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Author: Subject: The First Room-Temperature Ambient-Pressure Superconductor
Art Vandelay
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[*] posted on 27-7-2023 at 15:29
The First Room-Temperature Ambient-Pressure Superconductor


Anyone made this yet?
Quote:
For the first time in the world, we succeeded in synthesizing the room-temperature superconductor (Tc≥400 K, 127∘C) working at ambient pressure with a modified lead-apatite (LK-99) structure. The superconductivity of LK-99 is proved with the Critical temperature (Tc), Zero-resistivity, Critical current (Ic), Critical magnetic field (Hc), and the Meissner effect. The superconductivity of LK-99 originates from minute structural distortion by a slight volume shrinkage (0.48 %), not by external factors such as temperature and pressure. The shrinkage is caused by Cu2+ substitution of Pb2+(2) ions in the insulating network of Pb(2)-phosphate and it generates the stress. It concurrently transfers to Pb(1) of the cylindrical column resulting in distortion of the cylindrical column interface, which creates superconducting quantum wells (SQWs) in the interface. The heat capacity results indicated that the new model is suitable for explaining the superconductivity of LK-99. The unique structure of LK-99 that allows the minute distorted structure to be maintained in the interfaces is the most important factor that LK-99 maintains and exhibits superconductivity at room temperatures and ambient pressure.

https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2307.12008

LK-99.png - 89kB
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Rainwater
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[*] posted on 28-7-2023 at 09:01


Waiting peer review. Their have been so many fake superconductors, not sure why

The synthesis process isnt that bad.
800c is moderately difficult on medium/large scale, easy on small scale.
But the 0.00001 torr. Thats not easy.
Have to break out a diffusion pump. That may not be enough.

Also phosphorus is illegal to own/handle/make/buy in my area.
So sourcing the CuP would be another issue.
Everything else is easy to source.




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[*] posted on 28-7-2023 at 09:45


Wiki tells me that ...
Copper phosphide can be produced in a reverberatory furnace or in a crucible, e.g. by a reaction of red phosphorus with a copper-rich material. It can also be prepared photochemically, by irradiating cupric hypophosphite with ultraviolet radiation.[5] It can also be produced by reducing copper(II) phosphate with aluminum metal[6]
The second of their references is interesting.

http://www.sciencemadness.org/smwiki/index.php/Phosphorus#:~:text=The%20copper%20phosphide%20can%20be%20obtained%20by%20reducing%20copper(II)%20phosph ate%20with%20a%20metal,%20(aluminium%20e.g.).
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[*] posted on 28-7-2023 at 11:00
Superconducting Meoteorites


Superconductivity found in meteorites

James Wampler, Mark Thiemens, Shaobo Chen, Yimei Zhu and Ivan K. Schullera

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7148572/

Meteorites can contain a wide range of material phases due to the extreme environments found in space and are ideal candidates to search for natural superconductivity. However, meteorites are chemically inhomogeneous, and superconducting phases in them could potentially be minute, rendering detection of these phases difficult. To alleviate this difficulty, we have studied meteorite samples with the ultrasensitive magnetic field modulated microwave spectroscopy (MFMMS) technique [J. G. Ramírez, A. C. Basaran, J. de la Venta, J. Pereiro, I. K. Schuller, Rep. Prog. Phys. 77, 093902 (2014)]. Here, we report the identification of superconducting phases in two meteorites, Mundrabilla, a group IAB iron meteorite [R. Wilson, A. Cooney, Nature 213, 274–275 (1967)] and GRA 95205, a ureilite [J. N. Grossman, Meteorit.Planet. Sci. 33, A221–A239 (1998)]. MFMMS measurements detected superconducting transitions in samples from each, above 5 K. By subdividing and remeasuring individual samples, grains containing the largest superconducting fraction were isolated. The superconducting grains were then characterized with a series of complementary techniques, including vibrating-sample magnetometry (VSM), energy-dispersion


is attached :cool:

Attachment: 1509.04452.pdf (3.5MB)
This file has been downloaded 195 times

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[*] posted on 28-7-2023 at 21:39


Quote: Originally posted by Rainwater  

But the 0.00001 torr. Thats not easy.
Have to break out a diffusion pump. That may not be enough.


I don't think that such low pressures are required for these reaktions actually I think they had just this pump on hand and why use a worse one.

If the paper is legit I would be eager to try the synthesis of this material!
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[*] posted on 29-7-2023 at 01:30


Me to, a super conducting magnet would really help my nmr build



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[*] posted on 29-7-2023 at 06:52


Physical Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors

Ranier Wesche


The Iron Pnictide Superconductors An Introduction and Overview

Ferdinando Mancin &i Roberta Citro


can be downloaded from:

https://www.4shared.com/zip/FIRdB0O_ku/SuperConductors.html]SuperConductors.zip

:cool:
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[*] posted on 29-7-2023 at 13:50


This article and the shitstorm it has unleashed on the internet is pretty funny actually, waiting for peer review seems like a smart idea, because no doubt it's being replicated right now somewhere already and the unveilment yesterday at the International Symposium on Metalic Multilayers in Korea University doesn't bode well in all honesty. This Kwon guy seems to have released it out of spite for being fired from the university a couple of months ago, according to the rumours anyways, there's enough material to make a movie out of it.

Best comment I read somewhere is that "these guys are just chemists, they don't understand the science".

Here's some more info on the subject:
Superconductor Pb10-xCux(PO4)6O showing levitation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and mechanism
https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2307/2307.12037.pdf

Consideration for the development of room-temperature ambient-pressure superconductor (LK-99)
https://www.kci.go.kr/kciportal/landing/article.kci?arti_id=...
See attached pdf for the google translated version.

Room temperature and normal pressure superconducting ceramic compound, and method for manufacturing same
https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2023027536A1/en

other noteworthy links:
https://jorge.physics.ucsd.edu/jh.html
https://sciencecast.org/casts/suc384jly50n
https://youtu.be/EtVjGWpbE7k
https://www.zhihu.com/question/613850973/answer/3136029641

Attachment: Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology LK-99.pdf (789kB)
This file has been downloaded 164 times

[Edited on 29-7-2023 by Art Vandelay]
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Rainwater
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[*] posted on 29-7-2023 at 20:53


The sample was thermally deposited on a copper plate.
Is the description of the youtube video.

Copper will do that in a magnetic field with easy.
Very poor choice to test the magnetic properties of their material.

If the ohms values per cm2 are accurate, then this stuff will replace copper for wire




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[*] posted on 1-8-2023 at 04:11


Quote: Originally posted by Rainwater  
The sample was thermally deposited on a copper plate.
Is the description of the youtube video.

Copper will do that in a magnetic field with easy.
Very poor choice to test the magnetic properties of their material.

If the ohms values per cm2 are accurate, then this stuff will replace copper for wire


That youtube video appears to have been created by a company that is not related to the people who discovered the room temperature super conductor. It probably just uses a copper disk.

I think its clickbait.




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[*] posted on 1-8-2023 at 11:16


https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.16892

https://www.nextbigfuture.com/2023/07/lawrence-berkeley-lab-...

[Edited on 1-8-2023 by Tsjerk]
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[*] posted on 1-8-2023 at 14:47


https://www.science.org/content/blog-post/room-temperature-s...

A blog post by Derek Lowe with some very guarded optimism about this. Hopefully we will find out for sure pretty soon.
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[*] posted on 3-8-2023 at 10:18


https://www.google.com/amp/s/jabde.com/2023/08/02/synthesis-...
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[*] posted on 3-8-2023 at 12:48


It's going pretty fast now.

Superconductor Pb10−xCux(PO4)6O showing levitation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and mechanism
https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.12037

First-principles study on the electronic structure of Pb10−xCux(PO4)6O (x=0, 1)
https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.16040

Pb-apatite framework as a generator of novel flat-band CuO based physics, including possible room temperature superconductivity
https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.00698

Electronic structure of the putative room-temperature superconductor Pb9Cu(PO4)6O
https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.00676

Theoretical insight on the LK-99 material
https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.01135

Observation of zero resistance above 100∘ K in Pb10−xCux(PO4)6O
https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.01192

Broad Band Mott Localization is all you need for Hot Superconductivity: Atom Mott Insulator Theory for Cu-Pb Apatite
G. Baskaran

https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.01307

Minimal model for the flat bands in copper-substituted lead phosphate apatite
https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.01315
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[*] posted on 3-8-2023 at 13:14


Sorry, first study in the post above is a repost from earlier, it was updated though. There's probably so much more I could post, but I didn't want anyone here to miss this one, a bit of comical relief maybe.
https://twitter.com/iris_IGB/status/1686071973011472406

cruciblevsbed.png - 334kB
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[*] posted on 3-8-2023 at 14:43


What's the big deal? I thought room-temperature superconductors were a solved problem:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2003.14321.pdf :D




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[*] posted on 3-8-2023 at 21:12


Quote: Originally posted by Art Vandelay  
Pb₉Cu(PO₄)₆O
So it sounds like it's primarily lead phosphate with a bit of copper and a bit of oxide. Unless I'm misunderstanding it I think the formula could be expressed as a ~3:1 adduct of lead phosphate and copper oxide:

3Pb₃(PO₄)₂ · CuO

What's the catch? I don't suppose you could just grind those materials together with a mortar and pestle and have a working superconductor. Does it gotta be a crystal or something?




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[*] posted on 4-8-2023 at 06:03


The proposed chemical equations for this substance are all obviously wrong. It is not acceptable to show metallic copper or lead as a product; electrons will not be transferred from sulfur or phosphorus to these metals. Equations must be balanced.

It may be helpful to determine what conditions stabilize the necessary crystal structure if we start from an understanding of what compounds are actually present in the samples.

Here is one equation which is actually possible:

49 Pb2(SO4)O + 48 Cu3P >> 8 Pb9Cu(PO4)6O + 49 Cu2S + 26 PbO + 19 Cu2O

Notably, this comes very close to the "equimolar" quantities originally reported (off by 2.2%).

It appears that Cu2S or possibly PbO may serve as the critical support for "templating" the growth of sc-Pb9Cu(PO4)6O. Samples of "LK-99" produced by other methods are unsatisfactory even when the "correct" stoichiometry is obtained. It would be interesting to see if the material made by other methods can become interesting when it is mixed with Cu2S and melted. Substituting Cu2S with other similar materials like Ag2S may also be fruitful.

EDIT: Considering the heats of formation I find that the exchange between Cu2S + PbO <> Cu2O + PbS favors the latter by about 30 kJ/mol. Therefore it is more likely to see:

49 Pb2(SO4)O + 48 Cu3P >> 8 Pb9Cu(PO4)6O + 23 Cu2S + 26 PbS + 45 Cu2O



[Edited on 4-8-2023 by clearly_not_atara]




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[*] posted on 4-8-2023 at 15:17


Quote: Originally posted by clearly_not_atara  
Substituting Cu2S with other similar materials like Ag2S may also be fruitful.

I'd go with zinc, nickel and gold instead. From "First-principles study on the electronic structure of Pb10−xCux(PO4)6O (x=0, 1)":
Quote:
We find that among the considered doping elements (Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, and Au), both Ni and Zn doping result in the gap opening, whereas Au exhibits doping effects more similar to Cu than Ag.



New papers:

Successful growth and room temperature ambient-pressure magnetic levitation of LK-99
https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.01516

Some remarks on possible superconductivity of composition Pb9CuP6O25
https://arxiv.org/abs/2308.01723

Some other 6 day old papers that haven't been posted yet:

Semiconducting transport in Pb10−xCux(PO4)6O sintered from Pb2SO5 and Cu3P
https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.16802

Synthesis of possible room temperature superconductor LK-99:Pb9Cu(PO4)6O
https://arxiv.org/abs/2307.16402

Videos that go with one of the papers above:
Observing the magnetic reaction of a material under a magnet using a microscope
https://targum.video/v/2023/8/1/e2ad3b8e86961ccfdcf411d2d4d1...
Latest research findings on LK99 from the Physics Department of Southeast University
https://targum.video/v/2023/8/2/388e770217a654ba9175b391eedd...

Twitter links with some videos:
https://twitter.com/andrewmccalip/status/1687405505604734978
https://twitter.com/lere0_0/status/1686363900651151360

An actual livestream of a team in Taiwan cooking:
https://youtu.be/zVkVBvo8_GM
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[*] posted on 4-8-2023 at 15:29


You are confusing doping with templating or confining.

Anyway, it is important to also consider that I had to revise the calculations. I initially assumed that copper would bind all the sulfur, since copper sulfide was the only byproduct initially reported. But the formation of lead sulfide is much more favorable.

This means that the byproducts are predominantly cubic PbS and cubic Cu2O rather than monoclinic Cu2S. The expectation for templating crystal growth should change accordingly.

It is obvious that the given chemical structure Pb9Cu(PO4)6O is not the end of the story — otherwise the videotaped diamagnetism, conductivity-temperature dependence, etc would be present in ordinary samples made by the "obvious" reaction of lead phosphate and cupric oxide. But these properties only appear when using the convoluted route, suggesting that the byproducts matter.

[Edited on 4-8-2023 by clearly_not_atara]




Quote: Originally posted by bnull  
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[*] posted on 4-8-2023 at 20:05


Quote: Originally posted by SnailsAttack  
What's the catch? I don't suppose you could just grind those materials together with a mortar and pestle and have a working superconductor.
Of course not. Read the paper, it explains the procedure in decent detail. In fact, a screenshot of the relevant procedures is in the OP of this very thread!

[Edited on 8-5-2023 by Texium]




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