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Morgan
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[*] posted on 7-3-2014 at 17:23
Creamy white filling


I have to wonder if a person is even allowed to speculate about the titanium dioxide in Oreos, or would the fear of being prosecuted for coming up with the right answer on a lark get a person in trouble? I would prefer to be allowed to know what's in the food I'm eating and how it's made so I can assess if I want to eat it or not instead of having some government agency saying it's healthy as far as they know.

"The Verge reports Liew sold the secret titanium dioxide formula to a Chinese company, which had been trying to get its hands on the formula for years and is in the process a building a plant to produce the whitening powder. The company paid Liew $20 million for the formula."
http://www.aol.com/article/2014/03/07/secret-behind-oreo-cre...

Nanoparticles in your food? You’re already eating them
“materials reduced to the nanoscale either through engineered or natural processes can suddenly show very different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications such as alterations in color, electrical conductance, or permeability.”
"In actuality, companies are not required to disclose nano-sized ingredients, nor is there much active questioning about their safety. Instead, Belli writes, “From the government’s perspective, nano forms of silver, iron or titanium are no different, fundamentally, from their scaled-up counterparts which have already been safety tested, so the agency has ushered the particles into the food supply under the Generally Recognized as Safe provision.”
http://grist.org/food/nanoparticles-in-your-food-youre-alrea...

http://whatisthatingredient.com/product.php?id=36
http://www.epifamily.com/eliminationdiet/oreo-ingredients/


New study shows that titanium dioxide nanoparticles are ubiquitous in food products
"Many applications of titanium dioxide would benefit from smaller primary particle sizes, and we can expect the percentage of TiO2 that is produced in or near the nano range to increase," Paul Westerhoff, a professor in the School of Sustainable Engineering and The Built Environment at Arizona State University and Senior Sustainability Scientist to the Global Institute of Sustainability, tells Nanowerk. "TiO2 nanomaterials in foods, consumer products, and household products are discharged as feces/urine, washed off of surfaces, or disposed of to sewage that enters wastewater treatment plants. While these plants capture most of the TiO2, nanoparticles measuring between 4 and 30 nm were still found in the treated effluent. These nanomaterials are then released to surface waters, where they can interact with living organisms."
http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=24290.php

International Standards for Trade in Nano-coated Produce?
http://www.iatp.org/documents/international-standards-for-tr...

[Edited on 8-3-2014 by Morgan]
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[*] posted on 7-3-2014 at 20:32


"Not advertised by manufacturer"

There are certainly a lot of products that have titanium dioxide in them where it's not listed/advertised on the label. Even foods you might not suspect like some dark chocolates have it.

http://www.nanotechproject.org/cpi/browse/nanomaterials/tita...

Anti-caking some cereal
http://www.nanotechproject.org/cpi/products/fiber-one-cereal...

Milk
http://www.nanotechproject.org/cpi/products/shamrock-farms-f...

Silk Soy Milk
http://www.nanotechproject.org/cpi/products/silk-original-so...

Dannon Greek Plain Yogurt
http://www.nanotechproject.org/cpi/products/dannon-greek-pla...

Here you can breathe it I guess.
http://www.nanotechproject.org/cpi/products/home-nano-tio2-a...
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Morgan
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[*] posted on 8-3-2014 at 07:42


Intriguing titanium trial tidbits

"Prosecutors allege China used purloined technology to build the only factory inside China known to be producing titanium oxide the DuPont way, which uses chlorination rather than the sulfate method. DuPont’s patented manufacturing method, while still dangerous, dirty and complicated, is nonetheless still cleaner and quicker than the outdated production method employed by the other Chinese factories."

"The alleged scheme began to unravel in August 2010, according to court filings, when DuPont received an anonymous letter accusing Walter Liew and a scientist named John Liu of stealing the company’s technology. At the time, Liu was working at Chevron Corp. as a high-paid engineer, but appeared to be moonlighting for the Liews’ company and was considering working for them full time."

"On July 19, FBI agents armed with a search warrant swooped into the Liews’ Orinda home about 30 kilometres east of San Francisco. They seized thousands of pages of documents and confronted Christina Liew with a key to a safe-deposit box."

"In Mandarin Chinese, her husband admonished her to deny any knowledge of the key and she did. The FBI didn’t disclose that one of its agents spoke fluent Mandarin. Instead, they followed Christina Liew to the Oakland bank that contained the safety-deposit box in question. It contained a "trove" of incriminating documents, according to prosecutors."

http://thechronicleherald.ca/business/72363-titanium-dioxide...

"Titanium dioxide is a food additive that is included in Table 3, and as such may be used in the following foods under the conditions of good manufacturing practices (GMP) as outlined in the Preamble of the Codex GSFA. Although not listed below, Titanium dioxide could also be used in heath-treated butter milk of food category 01.1.1 and spices of food category 12.2.1. Note that food categories listed in the Annex to Table 3 were excluded accordingly."
http://www.codexalimentarius.net/gsfaonline/additives/detail...

[Edited on 8-3-2014 by Morgan]
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[*] posted on 8-3-2014 at 09:56


Titanium dioxide fun facts

TITANIUM DIOXIDE
Chemical and Technical Assessment
First draft prepared by Paul M. Kuznesof, Ph.D.
Reviewed by M.V. Rao, Ph.D.

"Titanium dioxide may be coated with small amounts of alumina and silica to improve technological properties. Such coatings can prevent possible reactions between the highly reactive surfaces of the extremely fine titanium dioxide crystals and the matrix in which the pigment is dispersed and they can improve the dispersion of the titanium dioxide in the host matrix (Kirk-Othmer, 2006)."

"Commercial titanium dioxide pigment is produced by either the sulfate process or the chloride process. Because of significant environmental and cost issues associated with the sulfate process, most new manufacturing capacity is based on the chloride process. Older manufacturing plants that used the sulfate process have had to modify their processes to accommodate stricter environmental requirements by recycling waste acids and roasting metal sulfates to recover sulfur trioxide (Kirk-Othmer, 1997; DeMerlis, 2005)."

Chloride process (Kirk-Othmer, 1997; Kirk-Othmer, 2006; DeMerlis, 2005)
"The chloride process yields the rutile form of titanium dioxide. At temperatures between 800 and 1200o, chlorine is reacted in a fluidized bed reactor with a titanium-containing mineral, e.g., mineral rutile (which is not readily attacked by sulfuric acid), under reducing conditions (presence of coke) to form anhydrous titanium (IV) chloride. Purification of the anhydrous tetrachloride requires separation by fractional condensation. Conversion of the tetrachloride to titanium dioxide may be accomplished by either direct thermal oxidation or reaction with steam in the vapour phase at temperatures in the range of 900-1400o. A minor amount of aluminium chloride is generally added to promote formation of the rutile form. The titanium dioxide is washed, calcined, and packaged."

Titanium dioxide/platelet form (EFSA, 2004)
"A platelet form of titanium dioxide (rutile) can be produced by first coating the surface of mica (i.e., potassium aluminum silicate) platelets, which act as templates, with the titanium dioxide (rutile). The titanium dioxide-coated mica nacreous pigment is then subjected to an extractive dissolution in acid followed by an extractive dissolution in alkali. All of the mica is removed during this process and the resulting product is a platelet form of rutile titanium dioxide. This product cannot be obtained from anatase titanium dioxide as a starting material."

Maximum Specified Limits for Impurities in Titanium Oxide
Impurity JECFA (2006) FCC (2003) Japan (2000)
Aluminium oxide/silicon dioxide 2% 2.0% ---
Acid-soluble substances 0.5% (1.5% for products
containing alumina or silica)
0.5% 0.50%
Water-soluble matter 0.5% 0.3% 0.25%
Antimony 2 mg/kg 1 mg/kg (a)
Arsenic 1 mg/kg 2 mg/kg 1.3 mg/kg as As2O3
Cadmium 1 mg/kg --- (a)
Lead 10 mg/kg 10 mg/kg (a)
Mercury 1 mg/kg 1 mg/kg (a)

"Titanium dioxide is highly effective as a whitener for confectionary, baked goods, cheeses, icings, toppings, and food supplements. When combined with other colours, soft pastel shades can be achieved. As titanium dioxide is not water-soluble, applications require dispersion using vehicles such as food oils, propylene glycol, sugar syrup, or water with select thickeners (Gerdes, 2004; Vaughn, 2006)."

"Maximum numerical levels of use are not specified for Table
3 additives. GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) is understood to mean that levels of use should be no more than necessary to achieve the intended technical effect. (Caution: The entries in ANNEX 1 do not mean that titanium dioxide is being used in all the listed food categories.)"

"The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized the use of titanium dioxide in food, in general, at a limit not to exceed 1% by weight of the food. Silicon dioxide
and aluminium oxide may be used with the titanium dioxide as “dispersing aids” at levels not to exceed 2% by weight, singly or in combination, of the titanium dioxide (FDA, 2005)."

"In the USA, actual uses of titanium dioxide in food supplements and hard and soft panned candies
have been reported to be as high as 1%. Uses in icings, chewing gums, starch-molded confectionary, and baked goods typically range from 0.02% to 2% and in savory snack foods from 0.05% to 0.4% (Vaughn, 2006)."

"India restricts the uses of titanium dioxide to chewing gum and bubble gum with a level not to exceed 1% (India, 2004) and to powdered concentrate mixes for fruit beverage drinks not to exceed 100 mg/kg (India 2004a)"

"Japan lists its use as a food colour without limitation, other than specifying certain foods in which it is not permitted (Japan, 2000)."

"The European Union lists titanium dioxide for use in colouring food, in general, except for certain specified foodstuffs, at quantum satis levels (EU, 1994)."

"A recent report by the European Food Safety Authority, EFSA, notes that the rutile form of titanium dioxide, as platelets, is currently used in aqueous film coating systems for commercial confectionery products in the United States. EFSA states that the platelet form of the additive is
being evaluated by the United States food industry for use in cookies, baked goods, pretzels and other salted snacks, and in confectionery products (EFSA, 2004)."
ftp://ftp.fao.org/ag/agn/jecfa/cta_tio2.pdf
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Etaoin Shrdlu
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[*] posted on 10-3-2014 at 10:01


Quote: Originally posted by Morgan  
I have to wonder if a person is even allowed to speculate about the titanium dioxide in Oreos, or would the fear of being prosecuted for coming up with the right answer on a lark get a person in trouble?

...the right answer? I'll tell you right now. It's in there to make the food white.

Quote: Originally posted by Morgan  
"Titanium dioxide may be coated with small amounts of alumina and silica to improve technological properties. Such coatings can prevent possible reactions between the highly reactive surfaces of the extremely fine titanium dioxide crystals and the matrix in which the pigment is dispersed and they can improve the dispersion of the titanium dioxide in the host matrix (Kirk-Othmer, 2006)."

-facepalm-

I hope by "highly reactive" these guys mean "incredibly stable."

EDIT: Hahaha, never mind, they're talking about the fact that it's a photocatalyst and can cause polymers it's bound in to degrade more quickly, which has everything to do with the paint/plastics industries and nothing to do with food.

[Edited on 3-10-2014 by Etaoin Shrdlu]
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[*] posted on 10-3-2014 at 12:01


Role of electrostatic interactions in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles toward Escherichia coli.
"Escherichia coli was more severely affected at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.0 and pH 9.5. At pH 5.5, nanoparticles (positively charged) strongly interacted with the bacterial cells (negatively charged) and accumulated on their surfaces."
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/51983066_Role_of_ele...

"Based on the hypothesis that the toxicity of nanoparticles toward bacteria strongly depends on interactions between each other, this phenomenon can broadly explain variations
in the magnitude of the NP-TiO2 toxicity observed with
the addition of electrolytes to the medium. In a medium with a pH < IEPNP, adding electrolytes induces a synergistic effect on the NP-TiO2 toxicity by reducing the NP-cell interactions and promoting the nanoparticle aggregation."

"The results presented herein demonstrate (i) the toxicity of
TiO2 nanoparticles on the laboratory model strain E. coli in the absence of light, (ii) the paramount role that interfacial electrostatic interactions (NP-cell vs. NP-NP vs. cell-cell interactions) play in determining the extent of this toxicity, and (iii) the importance of physico-chemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and electrolyte composition in controlling these interactions."
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/51983066_Role_of_ele... (For "Full Text" click on the right side of the screen)

[Edited on 10-3-2014 by Morgan]
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[*] posted on 10-3-2014 at 12:11


So what exactly are we trying to determine here? The health effects of titanium dioxide? If we are allowed to discuss its presence in food? All these links and no human discussion make it difficult to know where exactly this thread is going or what the point is!
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Morgan
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[*] posted on 10-3-2014 at 14:44


Here's a point.

"Until relevant toxicological and human exposure data that would enable reliable risk assessment are obtained, TiO2 nanoparticles should be used with great care."

"Nanoparticles (NPs) are generally defined as particles having at least one dimension smaller than 100 nm. Accordingly, particles with different morphologies, from equi-axial shapes, whiskers, and nano-tubes to nanorods, need to be considered. Although micron-sized and nano-sized TiO2 powders are, in general, chemically identical, due to their significantly higher specific surface area, nano-powders may exhibit physical and chemical properties that differ from those of the coarser grades, and so should not be treated in the same way. In a recent paper7 the size-dependent properties of a variety of inorganic NPs were reviewed and it was suggested that they are likely to be of concern due to the appearance of unique properties when they have diameters of ≤ 30 nm. In this size range, many particles undergo dramatic changes in behaviour that enhance their interfacial reactivity. While less than 20 % of the constituent atoms are at the surface of 30 nm NPs, approximately 35–40 % of the atoms are localized at the surface of a 10 nm particle."

"In practice, it is difficult to draw a clear borderline between nano- and submicron-sized particles. Submicron-sized powders always contain a certain proportion of nano-sized particles and, conversely, NPs tend to associate to form relatively strongly bonded aggregates (Figure 1A) or soft agglomerates (Figure 1B). The latter can usually be disintegrated easily in a liquid; however, their dispersion depends strongly on the zeta-potential. As illustrated in Figure 1C, the zeta-potential of TiO2 powders may differ significantly over a wide range of pH values. The reported isoelectric points for TiO2 powders range from pH 3.5 to 8 8 which may greatly affect the bioavailability in the region of physiological pH values. The effective size of particles and their zeta-potential have been neglected almost completely in most of the studies of the interaction of TiO2 NPs with biological systems."

"As already discussed, the physicochemical properties of particles depend on their size, so that, at the nanometre level, the material is chemically more reactive. This can be exploited as a desirable property, e.g., as a catalyst. However, at the same time, the material may possess biological activities that can be either desirable (e.g., carrier capacity for therapeutics, penetration of cellular barriers for drug delivery) or undesirable (e.g., toxicity, induction of oxidative stress or cellular dysfunction), or a mix of the two."

"Ti-based implants can release biologically relevant amounts of debris, in both the micrometre and nanometre ranges, that can migrate to the surrounding tissues. During the wear process, a thin amorphous oxide layer is continuously being created and removed, resulting in large numbers of titanium particles. It is increasingly being suggested that they are associated with major inflammation and systemic diseases.133 Furthermore, increasing numbers of reports indicate that the delayed hypersensitivity to titanium and its oxides may constitute a health risk for individuals with higher susceptibility."

"TiO2 NPs appeared to be more toxic to nematode Caenorhabditis elegans than submicron-sized TiO2. 170 At a concentration of 1 mg/l, 7 nm particles affected its fertility and survival rate and were more toxic than 20 nm anatase particles.171 Similarly, Hu et al.172 showed that rutile particles (10–20 nm), at concentrations above 1 g/kg soil, can be bio-accumulated in earthworms, where they induce oxidative stress, inhibit the activity of cellulase and induce DNA and mitochondrial damage."

"The mechanistic toxicological studies showed that TiO2 NPs induced adverse effects are predominantly mediated by oxidative stress, which may lead to cell damage, genotoxic effects, inflammatory responses and changes in cell signalling. The studies also showed that these effects strongly depend on numerous chemical and physical characteristics of the TiO2 particles: size, crystal structure, specific surface area, particle shape, purity, surface charge, solubility, agglomeration rate, photo-activation, etc. TiO2 particles are without doubt associated with the hazardous properties, and the risk for human health and environment depends on the route and extent of exposure."

"The safety of the use of TiO2 in cosmetics is often argumented by the claim, that it has been used for decades without observing any adverse effects on human health. This, however, is not completely true, as no monitoring and post market health surveillance has been conducted, neither for submicron-sized nor for nano-sized TiO2 in sunscreens. Such surveillance is currently impossible, since current legislation does not require labelling whether the products contain nano-sized TiO2, which is also incorrect to customers who have no possibility to make a choice whether to use or not the sunscreen containing nano-sized TiO2. In our opinion dermal applications of TiO2 NPs as sunscreen should be limited until appropriate long-term experimental studies confirm their harmlessness."

"TiO2 is an approved food additive with the limit set at 1 % by weight of the food; however, neither the size nor the structure is defined. It has been estimated that the average daily exposure to TiO2 from food, medicines and toothpaste is around 5 mg/individual (i.e., about 0.07 mg/kg BW)198, which is a much lower dose than those that showed adverse effects in experimental animals. Currently there is no data if, and what proportion of TiO2 NPs is absorbed at doses relevant for human exposure, and how different food matrices affect behaviour and absorption of TiO2 NPs. However, even if very small portion of consumed nano-sized TiO2 is absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and distributed to distant organs, this brings into question accumulation of TiO2 NPs that may, through a constant lifetime oral exposure, reach concentrations that would trigger adverse effects. Another important question, which should not be neglected is, whether low exposure may trigger symptoms in subjects with an underlying susceptibility. Before in vivo toxicokinetic data for nano-sized TiO2 are available, no conclusion about the risk of nano-sized TiO2 by oral exposure is possible. Therefore, it should be seriously reconsidered if the use of TiO2 NPs in nutrition and pharmacy just to shade or stabilise the products is justified at all."

"TiO2 can also be released within the human body as a result of the wear of Ti-based implants. The released particles cause local inflammation, but even more importantly they distribute over the body and can potentially cause systemic effects. Generally the benefit provided by the implant compensates for the potential harm, in particular in the cases where there is no better alternative to the Ti-based implants available. However, although there is no direct experimental evidence that released TiO2 can be deposited in the body or can cause systemic effects, it can be postulated from other exposure studies and mechanistic data that at least for individuals with hypersensitivity to titanium such exposure may represent a permanent health threat. Thus, it should be obligatory to test the patients for titanium hypersensitivity prior to implantation of titanium based implants."

"Until we know more, in our opinion TiO2 NPs should be used with great care, in particular in food and cosmetics. The least that should be done for the consumer is that a declaration of nano-sized TiO2 in these products is obligatory, so that we will have the choice whether to use it or not."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3423755/
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Etaoin Shrdlu
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[*] posted on 11-3-2014 at 09:58


Quote: Originally posted by Morgan  
"Currently there is no data if, and what proportion of TiO2 NPs is absorbed at doses relevant for human exposure, and how different food matrices affect behaviour and absorption of TiO2 NPs. However, even if very small portion of consumed nano-sized TiO2 is absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and distributed to distant organs, this brings into question accumulation of TiO2 NPs that may, through a constant lifetime oral exposure, reach concentrations that would trigger adverse effects. Another important question, which should not be neglected is, whether low exposure may trigger symptoms in subjects with an underlying susceptibility. Before in vivo toxicokinetic data for nano-sized TiO2 are available, no conclusion about the risk of nano-sized TiO2 by oral exposure is possible."


With no evidence nano TiO2 is actually being absorbed from the digestive tract, I'll hazard a guess you're more likely to die from the other ingredients in your cookies. Is it an interesting question? Sure. Is it going to be researched at some point? Undoubtedly. Is it worth tabloid newspaper alarmism? Probably not.

What sort of discussion are you going for, here? Are you just ticked off food labels don't contain particle size data?
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[*] posted on 11-3-2014 at 11:05


I agree with the others - if there's no data to support them being bad, why immediately assume they must be? If you don't like Oreos, don't eat Oreos. If you're scared of nanobots in the rest of your food, go live in the woods and hunt and gather your own. Sounds like a bunch of nonsense to me.
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[*] posted on 11-3-2014 at 12:36


I'm not sure these remarks fill me with confidence that TiO2 is completely inert. "Since TiO2 is inorganic, is highly stable and resistant to degradation."

"Moreover, TiO2 NPs show to interfere with bacterial interaction to intestinal cells. Increased biofilm production due to TiO2 NPs exposure may favour bacterial survival in environment and its transmission to animal and human hosts."

"According to current European legislation, there is no maximum TiO2 level specified. It is recommended that TiO2 should be used in amounts according to good manufacturing practice [14]. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), after extensively studies on the hazardous potential, has rated TiO2 as possibly carcinogenic for humans (Group 2b) [15]. TiO2 are not declared in the contents of many products. Although daily intake is difficult to evaluate as dependent on the individual diet, a study by the European Food Safety Authorities (EFSA) estimated daily intake of TiO2 in 70–80 mg/day [16]."

"Since this undegradability, TiO2 NPs are able to interact also with intestinal microrganisms or their products and induce inflammatory processes. As example, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), that is abundant in the gut, avidly binds TiO2 particle surfaces facilitated by calcium-bridging cations and mucosal secretions. It was observed that the complex induces release of proinflammatory citokines in primary human mononuclear phagocytes [22] or in intestinal explants [23]."

"Since TiO2 NPs intake has been estimated on the order of 1 mg per kilogram body weight per day [54], it is reasonable to hypothesize that prolonged exposure to high doses of NPs could induce the effects we observed on Listeria monocytogenes. For this, possible enhanced bacterial virulence should be carefully considered in risk assessment of nanoparticles present in food. Further studies will be focused on bacterial surface proteins affected by TiO2 NPs binding and mechanisms involved in bacterial infection in presence of NPs."
Listeria monocytogenes Behaviour in Presence of Non-UV-Irradiated Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3887020/
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[*] posted on 11-3-2014 at 12:47


well it would seem as a good place to dump in some nano(word missing), many people eat oreos, not knowing how long the effect so to call it can last
toothpaste usually contains TiO2 if im not entirely off, if that would happen to be your worry about toothpaste

very interesting however, certainly interesting to consider that TiO2 might act in a harmful way in food.. never even crossed my mind, as other user said its incredibly stable

indeed worth questioning because its commercially available, if we were to see it ethically: many people are falling victim to this poison -- in case it is in and it does intoxicate the users to some degree




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[*] posted on 12-3-2014 at 02:54


Have you people ever seen a TiO2/H2O nanoparticle suspension (solution?) or film? It's totally clear with a high refractive index. I would think TiO2 NP are no good for coloring food, so what is this crazy discussion about?

If you indulge into industry food like "Oreos" the wall paint they put into this stuff is probably the least of your problems.

Edit:
For NP content see: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3288463/ and note how they are apparently using "number weight", which is quite shoddy.

[Edited on 12-3-2014 by turd]
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