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Protons are subatomic particles with a positive charge that make up the composition of the atomic nucleus.
A proton is a positively charged subatomic particle with a mass of approximately 1 AMU, slightly less than a neutron. The atomic number of an atom is based on the number of protons in its nucleus.
Protons are donated to other molecules by compounds known as acids (such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, etc), and may be received by compounds known as bases (sodium hydroxide, pyridine, etc). This process of transferring a proton is known as protonation. During protonation, a base will conduct a nucleophilic attack on an acid, pushing electrons away from the proton, and producing the conjugate base of the acid.