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Gadolinium,  64Gd
General properties
Name, symbol Gadolinium, Gd
Appearance Silvery white
Gadolinium in the periodic table


Atomic number 64
Standard atomic weight (Ar) 157.25(3)
Group, block , f-block
Period period 6
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Physical properties
Phase Solid
Melting point 1585 K ​(1312 °C, ​2394 °F)
Boiling point 3273 K ​(3000 °C, ​5432 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.90 g/cm3
when liquid, at  7.4 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 10.05 kJ/mol
Heat of 301.3 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 37.03 J/(mol·K)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1, 2, 3 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.20
energies 1st: 593.4 kJ/mol
2nd: 1170 kJ/mol
3rd: 1990 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius 196±6 pm
Crystal structure ​Hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Speed of sound thin rod 2680 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 9.4 µm/(m·K) (α poly, at 100 °C)
Thermal conductivity 10.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 1.31·10-6 Ω·m (α, poly)
Magnetic ordering Ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition at 293.4 K
Young's modulus 54.8 GPa (α, poly)
Shear modulus 21.8 GPa (α, poly)
Bulk modulus 37.9 GPa (α, poly)
Poisson ratio 0.259
Vickers hardness 510–950 MPa
CAS Registry Number 7440-54-2
Naming After the mineral Gadolinite (itself named after Johan Gadolin)
Discovery Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1880)
First isolation Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
· references

Gadolinium is a lanthanide with the symbol Gd and atomic number 64.



Gadolinium, like all of the lanthanides, is quite electropositive. It dissolves in acids weak and strong without hesitation.


Gadolinium is a silvery metal. At room temperature and above, it is strongly paramagnetic, but below that temperature, it is ferromagnetic.


Gadolinium metal can be bought from Metallium.


It is possible to produce gadolinium through thermite with lithium metal or electrolysis of anhydrous gadolinium chloride, but this is impractical. Considering the low availability of gadolinium compounds in general, it is more feasible to simply buy the metal.


  • Make Gd compounds
  • Demonstrate the Curie point



Like all of the lanthanides, not much research has gone into their toxicity, though they are all believed to be minimally toxic. Due to the lack of knowledge, care should be taken with gadolinium compounds and gloves should be worn. Gadolinium metal itself poses little health hazard and can be handled by hand safely without the risk of poisoning or damaging the sample.


Gadolinium should be kept in closed bottles away from moisture and any corrosive vapors.


Best to try to recycle it.


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