Sciencemadness Discussion Board

Pretty Pictures (2)

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mayko - 21-7-2016 at 13:50

These lovely blue mushrooms pop up around this time of year. Turns out, they also bruise a lovely green color!

Incidentally, does anyone have protips on preserving mushrooms? I tried putting this one in a closed container with some CaCl2 but it just got slimy and grungy...

shroom_colors.jpg - 368kB

The Volatile Chemist - 22-7-2016 at 12:31

Alexleyenda, quite the colorful reaction indeed! Is the practice of indirectly siphoning product from a sigma aldrich jar common? :)

DraconicAcid - 22-7-2016 at 14:00

Quote: Originally posted by The Volatile Chemist  
Alexleyenda, quite the colorful reaction indeed! Is the practice of indirectly siphoning product from a sigma aldrich jar common? :)


That's a Sure-Seal bottle. The contents are removed using a syringe, and nitrogen added through a needle so that air doesn't sneak in while contents are removed.

violet sin - 22-7-2016 at 22:35


Bought a lill bit of titanium (6Al 4V alloy)
IMAG7091.jpg - 738kB IMAG7092.jpg - 751kB IMAG7089.jpg - 875kB
1) nice size chunk :)
2) 7 lb 13 oz each by a kitchen scale
3) nerdy size reference

Ya, the purpose... I wanted to use it for unrelated projects and planning on using some scrap for labware. Not sure exactly what. But I havent often seen a Ti sample that big, only having wire and thin plate besides it. Thought it might be a decent share.

[Edited on 23-7-2016 by violet sin]

Texium - 22-7-2016 at 22:38

So... what are you going to do with 16 pounds of titanium alloy? (not to say it isn't beautiful of course!)

alexleyenda - 23-7-2016 at 01:53

Quote: Originally posted by The Volatile Chemist  
Alexleyenda, quite the colorful reaction indeed! Is the practice of indirectly siphoning product from a sigma aldrich jar common? :)


As draconic said, the bottle was is fact only kept under nitrogen atmosphere to make sure it doesn't react with water or oxygen in the air. The tube and needle are connected to a nitrogen tank. That being said, something similar to what you said is quite common, to transfer with a cannula. Its a kind of needle with both ends sharp, you put one end in both flask and add a nitrogen pressure to push the liquid through the cannula. It's like using a syringe to transfer a liquid, but much easier and there are less chances of spills or whatever. You can't measure the amount transfered however, so it's used when you got to transfert the whole thing.

( http://www.chemistryviews.org/SpringboardWebApp/userfiles/chem/image/2013/2013_03/Tips_Schlenk/cannula(1).gif )

[Edited on 23-7-2016 by alexleyenda]

Brain&Force - 28-7-2016 at 09:33

GIF time! I decided to do a video of holmium acetate changing color in different lighting. It's just as dramatic in person.

<iframe sandbox src='https://gfycat.com/ifr/DefinitiveWarlikeAlaskankleekai' frameborder='0' scrolling='no' width='640' height='359.5505617977528' allowfullscreen></iframe>

If that doesn't work use this:

<iframe sandbox width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/KVAUSD3UmIc" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

Hegi - 3-8-2016 at 13:14

Mercury/silver nitrate solution. Pretty smal white crystals started to form at the bottom of the beaker. I suppose it is mercury(I) salt.

<img src="http://chem.pieceofscience.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/dianinstrom.png" alt="mercury" style="width:600px">

fluorescence - 5-8-2016 at 03:42

Okay....so....


1) Melt Ammoniumthiocyanate....check
2) Add Ammoniumdichromate....check
3) Extract Product with hot water....check
4) Put it in the freezer....check

5) Take it out of the freezer......oh....damn it.

So there is this point where water "precipitatates" as well -.-



Prec.JPG - 47kB

fluorescence - 5-8-2016 at 03:53

I have absolutely no clue if it's supposed to look like that since it didnt work for a friend who tested it as well but for me I got this orangle nearly glowing bright compound which is hopefully a Caffeine-complex....will need to make that again but it looks really amazing.

The second picture was something interesting I found. So there is this line on I think Wikipedia where it says that Dimanganese Heptoxide was stable in CCl4. So we made some in this solvent. The question was how to destroy it so we took it and dropped it into a container full of water. Its hard to see on the picture but this smaller vial is open and filled with Permanganate in CCl4 and around this vial is water. SInce the two dont seem to mix and the solvent is quite oily it stays inside without coloring any of the water. It lasted for a day like this then I moved the vial and it mixed.

Caffeine.JPG - 43kBMan.JPG - 31kB

NedsHead - 5-8-2016 at 04:29

Quote: Originally posted by mayko  
These lovely blue mushrooms pop up around this time of year. Turns out, they also bruise a lovely green color!

Incidentally, does anyone have protips on preserving mushrooms? I tried putting this one in a closed container with some CaCl2 but it just got slimy and grungy...



it looks like it could be Lactarius indigo, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactarius_indigo

Are you preserving to keep a specimen or to eat? sun dried or put in a food dehydrator will suffice if you're intending to eat them at a later date, I have no idea how you would preserve one as a specimen.


Morgan - 5-8-2016 at 05:30

Quote: Originally posted by NedsHead  
Quote: Originally posted by mayko  
These lovely blue mushrooms pop up around this time of year. Turns out, they also bruise a lovely green color!

Incidentally, does anyone have protips on preserving mushrooms? I tried putting this one in a closed container with some CaCl2 but it just got slimy and grungy...



it looks like it could be Lactarius indigo, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactarius_indigo

Are you preserving to keep a specimen or to eat? sun dried or put in a food dehydrator will suffice if you're intending to eat them at a later date, I have no idea how you would preserve one as a specimen.


If you scroll up the page there's a photo where I squeezed the juice out of one onto a plate making a pretty color.
http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=18256&...

[Edited on 5-8-2016 by Morgan]

mayko - 6-8-2016 at 17:23

That does look right, thanks for the ID and the nice pictures... edibility hadn't even crossed my mind!

I talked to the herbarium folks, apparently they usually make wax models rather than try to faithfully preserve specimens.

Velzee - 16-8-2016 at 21:26

My attempt at photographing potassium oxalate/chloride and green potassium ferrioxalate crystals:

image.jpeg - 404kB

Brain&Force - 25-8-2016 at 09:17

Gadolinium acetate crystals under a microscope with a polarizer.

<a title="By brainandforce (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons" href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AGadolinium_acetate_under_microscope_polarizer.jpg"><img width="800" alt="Gadolinium acetate under microscope polarizer" src="https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Gadolinium_acetate_under_microscope_polarizer.jpg/1024px-Gadolinium_acetate_under_micro scope_polarizer.jpg"/></a>

crystal grower - 25-8-2016 at 10:24

@Brain&Force
This´s not pretty picture, this is beatiful picture :D.
Could you tell me approximately how big (or rather small :)) they are?
thanks.

crystal grower - 25-8-2016 at 10:44

Quote: Originally posted by Velzee  
My attempt at photographing potassium oxalate/chloride and green potassium ferrioxalate crystals:

Nice crystals velzee.
Maybe you could try to take a photo with more contrasting background.
by the way, could you enlighten me what were you trying to make or why did u crystallised these mixture of compounds?
thanks in advance :).

DraconicAcid - 25-8-2016 at 11:07

Quote: Originally posted by crystal grower  
Quote: Originally posted by Velzee  
My attempt at photographing potassium oxalate/chloride and green potassium ferrioxalate crystals:

Nice crystals velzee.
Maybe you could try to take a photo with more contrasting background.
by the way, could you enlighten me what were you trying to make or why did u crystallised these mixture of compounds?
thanks in advance :).


I'm sure the potassium oxalate was used to make the potassium ferrioxalate, and was not intentionally mixed with it.

Velzee - 25-8-2016 at 16:19

Quote: Originally posted by crystal grower  
Quote: Originally posted by Velzee  
My attempt at photographing potassium oxalate/chloride and green potassium ferrioxalate crystals:

Nice crystals velzee.
Maybe you could try to take a photo with more contrasting background.
by the way, could you enlighten me what were you trying to make or why did u crystallised these mixture of compounds?
thanks in advance :).


He's back! Welcome back!

Yes, as DraconicAcid said, I made an attempt at potassium ferrioxalate, but I forgot to account for the stoichometry when I replace KOH with K2CO3, thus excess contaminates remained.

DraconicAcid - 25-8-2016 at 16:41

I got the same kind of result when I tried to make the malonate analogue. To get all the iron in solution, I had to use excess malonic acid, and then I couldn't get rid of the excess.

Velzee - 25-8-2016 at 17:46

Quote: Originally posted by DraconicAcid  
I got the same kind of result when I tried to make the malonate analogue. To get all the iron in solution, I had to use excess malonic acid, and then I couldn't get rid of the excess.


Do you still have the complex? If so, can you post photos?

DraconicAcid - 25-8-2016 at 18:05

I have pictures if I can figure out how to post them.

[Edited on 26-8-2016 by DraconicAcid]

[Edited on 26-8-2016 by DraconicAcid]

xtals.jpg - 41kB

[Edited on 26-8-2016 by DraconicAcid]

xtals2.jpg - 110kB

Velzee - 25-8-2016 at 18:48

Wow, those are beautiful!

Neme - 26-8-2016 at 07:07

Quote: Originally posted by DraconicAcid  
...

What are those? I need them :D

DraconicAcid - 26-8-2016 at 08:25

Quote: Originally posted by Neme  

What are those? I need them :D

K3[Fe(mal)3], contaminated with K2mal or KHmal, where mal = malonate. They're not that great in person, as I used a decent magnification on the picture.

crystal grower - 26-8-2016 at 12:53

Quote: Originally posted by Velzee  


He's back! Welcome back!

Yes, as DraconicAcid said, I made an attempt at potassium ferrioxalate, but I forgot to account for the stoichometry when I replace KOH with K2CO3, thus excess contaminates remained.

Lol thanks Velzee :D.
Actually I still check sm from time to time. Summer holidays are just too busy :D.

fluorescence - 2-9-2016 at 08:52

Hopefully some Vanadium(II)

Vanadium II.jpg - 73kB

Arg0nAddict - 2-9-2016 at 13:43

This was an experiment for storing sodium short term without an oxide layer and to get pictures for ebay ads.

30 grams of Sodium was made molten inside a bath of mineral oil, I believe paraffin oil, and then injected into room temperature, 70°F (~21°C), oil using an all glass 10mL syringe.

I have been trying several different techniques to get uniform sizing and the middle section, where it looks the best, is what I described above. The bottom 1/4 of the vial I used cold oil 50°F (10°C). The top 1/4 of the jar was hot oil, 100°F (~38°C).

**SAFETY NOTES**
I learned the hard way that molten sodium will fall out of the syringe as soon as it points just 1° below 180° luckily it bounced off my finger and didn't do more damage. In the gallery you'll see the Pea size blister on the tip of my pinky finger.

Clean sodium catches fire much easier, especially when shiny and molten.

-------------------

Beaded Sodium Gallery ~ 8 more pics

-------------------

zwMpJwam.jpg - 22kB

prreZPsm.jpg - 17kB

Beaded Sodium Gallery ~ 8 more pics

[Edited on 2-9-2016 by Arg0nAddict]

BobD1001 - 2-9-2016 at 16:43

Absolutely beautiful Arg0nAddict!

j_sum1 - 2-9-2016 at 21:46

Gorgeous.
I think the variable size adds to the aesthetic. And probably makes it more usable -- if you are using it for more than just a display.

Arg0nAddict - 6-9-2016 at 20:07

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iRTDf4m6V0k

Not a pretty photo but it is my adaptation of the dancing sodium reaction. The music is important as I think you all will enjoy it.

Arg0nAddict - 9-9-2016 at 21:26

Here's some more sodium, which is best?

fcj1Od2.jpg - 2.2MB

tS1XoWo.jpg - 2MB

2HyVILt.jpg - 1.3MB

crystal grower - 9-9-2016 at 22:07

Third one IMO, but they are all pretty pictures :D.

Velzee - 10-9-2016 at 15:49

I made this one as a birthday gift for a friend; it is a two week old potassium ferricyanide crystal.

image.jpeg - 1.5MBimage.jpeg - 1.8MB

arkoma - 10-9-2016 at 16:23

beautiful!

violet sin - 10-9-2016 at 21:08

That is mighty impressive, nice! What an awesome gift.

[Edited on 11-9-2016 by violet sin]

Metacelsus - 11-9-2016 at 05:56

How did you make it? Slow evaporation with a seed crystal, or something like that?

Fidelmios - 11-9-2016 at 18:09

Yeah my current potassium ferricyanide crystals aren't coming out yet. It's like they're neither growing or dissolving.

Velzee - 14-9-2016 at 01:57

Quote: Originally posted by Metacelsus  
How did you make it? Slow evaporation with a seed crystal, or something like that?


Yep!

@Fidelmios how long have you had the solution left out?

fluorescence - 15-9-2016 at 05:50

So we took a thermal image of a cup of coffee and saw these darker spots which always move in thise kind of net shapes on the surface.
I changed the colors so it becomes easier to see and added some temperatures so you can see the difference. For some reason these spots are around 3-4°C cooler than the rest of the coffee.

I think it might be the oils which are hydrophobic and collect on the surface but as oils dont evaporate that easily the stay longer on the surface and can therefore cool off a bit which makes these spots colder. At first I thought it was only a minor temperature difference but when I looked into the data I saw that there is a surprising temperature difference. Any idea ? I waited till the surface was perfectly still and most of the boiling and fuming was over before I took the image.



Coffee Thermal.jpg - 45kB

wg48 - 15-9-2016 at 07:16

Quote: Originally posted by fluorescence  
So we took a thermal image of a cup of coffee and saw these darker spots which always move in thise kind of net shapes on the surface.
I changed the colors so it becomes easier to see and added some temperatures so you can see the difference. For some reason these spots are around 3-4°C cooler than the rest of the coffee.

I think it might be the oils which are hydrophobic and collect on the surface but as oils dont evaporate that easily the stay longer on the surface and can therefore cool off a bit which makes these spots colder. At first I thought it was only a minor temperature difference but when I looked into the data I saw that there is a surprising temperature difference. Any idea ? I waited till the surface was perfectly still and most of the boiling and fuming was over before I took the image.



They look like the tops of convection cells.

arkoma - 15-9-2016 at 07:38

Quote: Originally posted by mayko  
These lovely blue mushrooms pop up around this time of year. Turns out, they also bruise a lovely green color!

Incidentally, does anyone have protips on preserving mushrooms? I tried putting this one in a closed container with some CaCl2 but it just got slimy and grungy...



It's a breakdown product of the psilocybin. Sun dry them, then freeze. (Have experience this area; they're worth $240/OZ in California. Idiots)

Tsjerk - 15-9-2016 at 10:45

Maybe you can repeat the experiment after adding a drop of soap? That could test your hypothesis.

mayko - 15-9-2016 at 11:23

Quote: Originally posted by arkoma  
Quote: Originally posted by mayko  
These lovely blue mushrooms pop up around this time of year. Turns out, they also bruise a lovely green color!

Incidentally, does anyone have protips on preserving mushrooms? I tried putting this one in a closed container with some CaCl2 but it just got slimy and grungy...



It's a breakdown product of the psilocybin.


???

Wikipedia says the blue pigment is an azulene derivative:



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactarius_indigo#Chemical_comp...

arkoma - 15-9-2016 at 13:09

generally only Psilocybe or Stropharia stain that weird blue-green colour when bruised. Mmm, This genus too. I have a dab of *ahem* up close and personal experience with these particular fungi.

aga - 15-9-2016 at 14:32

Quote: Originally posted by arkoma  
protips on preserving mushrooms? I tried putting this one in a closed container with some CaCl2 but it just got slimy and grungy...

Treat them like anything you want to keep oxygen and water away from.

Sun-dry first (if you got Lotsa Sun) or/then bag with a jar of a water sucker.

E.g. NaOH, K3PO4, conc sulph acid, shop-bought rice, some table salt etc.

Dmishin - 23-9-2016 at 15:03

My new crystal specimens:

Xylitol
DSC02236.JPG - 553kB

Saccharin (sodium salt)
dsc02449.jpg - 526kB
Saccharin is not sold anywhere nearby me, so I managed to extract it from the cyclamate-based sweetener (usually containing 90% of Na cyclamate and 10% of saccharin). Compound for this photo was extracted from 210g of sweetener, that gave me 18g of saccharin (not a bad yield I think). As a byproduct, I now have 180g of recrystallized sodium cyclamate, and no idea what to do with it.

Potassium zinc sulfate K2Zn(SO4)2*6H2O
dsc02400.jpg - 563kB

crystal grower - 23-9-2016 at 22:56

Wow, really amazing crystals Dmishin!
Are all of these crystals products of slow evaporation?
And if yes, how long did it take to grow them?
Thanks for answer

Dmishin - 24-9-2016 at 00:44

Quote: Originally posted by crystal grower  
Are all of these crystals products of slow evaporation?
And if yes, how long did it take to grow them?

Yes, all grown by evaporation. Growth time is from 2 to 4 weeks, depending on sample. By the way, due to tilt shift effect, xylitol crystal seems small, but it is actually 4cm wide.

crystal grower - 24-9-2016 at 00:55

Hmmm, I've never grown xylitol crystals. I ought to try it ;).

RogueRose - 28-9-2016 at 07:52

Here are some pretty neat Sulfur needles that formed as a solution of hot toluene cooled. I was under the impression that the Ag grade "dusting sulfur" was ~90% sulfur and 10% anti-caking like CaCO3 (IDK if that is true). The thing is all the sulfur fully dissolved in the toluene in a hot water bath. Would the CaCO3 dissolve in toluene? (I think not) - could there be something else? I always saw pure sulfur crystals as a beautiful clearish yellow, shinny.

Sulfur needles.jpg - 185kB

The strange thing about CuSO4 is depending upon the temps at which the crystals form, their attributes vary greatly. There are 2 more penta-hydrate crystal types that I didn't show, they are cubic like and dark blue and the other is in between table salt size and canning salt and a little lighter blue than the dark blue in the below image.
CuSO4_penta & penta & hepta hydrate_2.jpg - 385kB

I believe this was the result of trying a re-crystalization with pure water. A saturated solution was boiled down until most water was gone (like 90%). The boiling liquid was poured into a SS pan and almost all the liquid crystallized into this powderish form. This form seems very nice to work with if it needs to be dissolved quickly in water.
CuSO4_pentahydrate_1.jpg - 560kB CuSO4_pentahydrate_2.jpg - 158kB

This is the strangest crystal form I found and I havent' been able to replicate it. It is heptahydrate and some call it "ice" or "snow" crystals - these don't melt. I think these happened from a medium saturated solution at ~ 90F then placed in a freezer until it reached almost 0F. I did similar before and got cubic dark blue crystals when the solution was fully saturated.
CuSO4_heptahydrate_1.jpg - 247kB

This is the result of placing a 60% saturated (saturated with CuSO4 compared to water and probably 25% H2SO4 by volume) solution in a slow-cooker/crock pot and allowing to evaporate slowly. Solution was dark blue when starting. This shows that it has dehydrated below the pentahydrate form to possibly tri-hydrate??
CuSO4_dehydrated_1.jpg - 670kB

This is similar to the above but but a higher wattage slow cooker was used, thus allowing to get to the brown stage which I believe is a mono hydrate.

CuSO4_dehydrated_2.jpg - 610kB

FeSO4 - Steel plate was added to hot H2SO4 and some H2O2 and the result was these green crystals and some rust (brown/red). I was really amazed how much formed from such little amount of solution.
FeSO4_Crystals_1.jpg - 479kB FeSO4_Crystals_2.jpg - 482kB

Just some CuSO4 that originally was just king of moist but has turned into clear and hardish crystals on the bottom.
CuSO4_Gypsum_Crystal_1.jpg - 221kB CuSO4_Gypsum_Crystal_2.jpg - 268kB

DraconicAcid - 28-9-2016 at 08:25

The really light blue crystals may be the trihydrate. The green stuff you have is definitely not the trihydrate (which is blue), but may be a hydrogen sulphate. The bottom pictures aren't CuSO4- did you mean CaSO4?

Nice crystals, though.

Chemetix - 29-9-2016 at 14:03

Some chili powder in an ethanol Soxhlet extraction. Found that pentane did a better job.

ChiliOil2CropSml.jpg - 126kB ChiliOilSml.JPG - 43kB

[Edited on 29-9-2016 by Chemetix]

RogueRose - 29-9-2016 at 23:33

Quote: Originally posted by DraconicAcid  
The really light blue crystals may be the trihydrate. The green stuff you have is definitely not the trihydrate (which is blue), but may be a hydrogen sulphate. The bottom pictures aren't CuSO4- did you mean CaSO4?

Nice crystals, though.


Thanks for pointing that out. I had made the change before posting I don't know how it got back. Why is there no edit button?

As far as the green/brown, that always seems to happen when I heat CuSO4 in an oven (even covered so not exposed directly to the element). As soon as it comes in contact with water it turns blue again. Is that expected?

Tsjerk - 30-9-2016 at 04:41

Quote: Originally posted by Chemetix  
Some chili powder in an ethanol Soxhlet extraction. Found that pentane did a better job.


A better job at what? Extracting capsaicine?

HeYBrO - 30-9-2016 at 04:59

Quote: Originally posted by Chemetix  
Some chili powder in an ethanol Soxhlet extraction. Found that pentane did a better job.



[Edited on 29-9-2016 by Chemetix]


cool to see an aussie shed. But get a hotplate!!!! It is very dangerous to boil a flammable solvent with a bunsen burner.

aga - 30-9-2016 at 05:41

I got a hotplate/stirrer but still prefer an open flame for most distillations, including ethanol, acetone etc.

Looks better for starters !

RogueRose - 30-9-2016 at 10:44

Id like to add some pics to the other CuSO4 images I posted just above. I had been bubbling air (2CFM) through ~20% H2SO4 with about 25-30lbs Cu wire. I ended up[ with an unusual green blue instead of the various shades of blue (darker, more sulfate was present). I then removed the liquid and evaporated in "slow cookers" crock pots and it resulted in the olive green images above (and first image below) and the concentrated liquid had turned almost black.


CuSO4_dehydrated_1.jpg - 670kB

This is the remaining acid after the green crystals had been removed

H2SO4 low water concentration with CuSO$ dissolved in it.jpg - 337kB

Here is the same acid but a hotter cooker was used and there looks to be anyhdrous (white) CuSO4 at the bottom and just above the layer there looks like copper crystals/powder for about an inche above the brown layer above the white layer.

H2SO4 low water concentration with CuSO4 and Cu particles dissolved in it.jpg - 284kB

As the bubbling didn't seem to work ANYWHERE near as well as 35% H2O2 (I had bubbled 96+ hours so like close to 400lbs of pure O2), I decided to add 1/3 cup of 35% H2O2 and 2/3 cup of ~85-95% H2SO4 with copper wire and flattened pipe. The black acid turned green then blue and fizzed. I ended up with this below, it was like a paste.

CuSO4 powderish.jpg - 541kB

I poured the remaining water into another coffee pot and then scraped the CuSO4 off the copper (about 90% removed). I then added 2/3C H2O2 (added to the blue liquid from the last batch) and another 1.33 cup of the acid along with the remaining wire. After about 10 mins of slow to moderate fizzing (temp was probably 120-150F) fizzing stopped and liquid was dark blue. I then removed any reaming copper so it didn't get stuck in the crystals. It slowly cooled to room temp and this is what the results are:

The next 2 pics are same container, just different angles
CuSO4 beautiful crystals 1.jpg - 241kB

CuSO4 beautiful crystals 2.jpg - 352kB

I would have to say that I got higher yields using about 1C 35% H2O2 than running a 2CFM bubbler (with a ~40 sq inch diffuser - SUPER FINE bubbling - traveling 2ft up through the acid mix then reaching the last 1ft of solid mix of copper wire (tons of surface area and packed semi-tightly. The CuSO4 should have sank to the bottom.) I calculated that 4 days should have given about 400lbs of pure O2 (plus nitrogen, CO2 but that is additional weight) - The O2 is just not working like the H2O2 - no where close.

I'm trying to figure out how to increase the oxidation or make the H2O2 myself.

Chemetix - 30-9-2016 at 17:40

Capsaicin extracts ok with ethanol, but pentane takes all the oils and resins as well, the aim was to produce something that could be sprayed around the garden to stop some marauding rodents from chewing my vegetables and lemons. (they were chewing the skins off the lemons? go figure?)

Hotplates and mantles are verboten in Aus. I've never had any problems with cracked glass or fire when running these sort of small distillation or reflux operations.

j_sum1 - 30-9-2016 at 17:55

Quote: Originally posted by Chemetix  

Hotplates and mantles are verboten in Aus.


Well I have a mantle. Hotplates are readily available too. (Mine are non-stirring kitchen type and so have limitations but they do work.) You could also use a paint-stripping heat gun.

IOW, there are heating solutions that are readily available that can eliminate the need for open flame. And there are some hazards with open flame. If you prefer to use a flame for some reason (and I do occasionally) then that is your decision. But don't blame the legal situation for your choice.

Chemetix - 30-9-2016 at 19:10

My choice is to never post doing or admit to possessing anything illegal online, and that is a risk management strategy as much as anything-but this belongs in another thread really. I guess I'm a little paranoid about being perceived as breaking the law. I just made mention of the difficulty surrounding these items here for the benefit of others. My decision to use an open flame is based on the better heat coupling that overcomes the hysteresis when the soxhlet empties. Risks can and should always be managed.

[Edited on 1-10-2016 by Chemetix]

j_sum1 - 30-9-2016 at 19:13

Ok. But "verboten" was not the word you needed. It is not illegal to have mantle or a hotplate. Even if they are watched items.

Dmishin - 13-10-2016 at 13:48

    I've accidentally made some ferrate(VI) solution while oxidizing FeCO3 by bleach, so decided to make a "family photo" of differently colored iron compounds.

    Compounds, in reading order:


DSC02623.JPG - 329kB

Dwarvensilver - 13-10-2016 at 16:05

Quite a few colors considering that when you or me anyway, thinks of iron, I think like brown, not red green a purple lol

Nice Pic Dmishin

Dwarvensilver - 13-10-2016 at 16:18

Here is a pic of Sulphur trees, I am always surprised with the way different things crystalize.

<a href="http://s901.photobucket.com/user/Dwrvnsilver/media/Chemistry/c0a613e2-429a-40d4-ae3a-9a8788be3f0e.jpg.html" target="_blank"><img src="http://i901.photobucket.com/albums/ac220/Dwrvnsilver/Chemistry/c0a613e2-429a-40d4-ae3a-9a8788be3f0e.jpg" border="0" alt=" photo c0a613e2-429a-40d4-ae3a-9a8788be3f0e.jpg"/></a>

j_sum1 - 13-10-2016 at 16:39

Quote: Originally posted by Dmishin  
I've accidentally made some ferrate(VI) solution while oxidizing FeCO3 by bleach, so decided to make a "family photo" of differently colored iron compounds.

Huh?
I had no idea that ferrate was that easy to create. I should give it a try.
Lovely photo.

If you have some potassium ferrocyanide / potassium ferrocyanide you have a couple more colours and can also get the Prussian blue. And with some thiocyanate you get blood-red. That is if you want an extended family photoshoot.

Cryolite. - 13-10-2016 at 21:59

Iron salicylate is purple too-- maybe add that one in?

fluorescence - 15-10-2016 at 03:01

Set the equilibrium between Chloride and Aqua ligand for Co(II) so it changes to blue at boiling conditions. I first used KCl but as it wouldn't work (even precipitated) I changed it to HCl and just took the clear solution above. So this solution was KCl saturated in summer having 25°C and now it is slowly getting colder in my lab to about 10°C which caused the KCl to slowly crystallize.

At first I was a bit surprised by the shape but then I found pictures of so called crystal clusters which look similar. Still a strange shape to me.

KCl.jpg - 125kB

KCl Crystals

Dwarvensilver - 15-10-2016 at 10:06

Nice KCl crystals
I have not tried to grow KCl crystals yet, NaCl was my first crystallization for many years and now I am hooked.
I have just dissolved KCl and NaCl in stoichiometric ratio

(18g NaCl, 22g KCl in 100g H2O, I went with these numbers as I figured if 36g NaCl and dissolves in 100mL @20øC and KCl 34.2g, I would take half of NaCl and 23.1g 0.3 mol KCl to make up the solute) This sound right?

RogueRose posed the question if anyone had tried NaCl and KCl crystallization and so I thought why not.
Now to wait for seeds and the growth :)
Will post the photos.

crystal grower - 15-10-2016 at 12:24

KCl forms hopper crystals very similiar to bistmuth, when I tried crystallizing KCl for the first time I was quite suprised too.

Dwarvensilver - 15-10-2016 at 13:31

Interesting, Makes me wonder what the hopper face KCl and NaCl cubic combination will look like :D.
I crystallized Sodium Nitrate, it makes quite water clear crystals butt also hopper faced. I will have to do a set of KNO3 and NaNO3 now too lol
The hopper face crystal in the middle of the CuSO4 chunk is NaNO3.
It is just there for decoration cause I have not taken the time to set up displays of some sort.


NaNO3 on CuSO4.jpg - 320kB

Dwarvensilver - 15-10-2016 at 13:52

@RogueRose

Hi Rose,
Speaking of Sulfur, those are awesome sulfur crystals, I only got miniature crystals from 90 C Toluene on cooling and evaporation.

I have tried twice with Carbon disulphide as the solvent. This resulted in crystals both times but not what I was trying for.

Close, but solvent evaporated in the fume hood over the weekend both times and did not allow time for seed collection and suspension.

I tried on Wednesday to suspend a seed, it melted. On Friday there was nothing but an inch of darker yellow solvent and on Monday I came in to 1/4" solvent and pic below.

It gave me a surprise tho, who knew that a sulfur crystal could be crystal clear yellow with glass smooth sides and sounds like glass when you bump it. Rhombic crystal coming soon ;)
[img]Sulphur sm 2nd try using CS2.jpg - 186kB[/img]

DraconicAcid - 17-10-2016 at 15:50

The four faces of vanadium. I've very pleased that I was able to get V(II) by reducing the solution with aluminum wire, and didn't have to muck around with zinc amalgam.

Vanadium2.jpg - 37kB

Dwarvensilver - 17-10-2016 at 18:10

Nicely Done Sir!
those look Awsome

DraconicAcid - 17-10-2016 at 18:20

Quote: Originally posted by Dwarvensilver  
Nicely Done Sir!
those look Awsome

Thanks. Now I need to figure out what kind of crystals I can grow containing vanadium......

KV(SO4)2*12H2O should be do-able.

ETA: Hmmm....I've found an electrolytic prep for NH4V(SO4)2*12H2O, and a prep for an oxalato complex....but I'm not finding much else. Making the glycinate V(gly)3 requires anhydrous conditions...Weird. I had assumed its coordination chemistry would be similar to chromium. Proves what they say about assume....

[Edited on 19-10-2016 by DraconicAcid]

Texium - 18-10-2016 at 10:44

I'm really surprised that you got V(II) to work just using aluminum. You didn't even have to activate it with mercury or gallium? I tried using Al/Ga once for reducing V(III) to V(II) and that didn't even work.

DraconicAcid - 18-10-2016 at 12:29

Quote: Originally posted by zts16  
I'm really surprised that you got V(II) to work just using aluminum. You didn't even have to activate it with mercury or gallium? I tried using Al/Ga once for reducing V(III) to V(II) and that didn't even work.


So was I. It didn't react at all in sulphuric acid solution, but adding a few mL of 6 M HCl got it going well.

j_sum1 - 18-10-2016 at 14:47

A bit of HCl will activate your Al just nicely. Al does not like chloride ions. :)

Dwarvensilver - 18-10-2016 at 19:18

I'll be interested to see pics of the crystals you manage. :o

fluorescence - 25-10-2016 at 11:32

Quote: Originally posted by zts16  
I'm really surprised that you got V(II) to work just using aluminum. You didn't even have to activate it with mercury or gallium? I tried using Al/Ga once for reducing V(III) to V(II) and that didn't even work.


If you look at the picture of my V(II) two pages ago I did it the same way. Tested a lot of possible reducing agents and pH environments and finally settled with using Aluminium. It works quite well. I think most of my reductions (Ox-states) on Youtube were done using just Acid/Base and Al foil wrapped around a glas rod to keep it in solution. The only thing where it didnt work was for Boron from Boric Acid. I got an orange powder but never further processed or tested it. I guess althouth from a Redox perspective this could be possible the B-O-Bonds are just too strong.

Dmishin - 27-10-2016 at 15:17

Erythritol, slow evaporation method. (the rest is here)


all-sizeDSC02707.JPG - 695kB

[Edited on 27-10-2016 by Dmishin]

j_sum1 - 27-10-2016 at 18:59

Very cool. I am impressed.
I am more likely to play with xylitol though since I can easily get it. Does it also exhibit birefringence?

Tdep - 28-10-2016 at 08:20

J_sum1, you might know this but if you're chasing Erythritol, check your local Coles or Woolies: http://shop.coles.com.au/online/mobile/national/norbu-sweete... Don't believe all that 'completely natural' crap. I nitrate it directly and it behaves well, I don't think there's much of this 'monk fruit' in there at all really

NedsHead - 28-10-2016 at 08:43

This brand of Erythritol is good too J https://www.woolworths.com.au/Shop/Browse/spreads-breakfast-...

mayko - 28-10-2016 at 09:28

To follow up on the issue of the preservation of mushroom as specimens (not for consumption):

I did a trial run preserving mushrooms under three fluids: mineral oil, isopropanol, and glycerine.

For the mineral oil I used a generic brown-white front yard mushroom. Over the course of a couple weeks submerged underneath it remained in remarkably good condition; fine structures like the veil remained intact and the only change in shape was a slow loss of turgor. Decomposition did set in gradually, with a brownish watery liquid oozing out of very localized points (apparently associated with clinging air bubbles), and the appearence of fine fuzz after ~2 weeks. There didn't appear to be much discoloration but it was drab to begin with so it's hard to say.

Glycerine and rubbing alcohol, I gathered two smallish red mushrooms (Russula, I think ) . Both liquids appeared to slow or stop decomp over several weeks, but both significantly leached the pigment from the specimen (in the alcohol it pooled at the bottom of the jar, in the glycerine it floated to the top, lol).

I have photos but they don't add much and definitely aren't pretty.

(Glycerine was an idea from an old tip I read on preserving spiders, which will shrivel if pinned like butterflies but bleach if kept in alcohol)

Dmishin - 28-10-2016 at 12:45

Quote: Originally posted by j_sum1  
Very cool. I am impressed.
I am more likely to play with xylitol though since I can easily get it. Does it also exhibit birefringence?

Thanks! I don't see any sign of birefringence in my xylitol samples.

By the way, here is sodium trioxalatoferrate(III). It is much more soluble than K salt. Unfortunately, crystals are not stable.

[Edited on 29-10-2016 by Dmishin]

DSC02794.JPG - 445kB

[Edited on 29-10-2016 by Dmishin]

Dwarvensilver - 30-10-2016 at 15:42

Dmishin,
I am amazed at all the beautiful crystals you grow.
I have been trying to find a chemical that will grow clear beauties like those Erythritol, so I will try that out, thanks for the great examples for inspiration.
I have a bag of pure saccharin, I wonder how it crystallizes. :).
Here are a few of my early (lol this spring) crystals

Copper II sulfate
Potassium ferricyanide
Copper sulfate, nickel sulfate Combination
Ferrous chloride

Keep up the great work

Cheers,

Dwarven



7LxChAU.jpg - 1.4MB

CrystalCage - 6-11-2016 at 08:21

Quote: Originally posted by Dmishin  
Quote: Originally posted by j_sum1  
Very cool. I am impressed.
I am more likely to play with xylitol though since I can easily get it. Does it also exhibit birefringence?

Thanks! I don't see any sign of birefringence in my xylitol samples.

By the way, here is sodium trioxalatoferrate(III). It is much more soluble than K salt. Unfortunately, crystals are not stable.

[Edited on 29-10-2016 by Dmishin]



[Edited on 29-10-2016 by Dmishin]


It seems that sodium ferrioxalate forms square and tabular crystals and potassium ferrioxalate tends to form flat, hexagonal crystals..

crystal grower - 6-11-2016 at 11:16

Quote: Originally posted by stibium  
Phosphorescent alkaline earth sulfides activated with bismuth.
From left to right:
BaS / SrS / CaS

I was browsing through the archives of Pretty Pictures mega thread and I just want to say WOW:o.

metalresearcher - 7-11-2016 at 13:23

Aluminum with silver sand (i.e. rather pure SiO2) heated in an electric arc to the boiling point of aluminum (2500 C) and then allowed to cool.

Actual size: about 24x36mm.

The balls in the center are probably crystallized elemental silicon


IMG_1583.JPG - 1.1MB

[Edited on 2016-11-7 by metalresearcher]

Rhodanide - 18-11-2016 at 07:38

Definitely not the best quality picture by FAR, but one you might not have ever seen before. Diiodoacetylene just after formation.

IMG_20161118_103348.jpg - 136kB

Amos - 1-12-2016 at 10:37

Some large crystals of nootkatone, a naturally occurring sesquiterpene, that I grew at work as one of my own side projects! Its aroma is sharp and assertive, reminiscent of fresh grapefruit peel. And since there wasn't a picture of it online before, I stuck it up on Wikipedia for good measure!

nootkatone_recrystallized.JPG - 1.7MB

[Edited on 12-1-2016 by Amos]

Hegi - 1-12-2016 at 11:10

Quote: Originally posted by Amos  
Some large crystals of nootkatone, a naturally occurring sesquiterpene, that I grew at work as one of my own side projects! Its aroma is sharp and assertive, reminiscent of fresh grapefruit peel. And since there wasn't a picture of it online before, I stuck it up on Wikipedia for good measure!



[Edited on 12-1-2016 by Amos]


Very nice crystals. Where did you get the compound? :)

Amos - 1-12-2016 at 12:03

Quote: Originally posted by Hegi  
Quote: Originally posted by Amos  
Some large crystals of nootkatone, a naturally occurring sesquiterpene, that I grew at work as one of my own side projects! Its aroma is sharp and assertive, reminiscent of fresh grapefruit peel. And since there wasn't a picture of it online before, I stuck it up on Wikipedia for good measure!



[Edited on 12-1-2016 by Amos]


Very nice crystals. Where did you get the compound? :)


One of the company's biggest projects is biosynthesizing it in three steps using genetically modified yeast. They also chemically synthesize it for research purposes, and my crystals were grown from the latter, of which we had about 2 kilos of 97% pure material in the lab freezer :)

aga - 3-12-2016 at 07:22

Spotted a tiny scorpion today :

bookscorpion.JPG - 85kB

It is about 8mm long and turns out to be a Book Scorpion (<i>Chelifer cancroides</i>;), a type of pseudoscorpion (it has no stinging tail).

Dwarvensilver - 3-12-2016 at 08:49

Very nice Amos, I like the clarity. Have you tried to isolate one of those seeds and grow a single unit?
It amazes me as to the number of compounds that will grow amazing crystals.

Here are my latest :), a couple of easy syntheses and alum, my largest alum at 80.5g :)

Nickel ammonium sulphate, Cobalt ammonium sulphate, and Potassium aluminum sulphate.




Nickel ammonium sulphate SM.jpg - 814kB Cobalt ammonium sulphate.jpg - 737kB Alum 4 final 80.5gSC.jpg - 1.2MB Alum final 80.5g as grownSM.jpg - 2MB

[Edited on 2016-12-3 by Dwarvensilver]

Dwarvensilver - 3-12-2016 at 08:52

Nice Aga,

Have to say cool and interesting but not real pretty :D
I like it!

[Edited on 2016-12-3 by Dwarvensilver]

aga - 3-12-2016 at 12:05

Quote: Originally posted by Dwarvensilver  
cool and interesting but not real pretty :D

... says the guy with a 'stainless' rule, which is, er, stained !

Beautiful crystals BTW.

Did it take a while to make them ?

NedsHead - 4-12-2016 at 01:17

I had an idea after watching the latest NurdRage video where he does some work with Tritium vials (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KKdzhPiOqqg) and my question is,

would it be possible to grow a crystal around a small vial of Tritium?

(I'm not a grower and I know little about it) but I think that would be awesome if it can be done,

I see you can get vials in white http://www.ebay.com.au/itm/Tritium-Lamp-Vial-Tube-Capsule-Tr... which would better illuminate the colour of the crystal

[Edited on 4-12-2016 by NedsHead]

fluorescence - 4-12-2016 at 04:37

Whoever saw my video on trying to make Ti(III) from Ti metal will know how little Ti(III) I actually had in the end.

So I had to do a McMurry reaction at the University and in the end hydrolyzed the rests of my reactants to yield this beautiful purple solution.

Ti.jpg - 415kB

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