Difference between revisions of "Silicon carbide"

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| AtmosphericOHRateConstant =  
 
| AtmosphericOHRateConstant =  
 
| Appearance = Black lustrous solid
 
| Appearance = Black lustrous solid
 +
| BoilingPt =
 +
| BoilingPtC =
 +
| BoilingPt_ref =
 +
| BoilingPt_notes = Decomposes
 
| Density = 3.21 g/cm<sup>3</sup>
 
| Density = 3.21 g/cm<sup>3</sup>
 
| Formula = SiC
 
| Formula = SiC
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| MolarMass = 40.10 g/mol
 
| MolarMass = 40.10 g/mol
 
| MeltingPtC = 2730  
 
| MeltingPtC = 2730  
| MeltingPt = (decomposes)
+
| MeltingPt =  
 
| MeltingPt_ref =  
 
| MeltingPt_ref =  
| MeltingPt_notes =  
+
| MeltingPt_notes = (decomposes)
 
| pKa =  
 
| pKa =  
 
| pKb =  
 
| pKb =  
 
| Solubility = Insoluble
 
| Solubility = Insoluble
| SolubleOther =  
+
| SolubleOther = Reacts with molten alkali<br>Insoluble in virtually all solvents
 
| Solvent =  
 
| Solvent =  
| VaporPressure =  
+
| VaporPressure = ~ 0 mmHg
 
   }}
 
   }}
 
| Section3 = {{Chembox Structure
 
| Section3 = {{Chembox Structure
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   }}
 
   }}
 
| Section6 = {{Chembox Hazards
 
| Section6 = {{Chembox Hazards
| AutoignitionPt =  
+
| AutoignitionPt = Non-flammable
| ExploLimits =  
+
| ExploLimits = Non-explosive
 
| ExternalMSDS = [http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9924922 ScienceLab]
 
| ExternalMSDS = [http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9924922 ScienceLab]
| FlashPt =  
+
| FlashPt = Non-flammable
 
| LD50 =  
 
| LD50 =  
 
| LC50 =  
 
| LC50 =  
| MainHazards =  
+
| MainHazards = Irritant (powder)
 
| NFPA-F =  
 
| NFPA-F =  
 
| NFPA-H =  
 
| NFPA-H =  
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| OtherFunction =  
 
| OtherFunction =  
 
| OtherFunction_label =  
 
| OtherFunction_label =  
| OtherCompounds =  
+
| OtherCompounds = [[Silicon boride]]<br>[[Silicon dioxide]]<br>[[Silicon nitride]]
 
   }}
 
   }}
 
}}
 
}}
'''Silicon carbide''', also known as '''carborundum''' is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula '''SiC''', mainly used as an abrasive. Silicon carbide occurs naturally as very rare mineral '''moissanite'''.
+
'''Silicon carbide''', also known as '''carborundum''' is a compound of [[silicon]] and [[carbon]] with chemical formula '''SiC''', mainly used as an abrasive. Silicon carbide occurs naturally as very rare mineral '''moissanite'''.<ref>https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon_carbide</ref>
  
 
==Properties==
 
==Properties==
 
===Chemical===
 
===Chemical===
 
+
Silicon carbide resists the attack of many acids due to the formation of a thin layer of [[silicon dioxide]], however, SiC will dissolve in molten alkali.
  
 
===Physical===
 
===Physical===
 
+
Silicon carbide is a black solid, with a density of 3.21 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, odorless, with a high melting point of 2,730 °C. It is extremely hard solid (9-9,5 on [[Mohs scale of mineral hardness|Mohs scale]]). SiC is insoluble in all solvents.
  
 
==Availability==
 
==Availability==
In Alibaba - from chinese producers.
+
Silicon carbide is often present in abrasive materials and some semiconductors.
 +
 
 +
It can be also bought as moissanite which is highly attractive synthetic gem and is being used as a cheaper replacement for diamonds in jewellery.
  
 
==Preparation==
 
==Preparation==
Because of the rarity of natural moissanite, most silicon carbide is synthetic. It is used as an abrasive, and more recently as a semiconductor and diamond simulant of gem quality. However the preparation of SiC is too difficult for most amateur scientists.The simplest manufacturing process is to combine silica sand and carbon in an Acheson graphite electric resistance furnace at a high temperature, between 1,600 °C (2,910 °F) and 2,500 °C (4,530 °F). Fine SiO2 particles in plant material (e.g. rice husks) can be converted to SiC by heating in the excess carbon from the organic material.[15] The silica fume, which is a byproduct of producing silicon metal and ferrosilicon alloys, also can be converted to SiC by heating with graphite at 1,500 °C (2,730 °F).
+
Because of the rarity of natural moissanite, most silicon carbide is synthetic.  
 +
However the preparation of SiC is too difficult for most amateur scientists. The simplest manufacturing process is to combine silica sand and carbon in an Acheson graphite electric resistance furnace at a high temperature, between 1,600 °C (2,910 °F) and 2,500 °C (4,530 °F). Fine SiO<sup>2</sup> particles in plant material (e.g. rice husks) can be converted to SiC by heating in the excess carbon from the organic material. The silica fume, which is a byproduct of producing silicon metal and ferrosilicon alloys, also can be converted to SiC by heating with graphite at 1,500 °C (2,730 °F).
  
 
==Projects==
 
==Projects==
*Crucible
+
*Silicon carbide [[crucible]]
 +
*Abrasive material
 +
*[[Mineral collecting]] (moissanite)
  
 
==Handling==
 
==Handling==
 
===Safety===
 
===Safety===
Silicon carbide is non-flammable and non-explosive.
+
Silicon carbide is non-flammable and non-explosive. In bulk form is practically inert, while the powdered form is more hazardous:
  
 
'''Effects of Exposure:'''
 
'''Effects of Exposure:'''
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'''Exposure:'''  Pre-existing respiratory disorders.
 
'''Exposure:'''  Pre-existing respiratory disorders.
  
'''Carcinogenicity:'''  NTP:  No    IARC:  No      OSHA:  No
+
'''Carcinogenicity:'''  NTP:  No    IARC:  No      OSHA:  No<ref>[http://www.espimetals.com/index.php/msds/708-silicon-carbide espimetals]</ref>
  
 
===Storage===
 
===Storage===
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===Disposal===
 
===Disposal===
Silicon carbide isn't harmful to enviroment, so it's safe to dump it with normal trash or into the soil.
+
Silicon carbide isn't harmful to environment, so it's safe to dump it with normal trash or into the soil.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
 +
 
===Relevant Sciencemadness threads===
 
===Relevant Sciencemadness threads===
 
*[http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=13144 Microwave Kiln "Microkiln"]
 
*[http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=13144 Microwave Kiln "Microkiln"]

Latest revision as of 15:59, 25 February 2018

Silicon carbide
SiC.JPG
Silicon carbide sample.
Names
IUPAC name
Silicon carbide
Other names
Carborundum
Moissanite
Identifiers
Jmol-3D images Image
Properties
SiC
Molar mass 40.10 g/mol
Appearance Black lustrous solid
Density 3.21 g/cm3
Melting point 2,730 °C (4,950 °F; 3,000 K) (decomposes)
Boiling point Decomposes
Insoluble
Solubility Reacts with molten alkali
Insoluble in virtually all solvents
Vapor pressure ~ 0 mmHg
Hazards
Safety data sheet ScienceLab
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Related compounds
Silicon boride
Silicon dioxide
Silicon nitride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Silicon carbide, also known as carborundum is a compound of silicon and carbon with chemical formula SiC, mainly used as an abrasive. Silicon carbide occurs naturally as very rare mineral moissanite.[1]

Properties

Chemical

Silicon carbide resists the attack of many acids due to the formation of a thin layer of silicon dioxide, however, SiC will dissolve in molten alkali.

Physical

Silicon carbide is a black solid, with a density of 3.21 g/cm3, odorless, with a high melting point of 2,730 °C. It is extremely hard solid (9-9,5 on Mohs scale). SiC is insoluble in all solvents.

Availability

Silicon carbide is often present in abrasive materials and some semiconductors.

It can be also bought as moissanite which is highly attractive synthetic gem and is being used as a cheaper replacement for diamonds in jewellery.

Preparation

Because of the rarity of natural moissanite, most silicon carbide is synthetic. However the preparation of SiC is too difficult for most amateur scientists. The simplest manufacturing process is to combine silica sand and carbon in an Acheson graphite electric resistance furnace at a high temperature, between 1,600 °C (2,910 °F) and 2,500 °C (4,530 °F). Fine SiO2 particles in plant material (e.g. rice husks) can be converted to SiC by heating in the excess carbon from the organic material. The silica fume, which is a byproduct of producing silicon metal and ferrosilicon alloys, also can be converted to SiC by heating with graphite at 1,500 °C (2,730 °F).

Projects

Handling

Safety

Silicon carbide is non-flammable and non-explosive. In bulk form is practically inert, while the powdered form is more hazardous:

Effects of Exposure: To the best of our knowledge the chemical, physical and toxicological properties of silicon carbide have not been thoroughly investigated and reported. Silicon carbide is a nuisance dust capable of producing nonprogressive pulmonary fibrosis. Silicon carbide implants have caused tumors in laboratory animals.

Acute Effects: Inhalation: May cause irritation. Ingestion: No acute health effects recorded. Skin: May cause abrasive irritation. Eye: May cause abrasive irritation.

Chronic Effects: Inhalation: May cause pneumoconiosis. No other chronic health effects recorded.

Target Organs: No target organs recorded. Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by

Exposure: Pre-existing respiratory disorders.

Carcinogenicity: NTP: No IARC: No OSHA: No[2]

Storage

Silicon carbide is very stable and doesn't require any special storage.

Disposal

Silicon carbide isn't harmful to environment, so it's safe to dump it with normal trash or into the soil.

References

  1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicon_carbide
  2. espimetals

Relevant Sciencemadness threads