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Author: Subject: NaClO3 by electrolysis
Romix
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[*] posted on 22-8-2023 at 17:14
NaClO3 by electrolysis


Table salt in a supermarket's is very dirty, crystalizing it white cloudy crystals grows. Even after 3 recrystallizations it's still white and cloudy.
Pure NaCl salt crystalizes as clear colorless crystals.
Shape of both crystals from a shops and of pure NaCl is almost identical.
Cubic like.

Ok, electrolyzing concentrated solution of pure NaCl in water, keeping the electrodes very close to each other in one beaker. I understand what happens when you use membrane to separate Cathode from the Anode. With out membrane keeping electrodes close believing Wiki this reaction occurs NaOH + Cl2 -> NaCl + NaClO + H2O.
OK Dear forum members, main question of this post what will happen to NaClO passing electricity through it? And what is the maximum concentration of NaClO I can produce electrolyzing pure NaCl in water?

[Edited on 23-8-2023 by Romix]

350112590_1463018577782459_18813149248228568_n.jpg.1f46f8d4ba04cdaeda49fc1ed9823b37.jpg - 126kB
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Rainwater
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[*] posted on 22-8-2023 at 17:33


Here's everything the internet knows about chlorates, reagent purification as well product isolation is covered in great detail.
http://www.chlorates.exrockets.com/
Stay safe




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Romix
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[*] posted on 22-8-2023 at 18:29


Quote: Originally posted by Rainwater  
Here's everything the internet knows about chlorates, reagent purification as well product isolation is covered in great detail.
http://www.chlorates.exrockets.com/
Stay safe

Thanks!
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Romix
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[*] posted on 22-8-2023 at 23:46


Although I didn't find the answer to my two questions in what I read and I've read everything.
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Rainwater
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[*] posted on 23-8-2023 at 16:54


Im not trying to sound rude, just trying to help without spoon feeding.

Be sure to review the handling, storage and hazard of these compounds before proceeding with any experments.

Under no circumstances mix this stuff with anything acidic or store in food containers. This posinous oxidizer taste just like table salt.

Once mixed with a reducing reagent(fuel), treat these compounds with care as they can ignite or explode. Do not store them.

Quote: Originally posted by Romix  
Although I didn't find the answer to my two questions in what I read and I've read everything.


Read it again, that is a lot of information to go through in just 5 hours and 15 minutes.

Quote:
what will happen to NaClO passing electricity through it?

As a solid, pure, with enough voltage, the sample will begin to heat up, like any other compound. Treating it as a resistor the E×I formula applies. Most salts are poor conductors. Heat it enough and it will begin to decomposes into NaCl and O2.
As an aqueous solution in an electrolysis cell read here(sm wiki) and here(exrockets.com)

Quote:
And what is the maximum concentration of NaClO I can produce electrolyzing pure NaCl in water?

Again read the material provided. It does not directly answer that question but does tell you the conditions when other product form. Once you understand the chemistry involved, this answer will become apparent.




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yobbo II
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[*] posted on 24-8-2023 at 09:41




See attached for some more info.

Try www.amateurpyro.com chemistry section:

Yob

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RU_KLO
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[*] posted on 29-9-2023 at 08:31


Although not NaCl (but KCl) you could check Woelens web page.

https://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/miniature_c...




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[*] posted on 30-9-2023 at 12:04


Dishwasher salt is a source of pretty pure NaCl, otherwise you'd get streaks on your dishes and glasses.
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[*] posted on 3-10-2023 at 21:50


I've made sodium chlorate a few times and last summer I made a fairly large run. Due to some issues with temperature control my yield was rather lackluster, but I can help you with this.

My suggestion is not to use table salt. Use pickling or kosher salt since it contains no other additives to the salt. This salt is useful as is. I've used it before and never ran into any issues with purity.
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[*] posted on 20-10-2023 at 10:55


I used technical salt with magnesium impurties. Works better due tu cathode protection by magnesium hydroxide foam.

And what is the maximum concentration of NaClO I can produce electrolyzing pure NaCl in water?

You dont need diaphragm for this. Maxium hypochlorite concentration about 2%
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knowledgevschaos
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[*] posted on 22-10-2023 at 18:08


What kind of electrode are you using?
I made sodium chlorate via electrolysis with graphite gouging rods as electrodes. I haven't recrystallized it, so the purity is not great, but it still burns violently when mixed with sugar.
Rainwater mentioned never to mix chlorates with acidic compounds. This is because of the formation of unstable chloric acid, which can spontaneously ignite your mixture. It also produces poisonous chlorine dioxide.
Other than that, some important safety points worth noting are:

Never mix chlorates with sulfur:
These mixes are very sensitive and can easily be exploded by accident. Especially, you should never store a mixture containing chlorates and sulfur, as the sulfur will gradually make the mix acidic, forming unstable chloric acid.

Never grind chlorates with any other compound, especially organics or metal powders:
These mixtures can be very sensitive, and will probably explode if ground together in a mortar and pestle. Many pyrotechnics books recommend using a separate mortar and pestle exclusively for chlorates, if not avoiding them altogether.

Never mix chlorates with ammonium compounds:
This will form unstable ammonium chlorate, which could also spontaneously ignite. Here is a thread where
one user's composition containing sodium chlorate, sulfur and ammonium nitrate ignited spontaneously in storage.

Stay safe.




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mysteriusbhoice
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[*] posted on 22-10-2023 at 20:03


NaClO is oxidized directly if pH is above 9 to NaClO3 and this is the reaction mechanism that most amateur chlorate cells (unbuffered) use to generate chlorates at 54% efficiency wrt to NaCl.
Industrially or in pH buffered high temperature amateur cells the reaction that generates chlorate is dissociating with heat where 2 equivalents of hypochlorous acid reacts with hypochlorite anion to form chlorate and chloride ions with a current efficiency of 85% - 89%.
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