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FableP
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[*] posted on 12-11-2023 at 21:53


High Powered Electric Propulsion - Electric solid propellant

http://eplab.ae.illinois.edu/Publications/IEPC-2019-421.pdf
and
https://scholarsmine.mst.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=383...

Table 1: Chemical composition of the High Performance Electric Propellant (HIPEP).

Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate (HAN) (NH3OH)+ NO3 - 75%
Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) CH2CH(OH) - 20%
Ammonium Nitrate (AN) NH4NO3 - 5%

Thanks for pointing out the correct formula for barium nitrate.
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j_sum1
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[*] posted on 12-11-2023 at 22:28


Mmm.
I am always a bit concerned when someone who can't balance an ionic formula starts playing around with significant quantities of energetics.

Be aware also that barium compounds are toxic to humans and the environment. Make sure you manage the risks and have a dispisal plan.
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[*] posted on 13-11-2023 at 06:11
Why does the nitrate ion exist?


The obvious answer is, because it does.
But the charge distributions make no sense to me
(I get the idea of resonance but don't understand why the ion is stable)
(is it the surrounding water molecules that stabilise it?)
anyone have an answer that I might understand?




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clearly_not_atara
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[*] posted on 13-11-2023 at 08:43


Symmetry!

Nitrate has three resonances:

(ON+(O-)O- + O-N+(O)O- + O-N+(O-)O) / sqrt(3)

According to the uncertainty principle, the more space an electron orbital occupies, the smaller the associated kinetic energy it requires to be admissible. It's got nothing to do with water molecules or other coordinations; the stability of alkali metal nitrates increases with ion size:

CsNO3 > RbNO3 > KNO3 > NaNO3 > LiNO3

with CsNO3 stable to around 700 C and LiNO3 decomposing below 400 C. Of course, this is precisely opposite to the coordination strength of the ions. And indeed the hydrogen compound is already slowly decomposing at room temperature.




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[*] posted on 6-12-2023 at 14:45
Iron (II) sulfate


I bought some sulfate of iron fertilizer from a garden centre wit the aim of purifying it to some FeSO4 crystals. When dissolved in water there was allot of light brown material which passed through my filter so I left it to settle for 24 hours.

I managed to pour off a nice green coloured solution and discarded the brown sludge.

I then tried to boil some of this down with the idea to drop out some crystals of iron sulfate.

What I notice is that as it is heated and concentrated I get a brown residue on the beaker and my solution become more cloudy. Is Iron II Sulfate difficult to purify? I see it might produce brown oxides in the presence of water.

Would I be better pouring it all into a big bucket and simply allowing it to evaporate over a few weeks to grow crystals?
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DraconicAcid
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[*] posted on 6-12-2023 at 14:52


The brown crud is from oxidation of iron(II) to iron(III), which happily precipitates as various forms of rust. You might try adding excess sulphuric acid to prevent this.



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[*] posted on 6-12-2023 at 15:06


Quote: Originally posted by DraconicAcid  
The brown crud is from oxidation of iron(II) to iron(III), which happily precipitates as various forms of rust. You might try adding excess sulphuric acid to prevent this.


You are of course right, I just added some sulphuric acid to my hot boiling solution and it has gone from brown to green! I am learning!
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DraconicAcid
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[*] posted on 6-12-2023 at 17:00


PS- if you're looking to get crystals, rather than just purifying the compound, I believe double salts such as (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 give better crystals than the plain sulphate.



Please remember: "Filtrate" is not a verb.
Write up your lab reports the way your instructor wants them, not the way your ex-instructor wants them.
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Sir_Gawain
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[*] posted on 14-12-2023 at 07:50
Thorium nitrate


Will ThO2 dissolve in nitric acid?

[Edited on 12-14-2023 by Sir_Gawain]




“Alchemy is trying to turn things yellow; chemistry is trying to avoid things turning yellow.” -Tom deP.
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woelen
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[*] posted on 15-12-2023 at 00:12


I don't think so, or only with great difficulty. ThO2, like many other oxides, is quite inert if it is calcined.
When it is freshly prepared from aqueous solution, then you have some hydrous form ThO2.xH2O, which easily dissolves in acids. These hydrous oxides (or mixed oxides/hydroxides??) are quite different from the anhydrous calcined oxides.




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Sir_Gawain
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[*] posted on 26-12-2023 at 15:51


Could molecular sieves be used to dry nitric or sulfuric acids? I can’t think of a reason why it wouldn’t work for nitric, but I’m probably missing something.

[Edited on 12-26-2023 by Sir_Gawain]




“Alchemy is trying to turn things yellow; chemistry is trying to avoid things turning yellow.” -Tom deP.
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[*] posted on 26-12-2023 at 16:02


Never mind. I just tried it with some azeotropic nitric acid and it completely destroyed the sieves.



“Alchemy is trying to turn things yellow; chemistry is trying to avoid things turning yellow.” -Tom deP.
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[*] posted on 2-3-2024 at 07:34


...trying to find the name the 4-amine of 2-tertbutylamine-1-pheny ethanol,...can;t seem to get the right name so i can get some specs and physical properties....could use some help!!:(...solo

note:

its something like this..

4-amino-N-(tert-butyl)benzamide , but its an amine









[Edited on 2-3-2024 by solo]




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clearly_not_atara
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[*] posted on 2-3-2024 at 08:46


CAS 56138-70-6:

https://www.lookchem.com/ProductWholeProperty_LCPL1207016.ht...

https://academic.oup.com/jpp/article-abstract/15/1/26/621701...

Aka 1-p-aminophenyl-2-t-butylaminoethanol.

Quote:
Never mind. I just tried it with some azeotropic nitric acid and it completely destroyed the sieves.

Lmao. Remember that mol sieves are usually NaAlSiO4.


[Edited on 2-3-2024 by clearly_not_atara]




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yobbo II
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[*] posted on 6-3-2024 at 08:02



Can anyone tell me how this water pump, made from tubing and an air pump, works?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-IUUoU2RUI


yob
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bnull
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[*] posted on 6-3-2024 at 08:58


Quote: Originally posted by yobbo II  

Can anyone tell me how this water pump, made from tubing and an air pump, works?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-IUUoU2RUI

It doesn't. There's a real pump inside the pond. You can see that, when he plugs the inlet tube, the end of the tube that's inside the water gets lodged in something. Also, there's a (crude) jump cut from 11:13 to 11:14. Just look at the other pond in the background (top right corner). It suddenly gets brighter.

Let's make a simple calculation. He claims that the thing is able to pump 280 m3 in one hour. One m3 is equal to 1000 L, so the rate is 280000 L of water per hour. It amounts to 280000/60=4666,7 L per minute, or 280000/3600=77,8 L per second. Almost 80 liters of water on each second. Using a fridge compressor. Of course it doesn't work.

Bullshit, scam, clickbait. Call it whatever you want. If you don't believe me, his next video should convince you:
bs.png - 12kB

For Chrissake.

[Edited on 6-3-2024 by bnull]

The Chrissake is directed to the pump guy, not you. Those Physics violators make me real mad.

[Edited on 6-3-2024 by bnull]




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[*] posted on 6-3-2024 at 09:31


https://patents.google.com/patent/US1641005A/en

Why in this patent is mentioned a molar equivalent of alcohol is used to a molar equivalent of sulfuryl chloride but in the equation 2 molar of alcohol is used?
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[*] posted on 6-3-2024 at 10:05




Thanks bnull,

Perhaps the 'for christsakes' should be directed at my too!

I did notice the LARGE 280m^3

There a a few more dudes going with the same idea. Is it for the ad's and they get paid?

Anyhow reading the comments I had to laugh. Most not in english so I cannot understand.

'According to fluid mechanics, this is impossible. Are you hiding a pump somewhere?'

Some not so great english but funny.

'Very informative... I try this in my newly buy refrigerator... And now I'm at the hospital,, because my wife hit me with the newly buy hammer.. '

I will reward my self with the icon_rolleyes.gif - 485B *

Yob

*Appologies Yob, but you deserve it.




[Edited on 6-3-2024 by yobbo II]
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bnull
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[*] posted on 6-3-2024 at 11:32


Quote: Originally posted by yobbo II  

There a a few more dudes going with the same idea. Is it for the ad's and they get paid?

Yep. And the subscribers. The chances of a subscriber watching their crap are greater than a random dude who simply gets it recommended by YouTube. More views=>more subscribers=>more money. And as the chances of their "content" getting demonetized are remote, they keep doing that. That's sad, to be honest.

@mr_bovinejony: The formula says that one mole of sulfuryl chloride reacts with two moles of ethanol. The molecular equivalent is the quantity that reacts with one molecule of ethanol. For one molecule of ethanol you would need half molecule of SO2Cl2, which sounds pretty weird until you notice that its about molar masses and not real molecules. It's the same as equivalent weight or equivalent mass.

Beginning at line 42, one molecular equivalent of SO2Cl2 means half mole. You have half mole of sulfuryl chloride to one mole of ethanol. In lines 86-89, he uses double the amount of sulfuryl chloride to make sure there's no ethyl hydrogen sulfate left in the solution. Better safe than sorry, I suppose.

The patent is from 1927, and the mole became a standard unit only in the early 1970s. The books I learned chemistry from were printed in the late 1950s/early1960s and I had to adjust to using moles in high school.

[Edited on 6-3-2024 by bnull]




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Sir_Gawain
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[*] posted on 6-3-2024 at 13:09


Quote: Originally posted by yobbo II  

'Very informative... I try this in my newly buy refrigerator... And now I'm at the hospital,, because my wife hit me with the newly buy hammer..
[Edited on 6-3-2024 by yobbo II]

WHAT?!




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clearly_not_atara
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[*] posted on 6-3-2024 at 21:51


I didn't know Yakov Smirnov posted here



Quote: Originally posted by bnull  
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mr_bovinejony
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[*] posted on 16-3-2024 at 05:32


This is probably a bit of a stretch but I vaguely remember a procedure with triphosgene that says it can be heated at 80c to release a very slow stream of the gas, the most controllable reaction with the stuff I have read about. It may have been in a phosgene book but I can't find it. Anyone have any idea where this idea may have come from?
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[*] posted on 18-3-2024 at 11:54


Quote: Originally posted by mr_bovinejony  
This is probably a bit of a stretch but I vaguely remember a procedure with triphosgene that says it can be heated at 80c to release a very slow stream of the gas, the most controllable reaction with the stuff I have read about. It may have been in a phosgene book but I can't find it. Anyone have any idea where this idea may have come from?

Are you sure you're not confusing the decomposition temperature with the melting point? Triphosgene melts at 80 °C and starts decomposing above 200 °C. It can be used as a phosgene substitute in the presence of a nucleophile (Heiner Eckert; Barbara Forster (1987). "Triphosgene, a Crystalline Phosgene Substitute". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 26 (9): 894–895). That sort of fits your description.




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[*] posted on 18-3-2024 at 14:31


No, not confusing the two. It also mentioned stopping the reaction was as easy as removing the heat and letting it become a solid again. But it seems likely that 80c wasn't the right temperature I was thinking of. It was certainly lower than 160 though.
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[*] posted on 18-3-2024 at 15:21


Hmm. Could it be this book?




[Edited on 18-3-2024 by bnull]

phosgene.jpg - 53kB




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