From Sciencemadness Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Fluorine,  9F
General properties
Name, symbol Fluorine, F
Allotropes Alpha, beta
Appearance Gas: very pale yellow
Liquid: bright yellow
Solid: alpha is opaque, beta is transparent
Fluorine in the periodic table


Atomic number 9
Standard atomic weight (Ar) 18.998403163(6)
Group, block (halogens); p-block
Period period 2
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p5
per shell
2, 7
Physical properties
Pale yellow
Phase Gas
Melting point 53.48 K ​(−219.67 °C, ​−363.41 °F)
Boiling point 85.03 K ​(−188.11 °C, ​−306.60 °F)
Density at  (0 °C and 101.325 kPa) 1.696 g/L
when liquid, at  1.505 g/cm3
Triple point 53.48 K, ​​90 kPa
Critical point 144.41 K, 5.1724 MPa
Heat of 6.51 kJ/mol
Atomic properties
Oxidation states −1
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 3.98 (most electronegative element)
energies 1st: 1681 kJ/mol
2nd: 3374 kJ/mol
3rd: 6147 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 64 pm
Van der Waals radius 135 pm
Crystal structure ​Cubic
Thermal conductivity 0.02591 W/(m·K)
CAS Registry Number 7782-41-4
Naming After the mineral fluorite, itself named after Latin fluo (to flow, in smelting)
Discovery André-Marie Ampère (1810)
First isolation Henri Moissan (26 June 1886)
Named by Humphry Davy
· references

Fluorine is a halogen too toxic and far too reactive to be considered for use in a home chemistry setting. It is one of the most powerful oxidizers known. Fluorine has the chemical symbol F.



Fluorine is so reactive that it will react and oxidize most known substances, often bursting them into flames if done near room temperature. This includes glass and unpassivated steel.

When the gas is needed, a specialized nickel alloy (commonly monel or some other cupronickel alloy) is used for any tubing as it forms a passivation layer that prevents the destructive oxidation that would occur if any other material was used.


Fluorine is a pale yellow color, although very specialized equipment is needed to see this color. It is nearly impossible to store in a way that it can be viewed, due to its extreme reactivity.


Very few businesses have or need the facilities to cope with elemental fluorine, so obtaining a cylinder of the gas is basically impossible (and suicidal without highly specialized equipment).

Even element samples are virtually impossible to make or obtain due to the inability to store fluorine without it reacting. Since it reacts with glass, calcium fluoride is often substituted for fluorine in an element collection. It may, however, be possible to store impure fluorine mixed with helium without risking contamination or destruction of the sample.


A method of producing fluorine purely chemically was discovered, but it is highly obscure and requires chemicals like antimony pentafluoride (which requires fluorine to be produced anyway). The only method therefore is electrolysis of molten ammonium bifluoride. Needless to say, this procedure is difficult to safely perform even by professional chemists.


  • Do something else



Do not attempt to make this gas. There's a reason some of the people who did research on fluorine are known as "fluorine martyrs." Apart from extreme reactivity issues, all fluoride salts are highly toxic and high amounts of toxic hydrogen fluoride will be made in any attempt. There are much better things to do in chemistry, so why not try something that you will survive. Neither is it a cheap, useful, or painless way to commit suicide, as it starts fires on contact with anything it touches.


Not possible, will react with almost everything.


If elemental fluorine was somehow produced, you need to vent it outside.


Relevant Sciencemadness threads