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Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

Types of sugar

  • Monosaccharides: also known as simple sugars, are organic molecules that generally contain multiple OH groups and two aldehyde groups (as seen in a Fischer projection). Each monosaccharide has many isomers. Examples: glucose (or dextrose), fructose and galactose.
  • Disaccharides: Carbohydrates made of two monosaccharides, that underwent a condensation reaction. Examples: sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
  • Trisaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of three monosaccharides. Examples: maltotriose, melezitose, raffinose.
  • Tetrasaccharides: Carbohydrates made of four monosaccharides. Examples: stachyose.

The list goes on, as the number continues to grow. Longer chain saccharides are called oligosaccharides. Polymeric chains made of saccharides are called polysaccharides.



Sugars undergo fermentation in the presence of water and certain organisms, resulting in alcohol.


Sugars in general are white crystalline solids, very soluble in water, with a sweet taste, and a faint sweet odor.


Most types of sugars are available in either stores, supermarkets, hypermarkets, health food stores, drugstores, pharmacies. Specific isomers or enantiomers however, can only be purchased from chemical suppliers.


  • Cooking
  • Rocket candy
  • Smoke bombs



Sugars in general are non-toxic.


In closed bottles.


No special disposal is required for sugars. Discard them as you wish.


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