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Dr.Bob
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[*] posted on 15-12-2016 at 12:22


Must be marked “This package conforms to 49 CFR 173.4 for domestic highway or rail transport only.” - that is the wording for small samples.

If anyoine is sleepy, here are some details on small samples: (found by Googling "Small sample shipping exceptions", lots of other ones there.)

www.jhsph.edu/research/centers.../Fowlkes_Hazmat%20Presentat...




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PirateDocBrown
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[*] posted on 6-8-2017 at 22:07


So I got to thinking about this. But on the lines of what would a well-stocked, general purpose organic lab have?

I did some searching on the web about what if I were a small college chemistry department stockroom manager, what would I want?

I certainly would think that Sigma-Aldrich, etc. would have a basic list handy. But no.

So I went to it, on my own. Trying to remember all that I had, in grad school. (Industrial labs tend to be much more focused.)
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PirateDocBrown
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[*] posted on 6-8-2017 at 23:46


Here's where I went with this.

Solvents:

We had 3 stills in my group for solvents:
Methylene chloride
Dimethoxyethane
Tetrahydrofuran
We had a common departmental still:
Ethyl ether
General purpose solvents:
Ethanol/methanol/isopropanol
Acetone
Toluene
Ligroin/Pet Ether
Chloroform
Largely for chromatography or extraction:
Ethyl Acetate
Others:
MEK
Benzene
Chlorobenzene
Nitrobenzene, freidel crafts
Pyridine - for esterfications
1,1,2,2 tetrachloroethane, Freidel crafts
Aniline
Dimethylaniline
Dimethylformamide
1,4 Dioxane
Methoxyethanol
Cyclohexanone
Carbon disulfide and carbon tetrachloride for halogenations

Drying agents:

Calcium chloride
Potassium hydroxide
Sodium metal, benzophenone for ketal
Phosphorus pentoxide
Potassium carbonate
Sodium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate
Calcium sulfate
Alumina

Any of a huge variety of alkylating agents:
Alkyl halides (I used t-BuCl quite a lot)
Alkyl sulfates
Alkyl tosylates

Similarly with acylating agents:

Acetic anhydride
Acetyl chloride
Benzoyl chloride
Benzene sulfonyl chloride
Tosyl chloride

Halogenators:
Thionyl chloride
Phosphorus trichloride/tribromide
Phosphorus pentachloride
Elemental Iodine and Bromine
Sodium tetrafluoroborate
Ferric chloride/bromide
N Bromo Succinimide

Many aldehydes, as building blocks:
Acetaldehyde
Formaldehyde, also for Cross Cannizzaro
Benzaldehyde

Gases we had in cylinders, or could set up to generate:
Nitrogen, virtually everywhere. Argon, in places.
Shared departmental ozone generator
Acetylene
Ethylene Oxide
Diazomethane
Boron trifluoride (Freidel Crafts)
Ammonia
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Chlorine
Nitric Oxide
Hydrogen Chloride
Hydrogen Bromide
Hydrogen Cyanide

Acids and Anhydrides:
Sulfuric
Hydrochloric
Nitric
Phosphoric
Acetic, I try to do oxidations in it, when possible
Acetic Anhydride, usually to oxidize methylbenzenes
Hypophosphoric and fluoboric, for diazoniums
Hydrofluoric
Hydroiodic
Hydrobromic
Malonic and Acetoacetic for esters
Peroxybenzoic, for epoxides
Peroxyacetic, for glycols
Trifluoroacetic, for thallation
Succinic Anhydride
Phthalic Anhydride
Oleum


Both Potassium and Sodium Hydroxide
Also Calcium Hydroxide, mostly used to generate ammonia

Silica, largely for column chromatography

Elements:
Nickel, Palladium, Platinium, and Lead metal, for hydrogenation catalysts
Potassium, Aluminum, Sodium, Zinc, and Lithium, for reduction
Lithium also for lithiation
Zinc also for dehalogenation, and small scale hydrogen generation
Tin and Iron for reducing nitro compounds, Iron also for halogenation catalysis
Mercury to make zinc amalgam for Clemmensen
Red Phosphorus was largely for halogenation catalysis of alcohols

Redox agents:
Lithium Aluminum Hydride
Sodium cyanoborohydride
Lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminum hydride
Sodium Borohydride
Di isobutyl aluminum hydride, ester to aldehyde reduction
Pyridinum chromyl chloride, alcohol to carbonyl oxidation
Potassium dichromate
Potassium permanganate

Other catalysts and reagents:

Aluminum trichloride (Friedel crafts)
Mercuric sulfate (alkene hydration)
Cadmium chloride (acyl chloride reduction)
Sodium cyanide for nitriles
Sodium bisulfite for aldehydes
Sodium nitrate for nitration or diazonium salts
Sodium bisulfate for aldol condensation
Ammonium chloride, mostly for ammonia gas production
Lead tetraacetate, for phenols
Cuprous chloride, bromide, cyanide for Sandmeyer, the halides also for aryl halogenation
Potassium iodide, for diazonium or arylthallium reactions
Cuprous iodide for Corey-House
Mercuric acetate, for oxymercuration
Zinc chloride, Friedel crafts or aryl halogenation
Sodium Amide, for acetylides
Chromium Trioxide and Vanadium Pentoxide, for oxidation catalysis
Diborane, for hydroboration
Iodoform and methylamine, halide amination
Methyl formate
Hydrazine (sulfate or hydrochloride, usually used for wolff kischner)
Sodium aluminum tetrachloride
Thallium triflate, for phenol preparation
Mercuric triflate, for alkoxymercuration
Triphenylphosphine, for Wittig or phenol prep





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Vosoryx
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[*] posted on 7-8-2017 at 09:35


I love the idea of these kits, but (cost aside) regulations would make them almost impossible to ship with decent chemicals. In Canada, regulations are a bit more relaxed, but in the states, as well as other countries, it could be quite a hassle. (I think one needs a license to purchase an Erlenmeyer flask in Texas, for example. http://homebrewingfun.blogspot.ca/2014/05/purchasing-erlenme...)
What might be easier, and cheaper in the long run, would be to make a kit containing some essential labware/glassware, and a booklet or book with directions on how to find many chemicals OTC in the local area and then purify/make the chemicals they need. (Example: Make Nitric acid by mixing distillation purified Sulphuric acid, found in some drain cleaner, with ammonium nitrate, found in some instant cold packs.) I know that this could be a hassle, especially for someone who doesn't live in a large city, (Like me, who had to wait for two months to find a drug store, two hours away, that sold NH4NO3) but it might be the best option.
I love the idea of bringing back to life the chemistry kit, and I would be happy to help if I could. I just don't think that it would be at all economical in this day and age.
Please though, somebody prove me wrong!
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PirateDocBrown
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[*] posted on 8-8-2017 at 04:28


Other useful things, not really "chemicals", but ought to have around:

Molecular sieves
Diatomaceous earth
mercury for electrodes
lots of copper wire - I'd wire together lots of glassware
vacuum pump oil
mineral oil
glycerine
silicone grease
sand
boiling stones
indicator papers
iodine for TLC

Of course, all the supplies needed for HPLC, GC, spectroscopy, and NMR, but these are likely unneeded in a home lab.

I'm sure I could think of more, if I sat and thought some.
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PirateDocBrown
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[*] posted on 8-8-2017 at 04:36


Now, on the other end, I'm assembling a small chemistry set, that a young kid could use, but that is hard to find anymore.

Naturally, I'd tell the parent to go buy stuff they could easily find at a grocery store:

White vinegar
Ammonia
Hydrogen Peroxide
Washing Soda
Baking Soda
Salt
Epsom Salt
Denatured Alcohol (for an alcohol lamp)

But I'd provide stuff that one used to find in old school chemistry sets, at first I'd want to limit this, I have 28 very nice vials for them, I thought 2 sets of 14 would be a nice starter kit:

Ammonium Chloride
Calcium Chloride
Copper Sulfate
Sodium Bisulfate
Boric Acid
Sulfur
Sodium Metabisulfate
Potassium Permanganate
Sodium Nitrate
Sodium Hydroxide
Calcium Hydroxide
Manganese Dioxide
Ferrous Sulfate
Iron, powder.

Now, to write a new manual for such a chemistry set, using these chemicals.
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Church of Trianglism
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[*] posted on 8-8-2017 at 22:25


I find shipping chemicals even locally to be such a pain, I also do not have reliable transportation so schlecking cross country just to get small amounts of potassium nitrate and benzaldehyde doesn't appeal to me.

I am on a path making everything I can from scratch.. maybe I can use this list to help me along.

I will only ship if there is no other option, I have no worries ordering stuff like acetic anhydride from ebay but I would rather just make it myself.
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PirateDocBrown
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[*] posted on 9-8-2017 at 09:34


Quote: Originally posted by Church of Trianglism  
I find shipping chemicals even locally to be such a pain, I also do not have reliable transportation so schlecking cross country just to get small amounts of potassium nitrate and benzaldehyde doesn't appeal to me.

I am on a path making everything I can from scratch.. maybe I can use this list to help me along.

I will only ship if there is no other option, I have no worries ordering stuff like acetic anhydride from ebay but I would rather just make it myself.


Where are you, that you cannot get KNO3 locally?

in the US, any Home Depot will have it.
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