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underground
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[*] posted on 8-3-2017 at 05:24


Can NH4CLO4 made from KCLO4 ? (using sulfuric acid and ammonium carbonate)

KCLO4 + H2SO4 --> K2SO4 + 2HClO4

( NH4)2CO3 + 2 HClO4 --> 2 NH4ClO4 + H2O + CO2

Then separate the NH4ClO4 from K2SO4 ( with Solubility )

[Edited on 8-3-2017 by underground]
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Laboratory of Liptakov
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[*] posted on 8-3-2017 at 13:58
NH4ClO4 prepare


Here is something
https://sites.google.com/site/unusualchemistry/perchlorates




Safety explosive Alfred Nobel 1867. Safely ecologic detonator Dr. Liptakov 2015.
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[*] posted on 9-3-2017 at 06:31


Quote: Originally posted by Laboratory of Liptakov  
Here is something
https://sites.google.com/site/unusualchemistry/perchlorates


The heating method looks interesting. I notice that Naclo3 got a melting point of 248–261 °C and Naclo4 at 468 °C so i guess with Naclo3 will work too. I may try it.

I just ask from Kclo4 to NH4CLO4 cause metathesis reaction does not work and kclo3 can be made more easily than naclo3 with a cell. Kclo3 will ppt out while Naclo3 wont.
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[*] posted on 9-3-2017 at 11:30


According all, is necessary obtained, get firstly NaClO4. After will preparation easy. Small amount NaClO3 in NaClO4 (from cell process) is possible get out helping HCl acid. Is described under picture in link.



Safety explosive Alfred Nobel 1867. Safely ecologic detonator Dr. Liptakov 2015.
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[*] posted on 13-3-2017 at 14:16


Why is hydrazine such a great fuel... it makes the highest VOD binary for AN explosives...8200-8600m/s

ANNM only goes to about 6400m/s and the NM is a molecular explosive. Are there any replacements for hydrazine that would give similar performance..? What is so special about N2H4? What about ammonia hydroxide as a fuel??

There has to be something out there that can match hydrazine and is safer... there are dozens of molecular explosives that can match HMX and Cl-20, why no fuels that can match hydrazine?

Not knowing the answer is truly pissing me off.
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[*] posted on 14-3-2017 at 01:16


Hydrazine has positive enthalpy of formation, no carbon and lots of hydrogen. This makes it the ultimate fuel for high VoD compositions. The product gases, consisting mainly of water and hydrogen, have an unusually steep isentrope which results in high ɣ and high VoD at a relatively low detonation pressure (comparable to the pressure of other compositions with the same density like ANNM). Therefore, VoD is not the perfect performance measure. For example, it's not nearly as brisant as PETN (8400 m/s). Other explosives with great hydrogen content and similar high VoD/pressure ratio are nitroguanidine (8200 m/s) and hydrazine nitrate (8500 m/s).
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[*] posted on 14-3-2017 at 02:16


The use of N2H4.HNO3 with TATNB (triaminotrinitrobenzene) allows one to go over the 9300 m/s...
:cool: My guess is that N2H4.2 HClO4 as a replacement of N2H4.HNO3 in this mix would make it even better...because N2H4.HClO4 already reaches the 9800 m/s.

Alternative superfuels?
*:cool: Trihydrazino-s-triazine (brother of melamine) will be even better as fuels than N2H4 for most detonic applications.
*:cool: Triaminoguanidine ((H2N-NH)2C=N-NH2)
*:cool: Other molecular superfuels would involve H2N-NH-C#N (cyanhydrazide / cyanohydrazine), H2N-N(-C#N)2 (unsymetric dicyanhydrazide),N#C-NH-NH-C#N (symetrical dicyanhydrazide), N#C-NH-N(-C#N)2 (tricyanhydrazide / tricyanohydrazine) and (N#C-)2N-N(-C#N)2 (tetracyanhydrazide / tetracyanohydrazine).
*:cool: Other possibility is the same as above but based on tetrazolo instead of cyano I suppose that H2N-NH-CN4H (hydrazinotetrazole) will make wonders just like tetra-tetrazolo-hydrazine. The multiple unsaturated N chain stores energy.
*:cool: You also have non hydrazine related compounds like polyacetylenic (butadiyne, hexatriyne), polycyanido (cyanoform, tetracyanomethane, dicyanoacetylen, dicyanobutadiyne, hexacyanobenzene, ... for sure superfuels but very dense and very energetic because triple links as C#C or C#N store a lot of energy...that is why the burning temperature of such fuels is very high...and those compounds are quite unstable owing to the very negative enthalpy of formation from their elements (this means they are more than happy to split back to their elements...acetylene or cyanogen are propagating explosive/detonating on their own under specific conditions of pressure and shock.
*:cool: Azido group also stores energy so polyazido compounds or mixing of Azido and cyano, tetrazolo, hydrazino, diazo would be another way to boost up the fuel...

--> the only limitation is the practical stability of such fuels towards self decomposition or sensitivity against external stimuli (shock, heat, light,...) --> activation energy barrier.

Theorically (and practically) I wonder what would happen if TATNB is replaced by THTNB (trihydrazinotrinitrobenzene) into the initial mix as its mononitrate, dinitrate or trinitrate or better its monoperchlorate, diperchlorate or triperchlorate?

:cool::cool::cool::cool::cool::cool::cool::cool::cool:
--> Ultimate mix THTNB triperchlorate and N2H4.2 HClO4 from stoechimetric mix to slightly negative one?
:cool::cool::cool::cool::cool::cool::cool::cool::cool:


[Edited on 14-3-2017 by PHILOU Zrealone]




PH Z (PHILOU Zrealone)

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[*] posted on 15-3-2017 at 10:23


Quote: Originally posted by PHILOU Zrealone  
My guess is that N2H4.2 HClO4 as a replacement of N2H4.HNO3 in this mix would make it even better...because N2H4.HClO4 already reaches the 9800 m/s.
[Edited on 14-3-2017 by PHILOU Zrealone]


I would be very interested to see a source for that Philou. 9800 m/s sounds like a typo.
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[*] posted on 15-3-2017 at 20:55


PHILOU,

What you wrote to me is foreign, what do I need to read to understand it. I have never heard of those chemicals, I don't know if they even exist? I am more interested in fuels that would be economic..

Why is nitrogen so good and carbon so bad? I thought the best fuel was hydrogen because of 142MJ/kg??? if so wouldn't hydrides be the best fuel, like nano LiAlH4??
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[*] posted on 21-3-2017 at 14:32


Quote: Originally posted by MineMan  
PHILOU,

What you wrote to me is foreign, what do I need to read to understand it. I have never heard of those chemicals, I don't know if they even exist? I am more interested in fuels that would be economic..

Why is nitrogen so good and carbon so bad? I thought the best fuel was hydrogen because of 142MJ/kg??? if so wouldn't hydrides be the best fuel, like nano LiAlH4??

Yes I know sometimes I speak chinese ;-) or too chemically.
Most of the molecules I have mentionned do exist...a few are extrapolated and may or not exist (yet).

Hydrogen is good because of its very small weight per mole, so you have a lot of moles per kg...but stil H2/O2 doesn't burn "very hot" under normal conditions (stil 2000°C) (thus not when H2 and O2 are activated or pre-splitted like in hydrogen plasma torch).
On the other hand acetylen, diacetylen (butadiyne), cyanogen, hydrogen cyanide, dicyanoacetylen, dicyanobutadiyne,...when mixed with O2 all burn very much hotter than 3000°C (and up to close to 5000°C)...this has to do with the endothermic nature of those compounds (tripple links store a lot of energy)... the endothermic energy adds to the normal burning energy of the elements alone.
Hottest flame temperature
It seems I was right in saying that non hydrogen containing HE display a hotter explosion heat/detonation heat because the H2O exhausted reduces the heat...probably linked to the heat capacity of water and water vapour.

Also you have to take into account the heat output per kg, but also per volume...hydrogen is not very dense while other fuel are denser because condensed or even solid.

To fully understand this you really have to read a little about the following:
-standard enthalpy of reaction (specifically burning reaction)
-standard enthalpy of formation of molecules (and of elements)
-Hess law of thermodynamic
Then everything will be much clearer to you.

[Edited on 22-3-2017 by PHILOU Zrealone]




PH Z (PHILOU Zrealone)

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[*] posted on 21-3-2017 at 14:39


Quote: Originally posted by Dornier 335A  
Quote: Originally posted by PHILOU Zrealone  
My guess is that N2H4.2 HClO4 as a replacement of N2H4.HNO3 in this mix would make it even better...because N2H4.HClO4 already reaches the 9800 m/s.
[Edited on 14-3-2017 by PHILOU Zrealone]


I would be very interested to see a source for that Philou. 9800 m/s sounds like a typo.

It comes from datas out of a very long VOD/Lead block test/Sand crushing test table from Don J Haarman.
I will put it here soon. It seems I have made a mistake or two...but the numbers must be close.

I'm gathering info on that so you can make accurate calculations with your ingenious program VOD calculator/simulator.




PH Z (PHILOU Zrealone)

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