is an oxydizing agent that is used as a catalyst.

Catalyst- Something that increases the rate of the process of a chemical reaction.



I made that list up myself. If there are any mistakes or inaccurate information, I would appreciate it if someone would inform me of it.
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[*] posted on 23-11-2002 at 14:54


What do these acronyms have to do with preparing trinitrotoluene? :o



I weep at the sight of flaming acetic anhydride.
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[*] posted on 23-11-2002 at 22:13


shit... maybe I've been posting in the wrong topic all this time but I was pretty sure this was appropiate to be posted in another topic somewhere. Sorry about that
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[*] posted on 28-12-2002 at 00:20


Today I had prepeared some mononitrotoluene.I used 12 grams of KNO3 20ml of 93% H2SO4 and 10ml of toluene. My yeald was 8.5ml of mononitrotoluene. I then tried to nitrate 3 ml of toluene using the leftover acid, but that failed. After that I decided to make another batch useing the same thing and this timeI used a cool water bath and my yeald was only about 5.5ml from the 10 ml of toluene. So from my experenments I quess using a water bath or cooling the mixture will reduce your yeald. But dont get the temperature too high then NO2 gas will be liberated.I say above 45* but below 70*.



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shocked.gif posted on 31-12-2002 at 14:08
A little runaway occurs


A few hours ago I had decided to make more mononitrotoluene.And this time I've decided to make a much larger batch of it. So this time I had used 30ml of toluene 45 grams or NaNO3 and 60ml of H2SO4 thats 93% in concentration.I started adding the NaNO3 to the H2SO4 after I was done the temperature shot up to 48*C then i added 20 ml of toluene and started stirring the temperature went up. When it shot up to 75*C my MNT turned from light yellow to orange and NO2 gas was being liberated.Then I stoped stirring and after 10 seconds no more NO2 was given off. Then i put it in a water bath the temperature stayed the same and added the rest of the toluene which was 10ml after that the temperture shot up to 85*C but there was no runaway. It stayed the way for 15 minutes and its slowly dropping since then.Right now my MNT is still outside. I will extract it an hour from now.



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wink.gif posted on 25-1-2003 at 16:48
SHIT I Made Trinitrotoluene


Yesterday I mixed 30ml of 98% H2SO4 with 25ml of yellow HNO3 I think its 90%+ in concentration then I added 22 grams of Dinitrotoluene that I had previously prepeared a month ago. When adding the DNT some acid splattered up and hit my hand ouch it burn. But after adding the DNT no reaction So I heated it. As soon as the reached 80*C a self substained reaction occured. The temperature went up tp 110*C and lots of red NO2 gas is given off. After the reaction died down I applyed heat. Keeping the temperature between 100-115*C. But at one point the temperature went to to 130*C. Well if the temperature goes above 110*C red fumes are given off. But I maitained the heating for 1 hour and 45 minutes. I was plannig to do it for 2 hours but its night time and too dark to work. After that I left it overnight and the next morning I went to check. I see a oily layer floating on the top of the acids. I said to myself my DNT had turned back into MNT with disapointment I extracted the oily substance and placed it in a 150ml beaker filled with water. After that I left then ate lunch. After lunch I went to check on my experiment and I see a tiny crystal floating on top of the stuff. And the oily substance had solldifild it looks like a crystalline solid. I jumped up and down and shouted with excitement. Then to make sure I heated the water and when it reached above 80*C it melted. After that I washed it a few times in a hot wter bath. The water turned yellow and the TNT turned form a yellow crystalline solid to a peach color. After purification I weighted my yealds I got 6.5 grams of TNT.And I started off with 22 grams of DNT. I am still very happy with my results because I had acomplashed my main goal in energetic materials. As for now I have no plans in detonateing it. I really think synthesizeing energetic materials is fun but there do fun with detonateing it. As for now I will continue on making MNT and DNT. I may give it a try on making TNT in the future with different methods.



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[*] posted on 26-1-2003 at 21:02


"As for now I have no plans in detonateing it"

Thats the mindset of a chemist, i think the same way as you, I think the fun is in its creation, although I like a good boom here and there, I think the main thing that keeps me in it is the making of something that no one else dare make, or the great pleasure in suceding in chemistry of explosives.

Mad props my friend, good job...

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[*] posted on 26-1-2003 at 21:04


WTF? no edit, how odd...

I thought that "PETN" is poly ethlyene trinitrate?

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[*] posted on 26-1-2003 at 22:33


No, PETN stands for pentaerythritol tetranitrate.



I weep at the sight of flaming acetic anhydride.
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